List of Gulag camps

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The list below, enumerates the selected sites of the Soviet forced labor camps (known in Russian as the "corrective labor camps") of the Gulag. Most of them served mining, construction, and timber works. It is estimated that for most of its existence, the Gulag system consisted of over 30,000 camps, divided into three categories according to the number of prisoners held. The largest camps consisted of more than 25,000 prisoners each, medium size camps held from 5,000 to 25,000 inmates, and the smallest, but most numerous labor camps operated with less than 5,000 people each.[1] Even this incomplete list can give a fair idea of the scale of forced labor in the USSR.

List history

Initially, the list of Gulag slave labor camps in the USSR was created in Poland from the personal accounts of labor camp detainees of Polish citizenship. It was compiled by the government of Poland for the purpose of regulation and future financial compensation for World War II victims, and published in a decree of the Council of Ministers of Poland.[2]

Camps listed were not designed specifically for the Poles. Citizens of the USSR and people of other nationalities were also detained there. In total, more than 18 million people were sent to the Gulag from 1929 to 1953.[3]

Camp system operation

There were a number of particular categories of victims that were imprisoned there including:

  1. Any person convicted to a term of imprisonment of more than 3 years (all those convicted to less than three years were to be sent to "corrective labor colonies").
  2. Soviet dissidents. Initially these were dubbed "class enemies" (White Army combatants, members of opposition parties, nobility, etc.). Later, when the full victory of the Revolution was declared and there were supposedly no more "class enemies" left, a more flexible term of the enemy of the people was introduced, as well as an infamous Article 58 (RSFSR Penal Code) that covered "counter-revolutionary activities".
  3. Soviet combatants returned from captivity. As a rule they were held liable under Article 58.
  4. The Poles. These nationals populated Gulag camps in three major waves, see Polish minority in Soviet Union article.

The so-called prisoners of war were generally imprisoned in special POW camps, which existed independently from the network of corrective labor camps, and were subordinated to a separate administrative apparatus within the NKVD (since 1946: MVD). However, a fair number of POWs ended up in the regular camp system eventually. Unlike Gulag camps, located primarily in remote areas (mostly in Siberia), most of the POW camps after the war were located in the European part of the Soviet Union, where the prisoners worked on restoration of the country's infrastructure destroyed during the war: roads, railways, plants, etc., a topic of a separate article, POW labor in the Soviet Union. Polish citizens and members of other nationalities who were imprisoned at the Soviet forced labour camps during WWII worked also for the Soviet Army, digging trenches, employed in lumber and cement works, airport runway construction, and unloading of transport goods.[4]

Location map of the Soviet Gulag system of concentration camps

Main camp directorates with acronyms

  • BAM: Baikalo-Amurskaya Magistral, Baikal-Amur Mainline (railway)
  • BBK: Belomorsko-Baltiyskiy Kanal, White Sea-Baltic Canal
  • ITL: "Ispravitelno-trudovoi lager'", or, literally, "corrective labor camp".
  • LO: "Lesoobyedinenie", Logging works complex
  • CW: Construction Works
  • CS: Construction Site
  • Dalstroy: Far East regional CW directorate
  • Yeniseystroy: Yenisei River basin regional CW directorate
  • SMU: "stroitelno-montazhnoe upravlenie", Administration of construction and installation works
  • NKVD:- literally, the People's Commisariat of Internal Affairs
  • MVD: literally, the Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • UVD: literally, the Administration of Internal Affairs, subordinated to GUVD
  • GUVD: literally, the Main Administration of Internal Affairs, renamed MVD
  • PL: to mark sites that also detained Polish nationals
  • TMFM: Traitor of Motherland Family Member (Russian: ЧСИР: член семьи изменника Родины), a category of repressed designated for the family members of the person who was recognized as the Traitor of Motherland; some camps were specifically designated to this category.


  • GULAG: "Glavnoe Upravlenie Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerej", or The Chief Directorate of Corrective Labor Camps
  • BAMLag: Directorate of BAM camps
  • BBLag: Directorate of White Sea-Baltic Canal camps, refer to previously mentioned BBK
  • GULGMP: Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerej (GUL) Gornopererabatyvayushchey i Metallurgicheckoy Promyshlennosti, Chief Directorate of Camps in Mining and Metallurgical Industry
  • GULLP: GUL Lesnoj i Lesopererabatyvayushchey Promyshlennosti, Chief Directorate of Forestry and Wood Processing Industry
  • GULTP: GUL Tyazholoy Promyshlennosti, Chief Directorate of Camps in Heavy Industry
  • GULZhDS: "GUL Zheleznodorozhnogo stroitelstva", Chief Directorate of Railway CW
  • GUSHOSDOR, GULShosDor, GULShDOR: "GUL Shosseynykh dorog", Chief Directorate of Camps in Highway CW
  • Sevvostlag or SVITL[5] (severo-vostochnye lagerya): Directorate of North-Eastern Camps, until 1939 was an independent system of labor camps outside of the main administration of camps, GULAG.
  • USLON: Upravlenie Severnykh Lagerey Osobogo Naznacheniya, Directorate of Northern Special-Significance Camps
    • USKMITL: Upravlenie Solovetskogo and Karelo-Murmanskikh ITL, Directorate of Solovki and Karelia-Murmansk Camps
    • SLON: Solovetski Lager Osobogo Naznachenia, Solovki Camp of Special Significance.

Construction works

  • Administration of corrective labor camps of "Apatit" industrial complex.
  • General Administration of Petroleum Refinery and Synthetic Fuels Construction of MVD
  • (PL) ITLs servicing CSs ## 6, 16, 18, 90, 100, 105, 106, 108, 141, 159, 211, 213, 247, 258, 263, 304, 313, 442, 447, 462, 496, 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 513, 514, 514, 560, 565, 585, 600, 601, 620, 665, 770, 790, 791, 833, 855, 859, 865, 880, 915, 882, 883, 885, 994, 896, 907, 940 (PL)
  • (PL) ITLs servicing GUShosDor CSs ## 1—8, 19 (PL)
  • (PL) ITLs servicing SMU ## 41—53 (PL)
  • Krasnoyarsk CS and ITL of Yeniseystroy (PL)
  • ITL of Special CSs for Cellulose-Paper enterprises of Karelo-Finnish SSR (PL)
  • ITL of CS for Arkhangelsk Cellulose-Paper Complex (PL)
  • ITL od CSs for hydroelectric power plants on the Buya River (PL)
  • ITL od CSs for Vladimir hydroelectric power plant (PL)
  • ITL for CSs ##1, 2, 3 of Bashkirian Petroleum Plants Special CW (Bashspecneftestroy) (PL)
  • ITL for CSs ##1, 2, 3 of Tatarstan Petroleum Plants Special CW (Tatspecneftestroy) (PL)
  • ITL for CS of the Kazan petroleum refinery
  • ITL for CSs of hydroelectric power plants on the upper Oka River (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Transcaucasian metallurgical enterprises (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Znamienitaya dam and sluice (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Volga-Don canal (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Krasnoyarsk-Yeniseysk railway (PL)
  • ITL for CSs of Karaganda basin open-cast coal mines (PL)
  • Taishet Construction Works

Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Alluvajsky CS and ITL (PL)
  • Jensky CS and ITL (PL)
  • Matkozensky CS and ITL (PL)
  • Yanstroy ITL of Dalstroy (PL)
  • 184) ITL Construction of Samgorski irrigation system, Tbilisi (Budowa Górnosamgorskiego Systemu Irygacyjnego)
  • 194) ITŁ i Budowa Mstyjskich GES, Mstizhi (Mstizh)
  • 155) ITŁ Budowy Kombinatu nr 11,
  • 156) ITL Iron Ore Mine Construction (ITŁ Budowy Kopalń Rudy Żelaza)
  • 157) ITL Construction of Mining and Metallurgical Enterprises (ITŁ Budowy Przedsiębiorstw Górniczo-Metalurgicznych)
  • 158) ITŁ Budowy Przystani Południowej,
  • 159) ITŁ Budowy Specjalnej,
  • 139) ITŁ Budownictwa Przemysłowego i Mieszkaniowego,
  • 161) ITŁ Budowy Usolskich Zakładów Sprzętu Górniczego,
  • 164) ITŁ i 10 Budowa Polowa NKWD,
  • 182) ITŁ i Budowa Borownickiej GES,
  • 188) ITŁ i Budowa Kombinatu Aktowrackiego,
  • 189) ITŁ i Budowa Kombinatu nr 7,
  • 190) ITŁ i Budowa Kopalni Rudy,
  • 191) ITŁ i Budowa Kopalni Węgla,
  • 201) ITŁ i Budowa Rejonu Specjalnego,
  • 133) ITŁ i Budowa nr 4 Baszspiecnieftiestroju,
  • 134) ITŁ i Budowa Zakładu nr 8 NKW,
  • 135) ITŁ i Ekspedycja Poszukująca Ropy Naftowej,
  • 136) ITŁ "DS" Jenisejstroju,
  • 137) ITŁ Biełomorstroju,
  • 138) ITŁ Bierieloskiego Rejonowego Zarządu Poszukiwań Geologicznych Dalstroju,
  • 162) ITŁ Dmitrowskich Zakładów Mechanicznych,
  • 163) ITŁ Ekspedycji Geologiczno-Poszukiwawczej,
  • 208) ITŁ Jańskiego Zarządu Górniczo-Przemysłowego,
  • 209) ITŁ Kołymsko-Indygirskiej Żeglugi Rzecznej Dalstroju,
  • 210) ITŁ Kombinatu nr 6,
  • 211) ITŁ Kombinatu nr 9,
  • 212) ITŁ Krasnojarskiego Zakładu Afinacji,
  • 213) ITŁ nr 17 GUSZOSDOR-u,
  • 214) ITŁ przy Budowie Karagandażyłstroju,
  • 215) ITŁ przy Budowie Specjalnej 881,
  • 216) ITŁ przy Oboronstroju,
  • 217) ITŁ przy Uglickich Zakładach Konstrukcji Mostowych nr 4 GUSZOSDOR-u,
  • 218) ITŁ przy Zarządzie Budowy Dyrekcji Kopalń Rudy nr 10,
  • 219) ITŁ Rudbakalstroju,
  • 232) ITŁ Transportu Samochodowego Dalstroju,
  • 233) ITŁ Usolgidroles,
  • 234) ITŁ Zarządu Dróg Bitych Dalstroju,
  • 235) ITŁ Zarządu Gospodarstw Pomocniczych Dalstroju,


Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Archpierpunkt
  • Atbasarski ITL


Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKVD camps,[2] and the Russian Карта ГУЛАГа - Мемориал

  • Baydar ITL
  • Bakal ITL
  • Bakov ITL
  • Baleya ITL
  • Balachlag
  • Barashevo ITL and Industrial Complex of GULAG,
  • Bazen ITL
  • Byelokorovitsy camp of the OITK NKVD of BSSR
  • Bereza ITL
  • Bereza ITL of Northern direcorate of GULZDS
  • Bezymianski ITL
  • Bobrov LO
  • Bor ITL
  • Beregovoi Camp
  • Buriepolomsk ITL


Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • Chystiunski ITL for handicapped


Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]



Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]



  • Likovsky ITL and construction 204
  • Łąkowy Łagier
  • ŁO Dolnoindygirskiego Rejonowego Zarządu Poszukiwań Geologicznych Dalstroju
  • ŁO przy Sowchozie "Sacca i Vanzettiego
  • LO Central Hospital, Dalstroy
  • ŁO Zakładów Woroszyłowskich
  • Lobvinsky ITL
  • Lokchimsky ITL
  • Luzhsky ITL and construction 200
  • Lysogorskoe LO


Continued from the Polish Dziennik Ustaw complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • 285) Magadański ITŁ Dalstroju, (Magadan ITL, Dalstroy)
  • 286) Majkaińskie ŁO,
  • 287) Makarowskie ŁO,
  • 288) Markowski ITŁ,
  • 289) Martynowski ITŁ,
  • 290) Maryjski ITŁ,
  • 291) Miechrieński ITŁ,
  • 292) Miedwieżjegorski Inwalidzki ITŁ,
  • 293) Miejskie ŁO,
  • 294) Mineralny ITŁ,
  • 295) Miniejewskie ŁO ChOZU MWD,
  • 296) Minusińskie ŁO SGU,
  • 297) Mołotowski ITŁ,
  • 298) Monczegorski ITŁ i Budowa Kombinatu "Siewieronikiel",
  • 299) Moskiewski ITŁ Eksploatacji Lasów,
  • 300) Moskiewski Węglowy ITŁ,
  • 301) Mostowski ITŁ


  • Lower-Volga ITL (Нижняя-Волга)
  • Niebitdaski ITŁ,
  • Neftestroylag
  • Nemnyrsky ITL
  • Nierczyński ITŁ,
  • Nierczyńskie Rolnicze ŁO,
  • Nikołajewski ITŁ,
  • Nogiński ITŁ,
  • Norillag (June 25, 1935 to August 22, 1956)
  • Nowokamieński ITŁ,
  • Novo Tambov ITL
  • Nyrobsky ITL
  • North Dvina ITL
  • North Kuzbass ITL
  • North-Pechora ITL
  • North Urals ITL
  • Northeast ITL
  • North ITL Dalstroy
  • North Railway ITL
  • North Management ITL and construction 503 (Северная Совет)


  • Special Camp No. 11
  • Ob ITL
  • Ob ITL and construction 501
  • Olkhovsky health ITL
  • OLP building No. 1 GULAG NKVD
  • Omsk ITL
  • Omsk ITL and construction 166
  • Omsukchan ITL Dalstroy
  • Onega ITL
  • Opoksky ITL
  • Orlovsky ITL
  • Ostrovskoye ITL




Continued from the Russian Карта ГУЛАГа - Мемориал listing of NKWD camps,[6] and the Polish Dziennik Ustaw listing of camps.




  • 422) Wiartsilski ITŁ,



Continued from the Polish complete listing of NKWD camps with Poles.[2]

  • 443) Zaimandrowski ITŁ,

See also


  1. "НИПЦ "Мемориал", при содействии фонда Фельтринелли и кафедры картографии географического факультета МГУ". Карта ГУЛАГа (Gulag map). The Memorial Society, Russia. Retrieved August 29, 2012. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Rada Ministrów (20 September 2001). Decree of the Council of Ministers regarding places of Soviet detention of Polish nationals. Dz.U.2001.106.1154. ROZPORZĄDZENIE PREZESA RADY MINISTRÓW z dnia 20 września 2001 r. w sprawie określenia miejsc odosobnienia, w których były osadzone osoby narodowości polskiej lub obywatele polscy innych narodowości. (Dz. U. z dnia 29 września 2001 r.) (Polish)
  3. Extended Definition: Gulag. From: Anne Applebaum, GULAG: a history.
  4. А. Кокурин. "The prison system. 1934-1960 (translation with the Russian original)". Тюремная система. 1934–1960. История тюрем и лагерей в СССР (ГУЛАГ) . Retrieved 26 February 2015. External link in |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Information about Dalstroy and SVITL (para #5) (Russian)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Виктор ЛОЗИНСКИ. "Archipelago Gulag". Объединенный ученый совет СО РАН по экономическим наукам. Retrieved 26 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links