List of countries by Human Development Index

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File:UN Human Development Report 2015.png
World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 2014 data, published on December 14, 2015).[1]
  0.900 and over
  0.349 and under
  Data unavailable
File:2014 UN Human Development Report Quartiles.svg
World map indicating the categories of Human Development Index by country (based on 2013 data, published on July 24, 2014).[1]
  Very high (Developed)
  High (Developed)
  Medium (Developing)
  Low (Undeveloped)
  Data unavailable

This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report. The latest report was released on 14 December 2015 and compiled on the basis of estimates for 2014.[2]

In the 2010 Human Development Report a further Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) was introduced. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)" and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of “potential” human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)".[3]


The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators. A country scores higher HDI when the life expectancy at birth is longer, the education period is longer, and the income per capita is higher. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, a developing or an underdeveloped country. The index was developed in 1990 by Indian economist Amartya Sen[4] and Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq[5] The UN report covers 185 member states of the United Nations (out of 193), along with Hong Kong and the Palestinian territories; 8 UN member states are not included because of lack of data. The average HDI of regions of the World and groups of countries are also included for comparison.

Countries fall into four broad human development categories: Very High Human Development, High Human Development, Medium Human Development and Low Human Development.

Because of the new methodology adopted since the 2010 Human Development Report, the new reported HDI figures appear lower than the HDI figures in previous reports.

From 2007 to 2010, the first category was referred to as developed countries, and the last three are all grouped in developing countries. The original "high human development" category has been split into two as above in the report for 2007.

Some older groupings (high/medium/low income countries) that were based on the gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita have been replaced by another index based on the gross national income (GNI) in purchasing power parity per capita.

The country with the largest decrease in HDI since 1998 is Zimbabwe, falling from 0.514 in 1998 by 0.140 to 0.374 in 2010. The country with the largest decrease since 2009 is Cape Verde, which decreased by 0.170.

Over half of the world's population live in countries with "medium human development" (51%), while less than a fifth (18%) populate countries falling in the "low human development" category. Countries with "high" to "very high" human development account for slightly less than a third of the world's total population (30%).

The only year without a Human Development Report since 1990 was 2012. The latest report was launched in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 14 December 2015.[2]

Complete list of countries

  • Increase = increase.
  • Steady = steady.
  • Decrease = decrease.

Very high human development

High human development

Medium human development

Low human development

List of countries by continent


America, North

America, South




List of countries by non-continental region

Arab League

Commonwealth of Nations

Council of Europe

East Asia and the Pacific

European Union

Latin America

Middle East and North Africa

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

Western Europe

Eastern Europe and the Caucasus

HDI by regions and groups

Countries missing from latest report

* calculated by the UNDP
Note: 2009 publication uses old HDI formula

See also


  1. The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures (see [11]). Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP.[12]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Human Development Report 2015 – "Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 "Human Development Report 2015 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Human Development Report, The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development (2010) 87
  4. "The Human Development concept". UNDP. 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "History of the Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 26 March 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "2011 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. p. 151. Retrieved 2 November 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "The 2013 Human Development Report – "The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World"". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 144–147. Retrieved 2 March 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Human Development Report - Somalia 2012" (PDF). UNDP. 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30 9.31 9.32 9.33 9.34 9.35 9.36 9.37 9.38 9.39 9.40 Quality of Life, Balance of Powers, and Nuclear Weapons (2015) Avakov, Aleksandr Vladimirovich. Algora Publishing, 1 Apr 2015.
  10. The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.Macau in Figures, 2015
  12. "2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Fuente-Ramírez, Ricardo. [1]An Approximation of Puerto Rico's Human Development Index, Caribbean Studies, University of Puerto Rico, 2014.
  14. Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index, United Nations ESCAP, February 2009
  15. "Human Development Report - Kosovo 2014" (PDF). UNDP. 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links