List of political parties in Germany

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This is a list of political parties in Germany.

The Parliament of Germany, the Bundestag, has a plural multi-party system, with two major parties, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) in the same parliamentary group, also known as CDU/CSU or the Union.

Germany also has a number of minor parties, most importantly The Left, and Alliance '90/The Greens. The federal government of Germany usually consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, most typically CDU/CSU and Free Democratic Party (FDP), or a 'red-green alliance' of the SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013, the federal government consisted of a Grand Coalition.[1] In 2013, the FDP was voted out of the national Parliament, and in the following months also out of some state Parliaments such that it is not participating in any governments any longer.

Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislators are often described by party colors. Party colors are the Social Democratic Party being red, the Alliance '90/The Greens green, the Free Democratic Party yellow, the Left dark red, red or purple, and the CDU/CSU black or blue.[2][3]

The parties

Parties represented in the Bundestag or the European Parliament

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology MdBs MEPs Political Position EP-group Notes
Cdu-logo.svg Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU Angela Merkel Christian democracy,[4] Liberal conservatism[4] 255 29 Centre-right EPP [A]
Christian Social Union of Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU Horst Seehofer Christian democracy,[4] Conservatism,[4] Regionalism[4] 56 5 Centre-right[5][6][7] EPP
SPD logo.svg Social Democratic Party of Germany
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
SPD Sigmar Gabriel Social democracy[4] 193 27 Centre-left S&D
Die Linke logo.svg The Left
Die Linke
LINKE Katja Kipping and Bernd Riexinger Democratic socialism,[4]

Left-wing populism

64 7 Left-wing GUE/NGL
Bündnis 90 - Die Grünen Logo.svg Alliance '90/The Greens
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
GRÜNE Simone Peter and Cem Özdemir Green politics[4] 63 11 Centre-left Greens/EFA
ALFA-Logo-Blau.svg Alliance for Progress and Renewal
Allianz für Fortschritt und Aufbruch
ALFA Bernd Lucke Euroscepticism,
Economic liberalism
0 5 Centre-right ECR
Logo der Freien Demokraten.svg Free Democratic Party
Freie Demokratische Partei
FDP Christian Lindner Liberalism,[4] Classical liberalism[8][9] 0 3 Centre-right ALDE
Alternative-fuer-Deutschland-Logo-2013.svg Alternative for Germany
Alternative für Deutschland
AfD Frauke Petry and Jörg Meuthen Euroscepticism,[10] National conservatism,[11] Right-wing populism[12] 0 2 Right-wing ECR
Free Voters
Freie Wähler
FREIE WÄHLER Hubert Aiwanger Populism, Localism, Direct Democracy 0 1 Centre ALDE
Logo Piratenpartei Deutschland 3D.svg Pirate Party Germany
Piratenpartei Deutschland
PIRATEN Stefan Körner Pirate politics, Social liberalism[11] 0 1 Centre to Centre-left Greens/EFA
60px National Democratic Party of Germany
Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands
NPD Frank Franz Right-wing extremism, Neo-Nazism 0 1 Far-right[10] None
FamilienPartei Logo2007.svg Family Party of Germany
Familien-Partei Deutschlands
FAMILIE Maria Hartmann Social conservatism[10] 0 1 Centre-right to Right-wing ECR
ÖDP-Logo.svg Ecological Democratic Party
Ökologisch-Demokratische Partei
ÖDP Sebastian Frankenberger Green conservatism[10] 0 1 Centre-right Greens/EFA
Die partei logo.jpg Die PARTEI
Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz, Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative
Die PARTEI Martin Sonneborn Satire 0 1 Apolitical None
A The CDU and CSU form the CDU/CSU group in the Bundestag; CSU runs only in Bavaria, CDU elsewhere.

One german MEP is independent, member of the GUE-NGL-group in the European Parliament and was elected as a candidate of the Human Environment Animal Protection-party (better known as Tierschutzpartei).

Parties represented in state parliaments

Logo Name Abbr. Leader Ideology Elected in State (Seats) Position Notes
Ssw-logo.svg South Schleswig Voters' Association
Südschleswigscher Wählerverband
SSW Flemming Meyer Regionalism, ethnic minority politics, Social liberalism[13] Schleswig-Holstein (3) Centre-left [A]
BIW-Logo.jpg Citizens in Rage
Bürger in Wut
BIW Jan Timke Right-wing populism Bremen (1) Right-wing
United Civil Movements of Brandenburg / Free Voters
Brandenburger Vereinigte Bürgerbewegungen / Freie Wähler
BVB / FW Péter Vida Localism, Direct democracy Brandenburg (3) Centre-left
A Represents the Danish and Frisian minorities. Not subject to the general requirement of passing a 5% vote threshold.

Minor parties

Historical parties

Parties existing up to World War I

Parties in Weimar Republic

Defunct parties in (former) West Germany

Parties banned by the Constitutional Court

Parties in (former) East Germany

Bloc parties in the socialist state (1949–1989)

During transition (1989–90)

Parties founded from 1989

See also


  2. "Political parties form colorful spectrum in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2009-09-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. The Green party: Getting used to opposition, Deutsche Welle, 2009-08-24, retrieved 2009-10-12, This made a so-called Jamaica coalition with the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party impossible.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
  5. Christina Boswell; Dan Hough (2009). Politicizing migration: Opportunity or liability for the centre-right in Germany. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Centre-Right – matter. Routledge. pp. 18, 21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Klaus Detterbeck (2012). Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 105.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Margret Hornsteiner; Thomas Saalfeld (2014). Parties and the Party System. Developments in German Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 80.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. George C. Lodge; Ezra F. Vogel (1987). Ideology and National Competitiveness: An Analysis of Nine Countries. Harvard Business Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-87584-147-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Russell A. Berman (2010). Freedom Or Terror: Europe Faces Jihad. Hoover Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8179-1114-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 William T Daniel (2015). Career Behaviour and the European Parliament: All Roads Lead Through Brussels?. Oxford University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-19-871640-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. 11.0 11.1 Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld (eds.). Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Frank Decker (2015). "Follow-up to the Grand Coalition: The Germany Party System before and after the 2013 Federal Election". In Eric Langenbacher (ed.). The Merkel Republic: An Appraisal. Berghahn Books. pp. 34–39. ISBN 978-1-78238-896-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. José Magone (2011). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 392.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links