Makoto Kobayashi (physicist)

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小林 誠
Makoto Kobayashi
Makoto Kobayashi-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-2b.jpg
Born (1944-04-07) April 7, 1944 (age 78)[1]
Nagoya, Japan[2]
Citizenship Japan
Fields High energy physics (theory)[2]
Institutions Kyoto University
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization[1][2]
Alma mater Nagoya University[1][2]
Doctoral advisor Shoichi Sakata
Known for Work on CP violation
CKM matrix
Notable awards Sakurai Prize (1985)
Japan Academy Prize (1985)
Asahi Prize (1995)
High Energy and Particle Physics Prize by European Physical Society (2007)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2008)

Makoto Kobayashi (小林 誠 Kobayashi Makoto?) (born April 7, 1944 in Nagoya, Japan) is a Japanese physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one fourth of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature."[3]


After completing his PhD at Nagoya University in 1972, Kobayashi worked as a research associate on particle physics at Kyoto University. Together, with his colleague Toshihide Maskawa, he worked on explaining CP-violation within the Standard Model of particle physics. Kobayashi and Maskawa's theory required that there were at least three generations of quarks, a prediction that was confirmed experimentally four years later by the discovery of the bottom quark.

Kobayashi and Maskawa's article, "CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction",[4] published in 1973, is the fourth most cited high energy physics paper of all time as of 2010.[5] The Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, which defines the mixing parameters between quarks was the result of this work. Kobayashi and Maskawa were jointly awarded half of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, with the other half going to Yoichiro Nambu.[3]

Academic career

  • April, 1972 : Research Associate of Kyoto University
  • July,1979 : Assistant Professor of the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics
  • April, 1989 : Professor of the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Head of Physics Division II
  • April, 1997 : Professor of the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Science, KEK Head of Physics Division II
  • April, 2003 : Director, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK
  • April, 2004 : Trustee (Director, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies), KEK (Inter-University Research Institute Corporation)
  • June, 2006 : Professor emeritus of KEK.


Personal life

Kobayashi was born and educated in Nagoya, Japan. He married Sachiko Enomoto in 1975; they had one son, Junichiro. After his first wife died, Kobayashi married Emiko Nakayama in 1990, they had a daughter, Yuka.[6]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Makoto Kobayashi" (Press release). High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 L. Hoddeson (1977). "Flavor Mixing and CP Violation". The Rise of the Standard Model. Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-521-57816-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008, The Nobel Foundation, retrieved 2009-10-17<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. M. Kobayashi, T. Maskawa (1973). "CP-Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction". Progress of Theoretical Physics. 49 (2): 652–657. Bibcode:1973PThPh..49..652K. doi:10.1143/PTP.49.652.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Top Cited Articles of All Time (2010 edition)". SPIRES database. Retrieved 2014-06-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Makoto Kobayashi (Autobiography)". The Nobel Foundation.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links