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Leo Ryan

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Leo Ryan
Leo Ryan
Ryan in 1977–1978
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 11th district
In office
January 3, 1973 – November 18, 1978
Preceded by Paul N. McCloskey, Jr.
Succeeded by William H. Royer
Member of the California State Assembly
from the 27th district
In office
Preceded by Glenn E. Coolidge
Succeeded by Lou Papan
Mayor of South San Francisco, California
In office
Personal details
Born Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr.
(1925-05-05)May 5, 1925
Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.
Died November 18, 1978(1978-11-18) (aged 53)
Port Kaituma, Guyana
Resting place Golden Gate National Cemetery
Political party Democratic
Children 5
Alma mater Bates College (V-12)
Creighton University (B.A.)(M.S.)
Occupation Politician
Religion Roman Catholic[1]
Military service
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1943–1946

Leo Joseph Ryan, Jr. (May 5, 1925 – November 18, 1978) was an American teacher and politician. He served as a U.S. Representative as a member of the Democratic Party. He represented California's 11th congressional district from 1973 until he was shot to death in Guyana by members of the Peoples Temple, shortly before the Jonestown mass suicide on November 18, 1978, just 11 days after Ryan's election to a fourth term. He is the only sitting member of the U.S. House of Representatives to have been assassinated in office.[2][3]

After the Watts Riots of 1965, Assemblyman Ryan took a job as a substitute school teacher to investigate and document conditions in the area. In 1970, he investigated the conditions of California prisons by being held, under a pseudonym, as an inmate in Folsom Prison, while presiding as chairman of the Assembly committee that oversaw prison reform. During his time in Congress, Ryan traveled to Newfoundland to investigate the practice of seal hunting.

Ryan was also famous for vocal criticism of the lack of Congressional oversight of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and authored the Hughes–Ryan Amendment, passed in 1974. He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal posthumously in 1983.

Early life and education

Ryan was born in Lincoln, Nebraska.[4] Throughout his early life, his family moved frequently through Illinois, Florida, New York, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. He graduated from Campion Jesuit High School in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, in 1943.[5][6] He then received V-12 officer training at Bates College and served with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 as a submariner.[7]

Ryan graduated from Nebraska's Creighton University with a B.A. in 1949 and an M.S. in 1951.[4] He served as a teacher, school administrator and South San Francisco city councilman from 1956 to 1962. He taught English at Capuchino High School, and chaperoned the marching band in 1961 to Washington, D.C., to participate in President John F. Kennedy's inaugural parade. Ryan was inspired by Kennedy's call to service in his inaugural address, and decided to run for higher office.[8]


Black and white of a man wearing a suit and a tie. His name is written below.
Official Congressional photo from Ryan's first term as Congressman, 1973.

State of California

In 1962, Ryan was elected mayor of South San Francisco. He served less than a year as mayor, before taking a seat in the California State Assembly's 27th district, winning his assembly race by a margin of 20,000 votes.[8][9] He had previously run for the State Assembly's 25th district in 1958, but lost to Republican Louis Francis.[9] Ryan served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1964 and 1968,[4] and he held his Assembly seat through 1972, when he was elected to the United States House of Representatives. He was successively elected three more times to the United States Congress.[4]

U.S. Congresswoman and former California State Senator and Ryan aide Jackie Speier described Ryan's style of investigation as "experiential legislating".[8] After the Watts Riots of 1965, Assemblyman Ryan went to the area and took a job as a substitute school teacher to investigate and document conditions in the area. In 1970, using a pseudonym, Ryan had himself arrested, detained, and strip searched to investigate conditions in the California prison system. He stayed as an inmate for ten days in the Folsom Prison, while presiding as chairman on the Assembly committee that oversaw prison reform.[10][11]

As a California Assemblyman, Ryan also served as the Chairman of legislative subcommittee hearings and presided over hearings involving his later successor as Congressman, Tom Lantos.[12] Ryan pushed through important educational policies in California and authored what came to be known as the Ryan Act, which established an independent regulatory commission to monitor educational credentialing in the state.[13]

United States Congress

During his time in Congress, Ryan went to Newfoundland with James Jeffords to investigate the inhumane killing of seals,[14][15] and he was famous for vocal criticism of the lack of Congressional oversight of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), authoring the Hughes–Ryan Amendment,[16][17] which would have required extensive CIA notification of Congress about planned covert operations.[18][19] Congressman Ryan once told Dick Cheney that leaking a state secret was an appropriate way for a member of Congress to block an "ill-conceived operation".[20] Ryan supported Patricia Hearst, and along with Senator S. I. Hayakawa, delivered Hearst's application for a presidential commutation to the Pardon Attorney.[21]

Peoples Temple

In 1978, reports regarding widespread abuse and human rights violations in Jonestown among the Peoples Temple, led by cult leader Jim Jones, began to filter out of the organization's Guyana enclaves. Ryan was friends with the father of former Temple Member Bob Houston, whose mutilated body was found near train tracks on October 5, 1976, three days after a taped telephone conversation with Houston's ex-wife in which leaving the Temple was discussed.[22] Ryan's interest was further aroused by the custody battle between the leader of a "Concerned Relatives" group, Timothy Stoen, and Jones following a Congressional "white paper" written by Stoen detailing the events.[23][24] Ryan was one of 91 Congressmen to write Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham on Stoen's behalf.[22][23]

Later, after reading an article in the San Francisco Examiner, Ryan declared his intention to go to Jonestown, an agricultural commune in Guyana where Jim Jones and roughly 1,000 Temple members resided. Ryan's choice was also influenced both by the Concerned Relatives group, which consisted primarily of Californians, as were most Temple members, and by his own characteristic distaste for social injustice.[25] According to the San Francisco Chronicle, while investigating the events, the United States Department of State "repeatedly stonewalled Ryan's attempts to find out what was going on in Jonestown", and told him that "everything was fine".[8] The State Department characterized possible action by the United States government in Guyana against Jonestown as creating a potential "legal controversy", but Ryan at least partially rejected this viewpoint.[26] In a later article in The Chronicle, Ryan was described as having "bucked the local Democratic establishment and the Jimmy Carter administration's State Department" in order to prepare for his own investigation.[11]

Travels to Jonestown

On November 1, 1978, Ryan announced that he would visit Jonestown.[27] He did so as part of a government investigation and received permission and government funds to do so.[28] He made the journey in his role as chairman of a congressional subcommittee with jurisdiction over U.S. citizens living in foreign countries. He asked the other members of his Bay Area congressional delegation to join him on the investigation to Jonestown, but they all declined his invitation.[8] Ryan had also asked his friend, Indiana Congressman and future Vice President Dan Quayle, to accompany him – Quayle had served with Ryan on the Government Operations Committee – but Quayle was unable to go on the trip.[29]

While the party was initially planned to consist of only a few members of the Congressman's staff and press as part of the congressional delegation, once the media learned of the trip the entourage ballooned to include, among others, concerned relatives of Temple members. Congressman Ryan traveled to Jonestown with 17 Bay Area relatives of Peoples Temple members, several newspaper reporters and an NBC TV team.[30] When the legal counsel for Jones attempted to impose several restrictive conditions on the visit, Ryan responded that he would be traveling to Jonestown whether Jones permitted it or not. Ryan's stated position was that a "settlement deep in the bush might be reasonably run on authoritarian lines".[30] However, residents of the settlement must be allowed to come and go as they pleased. He further asserted that if the situation had become "a gulag", he would do everything he could to "free the captives".[30]

Jungle ambush and assassination

On November 14, according to the Foreign Affairs Committee report,[31] Ryan left Washington and arrived in Georgetown, the capital of Guyana located 150 miles (240 km) away from Jonestown, with his congressional delegation of government officials, media representatives and some members of the "Concerned Relatives".[32]

Leo Ryan is located in Guyana
Jonestown, Guyana.

That night the delegation stayed at a local hotel where, despite confirmed reservations, most of the rooms had been canceled and reassigned, leaving the delegation sleeping in the lobby.[33] For three days, Ryan continued negotiation with Jones's legal counsel and held perfunctory meetings with embassy personnel and Guyanese officials.[34]

While in Georgetown, Ryan visited the Temple's Georgetown headquarters in the suburb of Lamaha Gardens.[35] Ryan asked to speak to Jones by radio, but Sharon Amos, the highest-ranking Temple member present, told Ryan that he could not because his present visit was unscheduled.[32] On November 17, Ryan's aide Jackie Speier (who became a Congresswoman in April 2008), the United States embassy Deputy Chief of Mission Richard Dwyer, a Guyanese Ministry of Information officer, nine journalists, and four Concerned Relatives representatives of the delegation boarded a small plane for the flight to an airfield at Port Kaituma a few miles outside of Jonestown.[31] At first, only the Temple legal counsel was allowed off the plane, but eventually the entire entourage (including Gordon Lindsay, reporting for NBC) was allowed in. Initially, the welcome at Jonestown was warm,[28] but Temple member Vernon Gosney handed a note to NBC correspondent Don Harris which stated, "Please help me get out of Jonestown," listing himself and Temple member Monica Bagby.[30] That night, the media and the delegation were returned to the airfield for accommodations following Jones' refusal to allow them to stay the night; the rest of the group remained.[31] The next morning, Ryan, Speier, and Dwyer all continued their interviews, and in the morning met a woman who secretly expressed her wish to leave Jonestown with her family and another family. Around 11:00 A.M. local time, the media and the delegation returned and took part in interviewing Peoples Temple members. Around 3:00 p.m., 14 Temple defectors, and Larry Layton posing as a defector, boarded a truck and were taken to the airstrip, with Ryan wishing to stay another night to assist any others that wished to leave. Shortly thereafter, a failed knife attack on Congressman Ryan occurred while he was arbitrating a family dispute on leaving.[36] Against Ryan's protests, Deputy Chief of Mission Dwyer ordered Ryan to leave, but he promised to return later to address the dispute.[31]

Camera-shot by Bob Brown (NBC) of shooters.

The entire group left Jonestown and arrived at the Kaituma airstrip by 4:45 p.m. local time.[31] Their exit transport planes, a twin-engine Otter and a Cessna, did not arrive until 5:10 p.m.[31] The smaller six-seat Cessna was just taxiing to the end of the runway when one of its occupants, Larry Layton, opened fire on those inside, wounding several.[31] Concurrently, several other Peoples Temple members who had escorted the group out began to open fire on the transport plane, killing Congressman Ryan, three journalists and a defecting Temple member, while wounding nine others, including Speier.[22][37] The gunmen riddled Congressman Ryan's body with bullets before shooting him in the face.[38] The passengers on the Cessna subdued Larry Layton and the surviving people on both planes fled into nearby fields during and after the attack.[31]

That afternoon, before the news became public, the wife of Ryan's aide, William Holsinger, received three threatening phone calls.[39] The caller allegedly stated, "Tell your husband that his meal ticket just had his brains blown out, and he better be careful."[39] The Holsingers then fled to Lake Tahoe and later to a ranch in Houston.[39] They never returned to San Francisco.[39] Following its takeoff, the Cessna radioed in a report of the attack, and the U.S. Ambassador, John R. Burke, went to the residence of Prime Minister Forbes Burnham.[31] It was not until the next morning that the Guyanese army could cut through the jungle and reach the settlement.[31] They discovered 909 of its inhabitants dead; the individuals died in what the United States House of Representatives described as a "mass suicide/murder ritual".[31]

Conviction of Larry Layton

Larry Layton, brother of author and former Peoples Temple member Deborah Layton, was convicted in 1986 of conspiracy in the murder of Leo Ryan.[40] Temple defectors boarding the truck to Port Kaituma warned about Larry Layton that "there's no way he's a defector. He's too close to Jones."[41] Layton was the only former Peoples Temple member to be tried in the United States for criminal acts relating to the murders at Jonestown.[42][43] He was convicted on four different murder-related counts.[44]

On March 3, 1987, Layton was sentenced to concurrent sentences of life in prison for "aiding and abetting the murder of Congressman Leo Ryan", "conspiracy to murder an internationally protected person, Richard Dwyer, Deputy Chief of Mission for the United States in the Republic of Guyana", as well as fifteen years in prison on other related counts.[45] At that time, he was eligible for parole in five years.[46] On June 3, 1987, Layton's motion to set aside the conviction "on the ground that he was denied the effective assistance of counsel during his second trial" was denied by the United States District Court of the Northern District of California.[46] After spending eighteen years in prison, Layton was released from custody in April 2002.[47]


In honor of Leo Ryan, Veterans for Peace Chapter 124 was named after him. VFP 124 Leo J. Ryan Memorial.


Leo Ryan's body was returned to the United States and interred at Golden Gate National Cemetery in San Bruno, California. The official Congressional Memorial Services for Ryan were compiled into a book: Leo J. Ryan – Memorial Services – Held In The House Of Representatives & Senate Of The U. S., Together With Remarks.[48] Ryan's younger sister Shannon said she was surprised both by the number of supporters that attended the funeral, and by the "outgrowth of real, honest sorrow".[49]

Legacy and honors

  • 1983 Ryan was posthumously awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress, as the only member of Congress killed while in the line of duty; the bill was signed by President Ronald Reagan.[50][51] In President Reagan's remarks about the medal, he said: "It was typical of Leo Ryan's concern for his constituents that he would investigate personally the rumors of mistreatment in Jonestown that reportedly affected so many from his district."[50] Ryan's daughters Patricia and Erin had helped to garner support for the Congressional Gold Medal, in time for the fifth anniversary of Ryan's death.[52]
  • 1984, the National Archives and Records Center in San Bruno, California was named the Leo J. Ryan Federal Building in his honor, through a Congressional bill passed unanimously and signed by President Reagan.[53]
  • Jackie Speier, Ryan's former aide, was elected in 1998 to the California State Senate. In 2008 she won a special election to the US Congress from California's 12th congressional district, much of it formerly Ryan's constituency.[54] After redistricting, since 2013 it has been designated as the state's 14th congressional district.


Shannon Jo Ryan, the eldest daughter, joined the Rajneesh movement. After the Bhagwan moved to Oregon in 1981, she joined his commune, which became known as Rajneeshpuram[28][55][56] Taking the name Ma Amrita Pritam, by December 1982 she had married another member, who also lived at the commune.[56][57]

Patricia Ryan received her Masters in Public Administration from the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. , and later served (from 2001-2012) until her retirement as Executive Director of the California Mental Health Directors Association (now the County Behavioral Health Directors Association of California). During the 1980s, she got involved as a volunteer and eventually served as president of Board of the national Cult Awareness Network.[58][59]

Erin Ryan went to University of California's Hastings School of Law, afterward working until 1992 as an intelligence analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency. She next worked in New York as a pastry chef for eight years. In 2000 Erin Ryan joined California Senator Jackie Speier in politics, working as her aide.[58]


The entrance of a post office. There are several cars in front of it.
Leo J. Ryan Post Office Building

On the 25th anniversary of his death, a special memorial tribute was held in his honor in Foster City, California. Ryan's family and friends, including his three daughters and Jackie Speier, attended. The San Francisco Chronicle reported that "Over and over today, people described a great man who continually exceeded his constituents' expectations."[60] Near the end of the memorial service, parents of those who had died in Jonestown stood to honor and thank Congressman Ryan for giving his life while trying to save their children. After the service ended, mounted police escorted the family and friends into Foster City's Leo J. Ryan Memorial Park. A wreath was laid next to a commemorative rock that honors Ryan.[60] The same year, his daughter Erin Ryan, an aide to Speier, attended a memorial for those who died at Jonestown, held at the Evergreen Cemetery in Oakland.[61] On the anniversary of Congressman Ryan's death, Jackie Speier and Patricia Ryan, his daughter and friend, visit his grave at the Golden Gate National Cemetery.[30]

For the 30th anniversary, US Congresswoman Jackie Speier sponsored a bill to designate the United States Postal Service facility at 210 South Ellsworth Avenue in San Mateo, California, as the "Leo J. Ryan Post Office Building".[62] President George W. Bush signed it into law on October 21, 2008.[63] On November 17, 2008, Jackie Speier spoke at the dedication ceremony at the post office. In part, she said,

"There are those – still, thirty years after his passing – who question his motives, or the wisdom of his actions. But criticism was just fine with Leo. Leo Ryan never did anything because he thought it would make him popular. He was more interested in doing what he knew was right."[64]

In popular culture

Ryan has been portrayed in films about the Jonestown mass murder/suicide, including by actor Gene Barry in the 1979 film Guyana: Crime of the Century,[65] and by Ned Beatty in the 1980 made-for-TV miniseries, Guyana Tragedy: The Story of Jim Jones.[66]

His assassination was discussed in the documentaries Jonestown: The Life and Death of Peoples Temple (2006),[67] on The History Channel documentaries: Cults: Dangerous Devotion[68] and Jonestown: Paradise Lost (2006),[69] as well as the MSNBC production, Witness to Jonestown (2008), which aired on the 30th anniversary of Ryan's assassination and the mass suicides at Jonestown.[70]

Electoral history


1978 election for U.S. House of Representatives (CD 11)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 60.5%
  • Dave Welch (R), 35.6%
  • Nicholas W. Kudrovzeff (American Independent) 3.9%
1976 election for U.S. House of Representatives (CD 11)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 61.1%
  • Bob Jones (R), 35.4%
  • Nicholas W. Kudrovzeff (American Independent) 3.5%
1974 election for U.S. House of Representatives (CD 11)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 75.8%
  • Brainard G. "Bee" Merdinger (R), 21.3%
  • Nicholas W. Kudrovzeff (American Independent) 2.9%
1972 election for U.S. House of Representatives (CD 11)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 60.4%
  • Charles E. Chase (R), 37%
  • Nicholas W. Kudrovzeff (American Independent) 2.6%
1970 Race for California State Assembly (AD 27)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 73.2%
  • John R. Sherman (R), 23.1%
  • John Lynch (American Independent) 3.8%
1968 election for California State Assembly (AD 27)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 99.8%
  • Will Slocum (I), 0.2%
1966 election for California State Assembly (AD 27)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 56.9%
  • Robert N. Miller (R), 43.1%
1964 election for California State Assembly (AD 27)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 69%
  • Andrew C. Byrd (R), 31%
1962 election for California State Assembly (AD 27)
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 63.5%
  • Andrew C. Byrd (R), 36.5%
1958 election for California State Assembly (AD 25)
  • Louis Francis (R), 50.6%
  • Leo J. Ryan (D), 49.4%

Published works

Congressional reports
  • NATO, pressures from the southern tier: Report of a study mission to Europe, August 5–27, 1975, pursuant to H. Res. 315, 22 pages, Published by United States Government Print Office, (1975)
  • Vietnam and Korea: Human rights and U.S. assistance : a study mission report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives, 15 pages, Published by United States Government Print Office, (1975)
  • The United States oil shortage and the Arab-Israeli conflict: Report of a study mission to the Middle East from October 22 to November 3, 1973, 76 pages, Published by United States Government Print Office, (1973)

See also


  1. Rein, Richard K. "The Daughter of Jonestown Victim Leo Ryan Argues That Her Guru's Sect Is Not a Cult". Retrieved March 6, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Other members of the House of Representatives have been killed while in office, though not as assassination attempts, and others have been the target of deliberate assassination attempts, though none of the other attempts were successful. See United States Congress members killed or wounded in office for details
  3. Peters, Justin. "The Forgotten, Non-Kool-Aid-Drinking Victims of the Jonestown Massacre". Retrieved October 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> "Thirty-five years later, Ryan remains the only U.S. representative to be killed in the line of duty."
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 United States Congress. "RYAN, Leo Joseph, (1925–1978)". United States Congress. Retrieved January 24, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Campion Jesuit High School. "Campion Knights". Retrieved January 24, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Campion Jesuit High School. "Campion Forever". Retrieved January 24, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Campion Jesuit High School. "Campion Knights Notables". Retrieved January 24, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Simon, Mark (December 10, 1998). "A Trip Into The Heart Of Darkness: Always larger than life, Leo Ryan courted danger". San Francisco Chronicle. pp. A17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Vassar, Alex; Shane Meyers (2007). "Leo J. Ryan, Democratic". Retrieved January 25, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Wright, Erik Olin (1973). The Politics of Punishment: A Critical Analysis of Prisons in America. Harper & Row. p. 266.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 Haddock, Vicki (November 16, 2003). "Jackie Speier – moving on, moving up; Survivor of Jonestown ambush plans run for lieutenant governor". San Francisco Chronicle. pp. D1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Schwartzman, Edward (1989). Political Campaign Craftsmanship: A Professional's Guide to Campaigning for Public Office. Transaction Publishers. p. 209. ISBN 0-88738-742-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Gideonse, Hendrik D. (1992). Teacher Education Policy: narratives, stories, and cases. SUNY Press. pp. 49, 50, 65. ISBN 0-7914-1055-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Wenzel, George W. (1991). Animal Rights, Human Rights: Ecology, Economy and Ideology in the Canadian Arctic. University of Toronto Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-8020-6890-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Hunter, Robert (1979). Warriors of the Rainbow: A Chronicle of the Greenpeace Movement. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 439, 441. ISBN 0-03-043741-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Olmsted, Kathryn S. (1996). Challenging the Secret Government: The Post-Watergate Investigations of the CIA and FBI. UNC Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-8078-4562-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Johns Hopkins University. School of Advanced International Studies (1989). SAIS Review. Original from the University of California. p. 112.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Ellis, W. Philip; Barry M. Blechman (1992). The Politics of National Security: Congress and U.S. Defense Policy. Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 0-19-507705-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Knott, Stephen F. Secret and Sanctioned: covert operations and the American presidency. Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0-19-510098-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Rozell, Mark J. (1994). Executive Privilege: The Dilemma of Secrecy and Democratic Accountability. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8018-4900-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Hearst, Patricia C.; Alvin Moscow (1980). Every Secret Thing. Doubleday Publishing. pp. 440, 441. ISBN 0-385-17056-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, pp. 299–300, 457
  23. 23.0 23.1 Hall, John R. (1987). Gone from the Promised Land: Jonestown in American Cultural History. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-124-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> page 227
  24. Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 458
  25. McConnell, Malcolm (1984). Stepping Over: personal encounters with young extremists. Reader's Digest Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-88349-166-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Dawson, Lorne L. (2003). Cults and New Religious Movements: A Reader. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 186, 200, 205. ISBN 1-4051-0181-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Rebecca Moore, American as Cherry Pie, 2000, Jonestown Institute, San Diego State University
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Chidester, David (2003). Salvation and Suicide: Jim Jones, the Peoples Temple, and Jonestown. Indiana University Press. xvii, 11, 139, 151, 167, 168, 186. ISBN 0-253-21632-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Quayle, Dan (1995). Standing Firm: A Vice-Presidential Memoir. Harpercollins. p. 176. ISBN 0-06-109390-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 Zane, Maitland (November 13, 1998). "Surviving the Heart of Darkness: Twenty years later, Jackie Speier remembers how her companions and rum helped her endure the night of the Jonestown massacre". San Francisco Chronicle. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 United States House of Representatives; Foreign Affairs Committee (May 15, 1979). Congressional Foreign Affairs Committee report on Ryan's assassination. Report of a Staff Investigative Group to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. United States Congress.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. 32.0 32.1 Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 481
  33. Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 482
  34. Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, pp. 482–4
  35. Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 484
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  37. Singer, Ph.D., Margaret Thaler; Janja Lalich (1995). Cults in Our Midst: The Hidden Menace in Our Everyday Lives. Jossey Bass. pp. 28, 237.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Snow, Robert L. (2003). Deadly Cults: The Crimes of True Believers. Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 36, 38, 166, 168. ISBN 0-275-98052-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 Bernstein-Wax, Jessica, "Jonestown still reverberates in Bay Area 30 years later", San Jose Mercury News, November 16, 2008
  40. Associated Press (December 2, 1986). "Ex-Cult Member Convicted In Death of Rep. Leo Ryan : '78 Shooting Led to Jonestown Mass Suicide". The Washington Post. pp. A5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Reiterman & Jacobs 1982, p. 520
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  43. Associated Press (December 2, 1986). "LAYTON CONVICTED FOR ROLE IN 1978 JONESTOWN KILLING". Boston Globe.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  47. Larry Layton released
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  54. SFGATE: Voters send Jackie Speier to Washington
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  70. MSNBC (2008). Witness to Jonestown (Documentary). NBC.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


  • Ryan, Leo J. (1966). "Understanding California Government and Politics". Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishers. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hall, John R. (1987). Gone from the Promised Land: Jonestown in American Cultural History. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-88738-124-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Reiterman, Tim; Jacobs, John (1982). Raven: The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His People. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-24136-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
South San Francisco, California

Succeeded by
Preceded by
Mayor of
South San Francisco, California

Succeeded by
California Assembly
Preceded by
Glenn E. Coolidge
Member of the
California State Assembly

Succeeded by
Lou Papan
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Paul N. McCloskey, Jr.
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 11th congressional district

Succeeded by
William H. Royer