Lucien Lévy-Bruhl

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Lucien Lévy-Bruhl
Lucien Lévy-Bruhl - Pholosoph.jpg
Lucien Lévy-Bruhl
Born 10 April 1857
Paris
Died 13 March 1939 (aged 81)
Paris
Nationality French
Fields philosophy, sociology, ethnology
Influences Émile Durkheim
Influenced Paul Masson-Oursel, C. G. Jung, Louis Hjelmslev, Hélène Metzger, Léon Brunschvicg, Emmanuel Levinas

Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (10 April 1857 – 13 March 1939) was a French scholar trained in philosophy, who made contributions to the budding fields of sociology and ethnology. His primary field of study involved primitive mentality.

Biography

Lévy-Bruhl was born in Paris. He was an anthropologist who wrote about the 'primitive mind'. In his work How Natives Think (1910), Lévy-Bruhl elaborated on what he posited as the two basic mindsets of mankind, "primitive" and "modern." The primitive mind does not differentiate the supernatural from reality, but rather uses "mystical participation" to manipulate the world. According to Lévy-Bruhl, the primitive mind doesn't address contradictions. The modern mind, by contrast, uses reflection and logic. Lévy-Bruhl believed in a historical and evolutionary teleology leading from the primitive mind to the modern mind. Sociologist Stanislav Andreski[1] argued that despite its flaws,[which?] Lévy-Bruhl's How Natives Think was an accurate and valuable contribution to anthropology, perhaps even more so than better-known work by Claude Lévi-Strauss.

Lévy-Bruhl's work, especially the concepts of collective representation[2] and participation mystique, influenced the psychological theory of C. G. Jung.

Works

  • L'idée de Responsabilité (1884)
  • La Philosophie de Jacobi (1894)
  • La Théorie de l'État dans Hegel (1899)
  • La Morale et la Science des Mœurs (1903; translated as Ethics and Moral Science, 1905)
  • Les Fonctions Mentales dans les Sociétés Inférieures (1910; translated as How Natives Think, 1926)
  • La Mentalité Primitive (1922; translated as Primitive Mentality, 1923)
  • L'Âme Primitive (1927; translated as The "Soul" of the Primitive, 1928; reedited in 1965 with a foreword by E.E. Evans-Pritchard)
  • Le Surnaturel et la Nature dans la Mentalité Primitive (1931; translated as Primitives and the Supernatural, 1936)
  • La Mythologie Primitive (Primitive Mythology, 1935)
  • L'Expérience Mystique et les Symboles chez les Primitifs (The Mystic Experience and Primitive Symbolism, 1938)
  • Les Carnets de Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (published posthumously in 1949)

References

  1. Andreski, Stanislav. Social Sciences as Sorcery, London: Andre Deutsch, 1972
  2. Jung CG, "Les Racines de La Conscience – Études Sur L' Archétype", Buchet/Chastel, Paris, 1971, p. 14

References

  • Bréhier, Émile (1939). "Lucien Lévy-Bruhl: L'Historien de la Philosophie". Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger. CXXVII (5/6): 241–44.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Cazeneuve, Jean (1963). Lucien Lévy-Bruhl: Sa Vie, Son Œuvre, avec un Exposé de Sa Philosophie. Paris: PUF.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Deprez, Stanislas (2010). Lévy-Bruhl et la Rationalisation du Monde. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1965). "Foreword". The "Soul" of the Primitive. London: George Allen & Unwin.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fimiani, Mariapaola (2000). Lévy-Bruhl: La Différence et l'Archaïque. Paris: L'Harmattan.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Keck, Frédéric (2007). Contradiction et Participation: Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, entre Philosophie et Anthropologie. Paris: Éditions du CNRS.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Masson-Oursel, Paul (1939). "Disciples ou Élèves de L. Lévy-Bruhl". Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger. CXXVII (5/6): 258–60.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Poirier, Jean (1957). "La Pensée Ethnologique de Lucien Lévy-Bruhl". Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger. CXLVII: 503–29.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links