Labialized palatal approximant
|Labialized palatal approximant|
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (June 2015)
The labialized palatal approximant, also called the labial–palatal or labio-palatal approximant, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It has two constrictions in the vocal tract: with the tongue on the palate, and rounded at the lips. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɥ⟩, a rotated lowercase letter ⟨h⟩, or occasionally ⟨jʷ⟩, since it is a labialized [j].
The labialized palatal approximant is the semivocalic equivalent of the close front rounded vowel [y]. The two are almost identical featurally. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages, ⟨ɥ⟩ and ⟨y̯⟩ with the non-syllabic diacritic are used in different transcription systems to represent the same sound.
Features of the labial-palatal approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is called labio-palatal, which means it is labialized palatal, accomplished by raising the body of the tongue toward the palate while rounding the lips.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Abkhaz||ауаҩы||[awaˈɥə]||'human'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Chinese||Mandarin||月/yuè||[ɥœ˥˩]||'moon'||See Mandarin phonology|
|French||nuit||[nɥi] (help·info)||'night'||Merges with /w/ or /y/ in Belgian French. See French phonology|
|Korean||귀/gwi||[kɥi]||'ear'||See Korean phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||yla||[ˈyɥlä]||'howl'||Protruded. [yɥ] is a common phonetic realization of /yː/. See Swedish phonology|
|Xumi||Lower||[Rdʑɥɛ]||'fang'||Allophone of /w/ when preceded by an (alveolo-)palatal initial and/or followed by one of the front vowels /i, e, ɛ/ (in Upper Xumi also /ĩ/).|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 295.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Chirkova & Chen (2013), p. 368.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 387.
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
de:Stimmhafter labiopalataler Approximant