Malaysia Airlines Flight 17

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
Boeing 777-2H6ER 9M-MRD Malaysian (6658105143).jpg
9M-MRD, the aircraft shot down, photographed in October 2011
Shootdown summary
Date 17 July 2014
Summary Airliner shootdown
Site Near Hrabove, Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine
Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Passengers 283
Crew 15
Fatalities 298 (all)
Survivors 0
Aircraft type Boeing 777-200ER
Operator Malaysia Airlines
Registration 9M-MRD
Flight origin Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Destination Kuala Lumpur International Airport

Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 (MH17/MAS17)[lower-alpha 1] was a scheduled international passenger flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur that crashed on 17 July 2014 after being shot down, killing all 283 passengers and 15 crew on board.[2] The Boeing 777-200ER airliner lost contact about 50 km (31 mi) from the Ukraine–Russia border and crashed near Torez in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine, 40 km (25 mi) from the border.[3] The crash occurred during the Battle in Shakhtarsk Raion, part of the ongoing war in Donbass, in an area controlled by the Donbass People's Militia.[4]

According to American and German intelligence sources, the plane was mistakenly shot down by pro-Russian insurgents using a Buk surface-to-air missile (SA-11) fired from the territory which they controlled.[5] Their judgement was based on sensors that traced the path of the missile, analysis of fragment patterns in the wreckage, voice print analysis of conversations in which separatist militants claimed credit for the strike, as well as photos and other data from social media sites.[6] On 13 October 2015, the Dutch Safety Board (DSB) released a final report on their investigation into the incident, concluding that the airliner was downed by a Russian-made[7] Buk surface-to-air 9M38-series missile with 9N314M warhead launched from Eastern Ukraine.[8]

The Russian government blamed the Ukrainian government for the incident,[6] saying that Ukraine is responsible for the crash because it happened in Ukrainian airspace.[9] Immediately after the crash, a post appeared on the VKontakte social media profile attributed to Russian Colonel Igor Girkin, leader of the Donbass separatists, claiming responsibility for shooting down an AN-26 near Torez,[10][11][12] but after it became clear that a civilian aircraft had been shot down, the separatists denied any involvement, and the post was removed. An independent analysis by UK based investigative collective Bellingcat of open-source evidence indicated that Russian-backed separatists were in control of a Buk missile launcher on 17 July and transported it from Donetsk to Snizhne,[13][14][15] while three eyewitnesses told the BBC that such a missile launcher was operated by a crew that seemed to be Russian in the area on that date.[16] Bellingcat has since disproven any similarities between Ukrainian-used Buks and the one identified near the crash site; they assert that it was elements of the Russian 53rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Brigade that shot down the plane after crossing into Ukraine.[17] In May 2016, using published photographs of similar Buks used by the 53rd Brigade, Bellingcat identified the launcher as unit 332 based in Kursk, Russia.[18]

The Ukrainian government stated that the missile was launched by "Russian professionals and coordinated from Russia".[19][20] The German Federal Intelligence Service reportedly concluded that the plane was shot down by pro-Russian separatists using a captured Ukrainian Buk system.[21][22][23] Malaysia proposed a United Nations resolution to set up an international tribunal to prosecute those suspected of being behind the downing of the plane. While the proposal gained a majority on the UN Security Council (11 countries voting for it, 3 abstaining), it was vetoed by Russia.[24][25]

The crash of Flight 17 was the fifth Boeing 777 hull loss and the deadliest aviation incident ever to involve a Boeing 777.[26] The crash is also the deadliest airliner shootdown incident, as well as Malaysia Airlines' deadliest incident and its second of the year, after the disappearance of Flight 370, another Boeing 777, four months earlier.[27]

Aircraft

Aircraft involved, 9M-MRD, photographed at Perth Airport in 2010

Flight 17 was operated with a Boeing 777-2H6ER,[lower-alpha 2] serial number 28411, registration 9M-MRD.[28] The 84th Boeing 777 produced, it first flew on 17 July 1997, exactly 17 years before the incident, and was delivered new to Malaysia Airlines on 29 July 1997.[29] Powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent 892 engines and carrying 280 seats (33 business and 247 economy), the aircraft had recorded more than 76,300 hours in 11,430 cycles before the crash.[30]:30 The aircraft was in an airworthy condition at departure.[30]:31

The Boeing 777, which entered commercial service on 7 June 1995, has one of the best safety records in commercial aircraft.[31] In June 2014 there were about 1,212 aircraft in service, with 340 more on order.[32]

Passengers and crew

People on board by nationality[30]:27
Nation Number
 Australia 27
 Belgium 4
 Canada[lower-alpha 3] 1
 Germany[lower-alpha 4] 4
 Indonesia 12
 Malaysia[lower-alpha 5] 43
 Netherlands[lower-alpha 6] 193
 New Zealand 1
 Philippines 3
 United Kingdom[lower-alpha 7] 10
Total 298

The incident is the deadliest airliner shootdown incident to date.[33] All 283 passengers and 15 crew died.[30]:27 The crew were all Malaysian and about two-thirds (68%) of the passengers were Dutch, while many of the other passengers were Australians and Malaysians.[30]:27 By 19 July, the airline had determined the nationalities of all 298 passengers and crew.[27]

Among the passengers were delegates en route to the 20th International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, including Joep Lange, a former president of the International AIDS Society, which organised the conference.[34] Many initial reports had erroneously indicated that around 100 delegates to the conference were aboard, but this was later revised to just six.[35] Also on board were Dutch Senator Willem Witteveen,[36] Australian author Liam Davison,[37] and Malaysian actress Shuba Jay.[38]

At least twenty family groups were on board the aircraft, and eighty of the passengers were under the age of 18.[39][40] Two dogs and nine birds were also on board.[41]

The flight had two captains, Wan Amran Wan Hussin from Kuala Kangsar and Eugene Choo Jin Leong (Chinese: 朱仁隆; pinyin: Zhū Rénlóng[42]) from Seremban, and two copilots, Ahmad Hakimi Hanapi and Muhd Firdaus Abdul Rahim.[43]

Background

A few airlines started to avoid eastern Ukrainian airspace in early March in the wake of the 2014 Crimean crisis, including Korean Air, Asiana Airlines and British Airways.[44] In April, the International Civil Aviation Organization warned governments that there was a risk to commercial passenger flights over south-eastern Ukraine.[30]:217 The American Federal Aviation Administration issued restrictions on flights over Crimea, to the south of MH17's route, and advised airlines flying over some other parts of Ukraine to "exercise extreme caution". This warning did not include the MH17 crash region.[45][46] 37 airlines continued overflying eastern Ukraine and about 900 flights crossed the Donetsk region in the seven days until the Boeing 777 was shot down, with Aeroflot, Singapore Airlines, Ukraine International Airlines, Lufthansa and Malaysia Airlines being the most active carriers.[47]

Since the start of the conflict, several Ukrainian Air Force aeroplanes have been downed. On 14 June, an Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft was shot down on approach to Luhansk International Airport; all 49 people on board died.[30]:183 On 29 June, Russian news agencies reported (with old photos) that insurgents had gained access to a Buk missile system after having taken control of a Ukrainian air defence base (possibly the former location of the 156th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment [156 zrp] of the Ukrainian Air Force).[48][49][50] On the same day, the Donetsk People's Republic claimed possession of such a system in a since-deleted tweet.[49][51]

On 14 July 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force An-26 transport plane flying at 6,500 m (21,300 ft) was shot down.[30]:183 Militia reportedly claimed via social media that a Buk missile launcher had been used to bring down the aircraft.[52] American officials later said evidence suggested the aeroplane had been shot down from Russian territory.[53] On 16 July, a Sukhoi Su-25 close air support aircraft was shot down. The Ukrainian government said the Russian military had shot down the aircraft with an air-to-air missile fired by a MiG-29 jet in Russia; a spokesman for the Russian defence ministry rejected that report as "absurd".[54][55] According to the Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf, the Ukrainian government also warned the government of Netherlands and other European countries about dangers in flying over the East Ukraine three days prior to the tragedy[56][57] due to an incident with downing of another transport aeroplane (AN-26) by militants on 14 July 2014.[58][59]

On 15 July 2014, following his visit to Kiev, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Radosław Sikorski warned about the dangers posed by the continued Russian military support for pro-Russian separatists, especially ground-to-air missiles.[60] On 17 July, an Associated Press journalist saw a Buk launcher in Snizhne, a town in Donetsk Oblast that is 16 kilometres (10 mi) southeast of the crash site. The reporter also saw seven separatist tanks at a petrol station near the town.[61] Associated Press journalists reported that the Buk M-1 was operated by a man "with unfamiliar fatigues and a distinctive Russian accent" escorted by two civilian vehicles.[62] The battle around Saur Mogila has been suggested as the possible context within which the missile that brought down MH17 was fired, as separatists deployed increasingly sophisticated anti-aircraft weaponry in this battle, and had brought down several Ukrainian jets in July.[63] A Ukrainian An-26 was actually scheduled to deliver paratroopers to the battle arena on 17 July and, according to Russian expert Vadim Lukashevich, the separatists "might have been waiting just for them", which also explains why they first announced that the downed plane was An-26.[64] According to the final report of the Dutch Safety Board, no An-26 was downed in Eastern Ukraine that day.[65]

The airspace above Donetsk Oblast was closed by Ukraine below 26,000 feet (7,900 m) on 5 June 2014 and, on 14 July, below 32,000 feet (9,800 m).[30]:179–180 The route in Russian airspace that MH17 would have taken was closed below 32,000 feet (9,800 m) by Russian air control a few hours before the airliner took off.[66] As with other countries Ukraine receives overflight fees for every commercial aircraft that flies through their borders. This may have contributed to the continued availability of civilian flight paths through the conflict zone.[67][68]

Crash

Route of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
Routes of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 and Singapore Airlines Flight 351, including airspace restrictions

On Thursday, 17 July 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 departed from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Gate G03 at 12:13 CEST (10:13 UTC)[30]:23 and was due to arrive at Kuala Lumpur International Airport at 06:00, Friday 18 July MYT (22:00, 17 July UTC).

According to the original flight plan, MH17 was to fly over Ukraine at flight level 330 (33,000 feet or 10,060 metres) and then change to FL 350 around Dnipropetrovsk. When it reached the area as planned, at 12:53 UTC Dnipropetrovsk Air Control (Dnipro Control) asked MH17 if they could climb to FL 350 as planned, and also to avoid a potential separation conflict with another flight, Singapore Airlines Flight 351, also at FL 330. The crew asked to remain at FL 330 and the air control approved this request, moving the other flight to FL 350. At 13:00 UTC the crew asked for diversion of 20 nautical miles (37 km) to the left (north) due to weather conditions. This request was also approved by Dnipro Control. The crew then asked if they could climb to FL 340, which was rejected as this flight level was not available at that time, and MH17 remained at FL 330. At 13:19 UTC Dnipro Control noticed that the flight was 3.6 nautical miles (6.7 km) north from the centerline of approved track and instructed MH17 to return to the track. At 13:19 UTC Dnipro Control contacted Russian air control in Rostov-on-Don (RND) over telephone and requested clearance for transferring the flight to Russian air control. After obtaining the permission, Dnipro Control attempted to contact MH17 and pass them the details of Rostov-on-Don track at 13:20 UTC. After MH17 did not respond to several calls, Dnipro Control contacted RND again to check if they could see the Boeing on their radar. RND confirmed that the plane had disappeared.[2]

The Dutch Safety Board reported a last flight data recording at 13:20 UTC, located west of the urban-type settlement Rozsypne, heading 115° at 494 knots (915 km/h).[2] Three other commercial aircraft were in the same area when the Malaysian plane crashed, including a Singapore Airlines Boeing 777 en route from Copenhagen to Singapore, and Air India Flight 113, a Boeing 787, en route from Delhi to Birmingham. The closest aircraft was 33 kilometres (21 mi) away.[30]:41

The aircraft crashed outside Hrabove, near Torez in eastern Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast, with debris spread over a 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi) area to the southwest of Hrabove.[30]:53 The fireball on impact is believed to have been captured on video.[69] Photographs from the site of the crash show scattered pieces of broken fuselage and engine parts, bodies, and passports.[70] Some of the wreckage fell close to houses.[71] Dozens of bodies fell into crop fields, and some fell into houses.[72]

Aftermath

Around 90 minutes after the incident, Ukraine closed all routes in Eastern Ukrainian airspace, at all altitudes.[2][73] The incident dramatically heightened fears about airliner shootdowns,[74] leading to a number of airlines announcing they would avoid overflying conflict zones.

It was suggested that credit and debit cards may have been looted from the bodies of the victims, and the Dutch Banking Association said it would take "preventative measures" against any possible fraud.[75] There were also accusations that other possessions had been removed and that evidence at the crash site had been destroyed.[76][77] Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte acknowledged on 6 August that early reports of chaos and criminality around the site may have been exaggerated.[78] One eye-witness observed that valuable items like shoes and bottles of alcohol were untouched in the wreckage,[79] while a video published by News Corp Australia in July 2015 recorded at the scene shortly after the crash shows militants described as "Russian-backed rebels" arriving and ransacking the wreckage.[80]

Shortly after the crash, it was announced that Malaysia Airlines would retire flight number MH17 and change the Amsterdam–Kuala Lumpur route to flight number MH19 beginning on 25 July 2014, with the outbound flight unchanged.[81][82] In association with the retirement of the Boeing 777 aircraft type from Malaysia Airlines' fleet, Malaysia Airlines terminated service to Amsterdam on 25 January 2016, instead opting to codeshare with KLM on the KUL-AMS route for service beyond that date.[83] On 18 July 2014, shares in Malaysia Airlines dropped by nearly 16%.[84]

On 23 July 2014, two Ukrainian military jets were hit by missiles at the altitude of 17,000 feet (5,200 m) close to the area of the MH17 crash. According to the Ukrainian Security Council, preliminary information indicated that the missiles came from Russia.[85]

Investigation

Two parallel investigations are led by the Dutch. One is into the cause of the crash, and a second investigation is a criminal inquiry.[86] The technical report was released on 13 October 2015,[87] while the criminal investigation could extend into 2016.[88] According to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, the country in which an aviation incident occurs is responsible for the investigation, but that country may delegate the investigation to another state, as Ukraine has delegated the leadership of both investigations to the Netherlands.[89] In March 2015 the international investigation team led by the Dutch police issued a call for witnesses, particularly with respect to the movement of a Buk launcher from Sjevernyi near the Russian border through or near Luhansk to Donetsk on a Volvo truck.[90]

Initial attempts

On the day of the crash, a meeting was convened of the Trilateral Contact Group (consisting of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Ukrainian national government, and Russia). After they had held a video conference with representatives of insurgents affiliated with the Donetsk People's Republic (who control the area where the aircraft crashed), the rebels promised to "provide safe access and security guarantees" to "the national investigation commission" by co-operating with Ukrainian authorities and OSCE monitors.[91] During the first two days of investigation, the militants prevented the OSCE and the workers of Ukrainian Emergencies Ministry from freely working at the crash site. Andre Purgin, a leader of the Donetsk People's Republic, declared later that "we will guarantee the safety of international experts on the scene as soon as Kiev concludes a ceasefire agreement".[92]

Dutch and Australian police at the crash site on 3 August 2014

On 18 July 2014, the flight data recorder and the cockpit voice recorder had been recovered by separatists,[93] and three days later were handed over to Malaysian officials in Donetsk.[30]:44 The CVR was damaged but there was no evidence that data had been tampered with.[30]:45

Since 23 July 2014 an international investigation team has been conducting an off-site examination to determine why the aircraft crashed.[2] In agreement with the Ukrainian government, the Netherlands are leading this investigation.[94][95] The investigation team consists of 24 investigators with members from Ukraine, Malaysia, Australia, Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom and Russia.[96] In addition to the international accident investigation, the selection of the flight route will also be independently investigated by the Dutch Safety Board (DSB).[97] The National Bureau of Air Accidents Investigation of Ukraine (NBAAI) had requested that the DSB participate in the international investigation; the DSB received formal notice of the accident from the NBAAI on 18 July.[98] The NBAAI, which led an international off- and on-site investigation during the first days after the crash,[99] delegated the investigation to the DSB because of the large number of Dutch passengers and the fact that the flight originated in Amsterdam.[100]

A Malaysian team of 133 officials and experts, comprising search and recovery personnel, forensics experts, technical and medical experts arrived in Ukraine.[101] Australia sent a 45-member panel headed by former Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, who had earlier supervised the MH 370 probe.[102] The United Kingdom sent six investigators from the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) and the UK Foreign Office has sent extra consular staff to Ukraine.[103] It took until late July that the full international team could start working at the crash site,[104] under the leadership of the Dutch Ministry of Defence.[105]

On 30 July 2014, a Ukrainian representative said that pro-Russian rebels had mined approaches to the crash site and pulled heavy artillery around.[106]

On 6 August 2014, the experts left the crash site due to concerns about their safety.[107] In mid-September they attempted to regain access to the site but did not have any success.[108][109] On 13 October a Dutch-Ukrainian team resumed the recovery work to gather personal belongings of the victims.[110] In mid-November, work was undertaken to remove part of the wreckage from the crash site. Earlier efforts by the recovery team to salvage the MH17 wreckage had been frustrated by disagreements with the local rebels.[111][112] The recovery operation took one week to complete. The debris would be transported to the Netherlands where investigators will reconstruct parts of the plane.[113]

CT scans of MH17 victims showed "non-aircraft metal"[114] and on 19 December 2014 the Ukrainian security service said that some of the bodies contained metal fragments that indicated the plane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile.[115] Preliminary evidence from the ongoing Dutch investigation has concluded that the plane was most likely downed by a Russian unit that was probably manned by a Russian crew, though other possibilities have not yet been ruled out.[116][117] In August 2015, possible BUK missile parts were found at the crash site by a joint investigation team comprising representatives of the Netherlands, Ukraine, Malaysia, Australia, the UK, US and Russia.[118][119]

Cause of crash

A mobile Buk surface-to-air missile launcher, similar to that concluded to have been used in the incident

The final report by the official investigation team, led by the Dutch Safety board, was presented on 13 October 2015. It concluded that

  1. The plane was brought down by a warhead that detonated outside the front of the plane, causing structural damage to the front followed by mid-air breakup of the plane.[120]
  2. The warhead was carried on a type of missile used in Russian built BUK systems.[120]
  3. The impact killed the cockpit crew, and that no evidence of any conscious action of any passenger on the plane was recorded after impact, although it cannot be ruled out that some passengers may have been conscious during the fall.[121]
  4. Identified a large area of 320 square kilometres near Snizhne from which the missile could have been fired.[120]
  5. Considering the number of shot down aircraft, the risk assessment by all involved parties was inadequate. Ukrainian air traffic control should have closed the air space, Malaysia Airlines should have chosen an alternative route, and other parties such as the International Civil Aviation Organization did not sufficiently account for risks of flying over conflict areas.[120]
External audio
Pro-Russian rebels discuss the shooting down of an aircraft on YouTube Intercepted phone calls, verified with voice recognition by the National Security Agency,[122] between rebels discussing which rebel group shot down the aircraft and initial reports it was a civilian aircraft. Audio (in Russian) released by Security Service of Ukraine with English subtitles.[123][124]

Soon after the crash both American and Ukrainian officials said that a surface-to-air missile strike was the most likely cause,[125] and if so, then the missile was fired from a mobile Soviet-designed Buk missile system (NATO reporting name: SA-11 "Gadfly") as this is the only surface-to-air missile system in the region capable of reaching the altitude of commercial air traffic.[53][126][127][128][129][130] According to defence analyst Reed Foster (from Jane's Information Group), the contour of the aluminium and the blistering of the paint around many of the holes on the aircraft fragments indicate that small, high-velocity fragments entered the aircraft externally, a damage pattern indicative of an SA-11.[131] Ballistics specialist Stephan Fruhling of the Australian National University's Strategic and Defence Studies Centre concurs with this, explaining that since it struck the cockpit rather than an engine it was probably a radar guided, rather than heat seeking, missile equipped with a proximity fuzed warhead such as a SA-11.[132]

Shortly after the crash, Igor Girkin, leader of the Donbass separatists, was reported to have posted on social media network VKontakte, taking credit for downing a Ukrainian AN-26.[133][134] The separatists later recanted and denied involvement after learning that a civilian airliner had been downed, saying they did not have the equipment or training to hit a target at that altitude.[135][136][137] Russian media also reported that Alexander Borodai called one of the Moscow media managers 40 minutes after the crash, saying that "likely we shot down a civilian airline".[134]

Witnesses in Torez reported sightings on the day of the incident of what appeared to be a Buk missile launcher,[138] and AP journalists reported sightings of a Buk system in separatist controlled Snizhne.[62] The witness reports also backed up photographs and videos which had been posted online, of the Buk launcher in rebel held territory.[138]

On 19 July 2014, Vitaly Nayda, the chief of the Counter Intelligence Department of the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU), told a news conference, "We have compelling evidence that this terrorist act was committed with the help of the Russian Federation. We know clearly that the crew of this system were Russian citizens."[139][140][141] He cited what he said were recorded conversations in which separatists expressed satisfaction to Russian intelligence agents that they brought down an aeroplane.[142][143] While one of the involved persons acknowledged that these conversations took place, the separatists denied that they were related to the crash of MH17 and blamed the Ukrainian government for shooting it down.[144][145][146][147] According to Nayda, a Buk launcher used in the shootdown was moved back into Russia the night after the attack.[62] The SBU released another recording, which they said was of pro-Russian-separatist leader Igor Bezler being told of an approaching aircraft two minutes before MH17 was shot down. Bezler said the recording was real, but referred to a different incident.[148] The head of the SBU, Valentyn Nalyvaichenko, later concluded that rebels intended to shoot down a Russian airliner in a false flag operation to give Russia a pretext to invade Ukraine, but shot down MH17 by mistake.[149][150][151]

Journalists from the Associated Press in Snizhne, Ukraine reported seeing a Buk M-1 enter the town operated by a man "with unfamiliar fatigues and a distinctive Russian accent" escorted by two civilian vehicles, which then moved off in the direction where the shootdown later occurred. According to Ukrainian counterterrorism chief, Vitaly Nayda, after downing the plane under separatist direction, the launcher's Russian crew quickly moved it back across the border into Russia.[62]

On 22 July 2014, a rebel fighter revealed to an Italian reporter that fellow separatists had told his unit the aircraft had been shot down under the assumption that it was Ukrainian.[152] This information was verified and confirmed on the same day by a German newspaper.[153] Unnamed American intelligence officials stated that sensors that traced the path of the missile, shrapnel patterns in the wreckage, voice print analysis of separatists' conversations in which they claimed credit for the strike, and photos and other data from social media sites all indicated that Russian-backed separatists had fired the missile.[6]

American officials said that satellite data from infrared sensors detected the explosion of flight MH17.[154] American intelligence agencies said that analysis of the launch plume and trajectory suggested the missile was fired from an area near Torez and Snizhne.[53] Satellites are also likely to have registered the heat signature of the launch of the missile and the activation of the missile launcher tracking radar.[127] The Telegraph, a British paper, said: "The Telegraph's own inquiries suggest the missile – an SA-11 from a Buk mobile rocket launcher – was possibly fired from a cornfield about 19 kilometres (12 mi) to the south of the epicentre of the crash site."[128] Other sources suggest the missile was launched from the separatist-controlled town of Chernukhino.[155] A number of other media outlets including The Guardian, The Washington Post and the Sydney Morning Herald have reported that the aeroplane is believed to have been downed by a rebel-fired missile.[156][157][158]

An unnamed American intelligence official stated that Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 may have been shot down in error by pro-Russian separatists, citing evidence that separatists launched a SA-11 surface-to-air missile that blew up the Malaysian airliner. They said it was possible the rebel was a former member of the Armed Forces of Ukraine who had defected to the pro-Russian separatists.[5] The official dismissed Russian allegations that MH17 took evasive action and said the claim that the Ukrainian government had shot down MH17 was not realistic, as Kiev had no such missile systems in that area, which was rebel-controlled.[129] American intelligence officials also said that Russia was attempting to disguise the flow of weaponry it was delivering to the rebels by sending older weapons that matched Ukraine's inventory.[6] The British Foreign Office stated that it was "highly likely" that the missile was fired from an area controlled by Russian-backed separatists.[159]

The Russian Ministry of Defence has maintained that American claims of separatist responsibility were "unfounded", and said that the American intelligence agencies have not released any of the data on which they based their conclusions.[160] According to the Russian military, in what the New York Magazine called "Russia's Conspiracy Theory", MH17 was shot down by the Ukrainians, using either a surface-to-air missile or a fighter plane.[161][162]

On 21 July 2014, the Russian Ministry of Defence held a press conference and said that while the Boeing 777 was crashing, a Ukrainian Su-25 ground-attack aircraft approached to within 3 to 5 kilometres (1.9 to 3.1 mi) of the Malaysian airliner. The MoD also stated that satellite photographs showed that the Ukrainian army moved a Buk SAM battery to the area close to the territory controlled by the rebels on the morning of 17 July, hours before the crash. They said the installation was then moved away again by 18 July.[163][164] Promoted by Russian media, the idea that a Su-25 could have downed Boeing with an air-to-air missile was dismissed by chief designer of the aircraft Vladimir Babak.[165] In 2015 Bellingcat purchased satellite photos from the same area and time as mentioned by MoD and demonstrated that MoD used older photos (May and June 2014) in their presentation that were edited to make a Ukrainian "Buk" launcher appear like it was removed after the attack.[166] In the report published by the Dutch Safety Board, an air-to-air missile strike was ruled out.[8]

In an interview with Reuters on 23 July 2014, Alexander Khodakovsky, the commander of the pro-Russian Vostok Battalion, acknowledged that the separatists had an anti-aircraft missile of the type the Americans have said was used to shoot down the aircraft, and said that it could have been sent back to Russia to remove proof of its presence;[167][168][169] he later retracted his comments, saying that he had been misquoted and stating that rebels never had a Buk.[170] In November 2014 he repeated that the separatists had a Buk launcher at the time, but stated that the vehicle, under control of fighters from Luhansk, had still been on its way to Donetsk when MH17 crashed. It was then retreated to avoid being blamed.[171]

On 28 July 2014, Ukrainian security official Andriy Lysenko announced, at a press conference, that black box recorder analysis had revealed that the aircraft had been brought down by shrapnel that caused "massive explosive decompression." Dutch officials were reported to be "stunned" by what they saw as a "premature announcement" and said that they had not provided this information.[172]

On 8 September 2014, the BBC released new material by John Sweeney who cited three civilian witnesses from Donbass who saw the Buk launcher in the rebel-controlled territory on the day when MH17 crashed. Two witnesses said the crew of the launcher and a military vehicle escorting it did not have local accents and spoke with Muscovite accents.[16] On the same day Ignat Ostanin, a Russian journalist, published an analysis of photos and films of Buk units moving in Russia and Ukraine in the days before and after the MH17 crash. According to Ostanin, the markings on the specific launcher suspected of being used to shoot MH17, together with the number plates of the large goods vehicle that carried the launcher, suggested that it belonged to the 53rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Brigade of the Air Defence Forces of the Russian Ground Forces.[173][174]

On 8 October 2014 the president of the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) gave a presentation about MH17 to a German parliamentary committee overseeing intelligence activities. According to Der Spiegel, the report contained a detailed analysis which concluded that pro-Russian separatists had used a captured Ukrainian Buk system to shoot down Flight MH17. The report also noted that "Russian claims the missile had been fired by Ukrainian soldiers and that a Ukrainian fighter jet had been flying close to the passenger jet were false" and that Ukraine had published manipulated photographs.[21][175] The Attorney General of Germany opened an investigation against unknown persons due to a suspected war crime.[22]

On 22 December 2014 the Dutch news service RTL Nieuws published a statement of an unnamed local resident who witnessed the shooting down of MH17, indicating that the plane was shot down by a missile from rebel territory. He took photographs of what appeared to be the vapour trail of a ground-launched missile which he passed to the SBU.[176][177] On 24 December Russia's state-operated domestic news agency RIA Novosti quoted the leader of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic, Alexander Zakharchenko, saying he saw MH17 shot out of the sky by two Ukrainian jets.[178][179]

In January 2015 a report produced by the German investigative team CORRECT!V concluded a Buk surface-to-air missile launcher operated by the 53rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Brigade shot down MH17.[180] Large amounts of other circumstantial evidence were presented separately by various parties that supports this version, identifying specific launcher vehicle, operator name, truck transporting it and its alleged route through Russia and Ukraine.[181]

In March 2015 Reuters published first-hand statements from a number of named witnesses from Chervonyi Zhovten (Ukrainian: Червоний Жовтень), a village close to Torez and Snizhne, who saw the Buk rocket passing over the village when it was fired from a field around 1.5 km away. It also published a statement from a separatist fighter (only the first name was given by Reuters) who confirmed that the launcher was placed in that area on the day of the Boeing crash to prevent Ukrainian airstrikes.[182]

Later in March 2015, RTL Nederland reporter Jeroen Akkermans published the results of an independent analysis of the metal fragments his team found at the crash site in the remains of the airplane's hull. Forensic investigation suggested that these fragments, some of them having cast-on serial numbers with Cyryllic letters, may be parts of the Buk missile that hit the airplane.[183][184] DSB has accepted the fragments as evidence but stated "it is important that it be irrefutably demonstrated that there is a relationship between any material and the aeroplane that crashed".[185]

In May 2015 Novaya Gazeta published a report by "a group of Russian military engineers" that came to a conclusion that the airplane was shot down by a "Buk-M1" launcher with 9M38M1 missile. Authors also analysed the visible impact traces on the surface of the airplane and suggested that the missile couldn't have been fired from Snizhne, but it was instead fired from Zaroshchenske (Ukrainian: Зарощенське) and claimed that a Ukrainian anti-air unit was located there at that time.[186] In June 2015 the report was the subject of a press conference and was attributed to Mikhail Malisevskiy, chief engineer at Moscow-headquartered Almaz-Antey, the BUK missile manufacturer.[187] The Security Service of Ukraine said that there were inaccuracies in this version, and called the part of the report a fake.[188] Russian military expert Vadim Lukashevich argued on TV Rain that the spatial orientation of the rocket at the moment of explosion does not exclude the possibility that it was launched from Snizhne, as the authors of the report claimed. Lukashevich also noted that the report admitted a "Buk" missile as the cause of the crash, debunking all the previous versions of the crash (Su-25 etc.) populated in Russian media.[189] Also Ukrainska Pravda questioned claims about Ukrainian anti-air unit and stated that Zaroshchenskoe was under control of pro-Russian forces on the day of shootdown.[190] Novaya Gazeta published a long analysis by Mark Solonin, also denying the Almaz-Antey version,[191] and interviewed inhabitants of Zaroshchenskoe who denied the claims about Ukrainian forces and any "Buk" launchers being present in the village at that time.[192][193]

Bild said that the satellite image from Russia was fake.[194] According to an analysis by Bellingcat, Russia's satellite images are from June and show signs of editing.[195][196]

In July 2015, News Corp Australia published the transcript of a 17-minute video recorded at the scene shortly after the crash. The transcript and published segments of the video indicate that Russian-backed rebels arrive at the crash site in the expectation of finding the wreckage of a military aircraft and for the purpose of locating crew that parachuted from the aircraft.[80]

On 13 May 2016, Stratfor in cooperation with DigitalGlobe and AllSource Analysis, released satellite imagery taken 5 hours before the crash which showed a Russian Buk system travelling on a flatbed truck east through the town of Makiivka, 40 km away from Snizhne. Stratfor's analysis concluded that the evidence showed a Buk system moving from the Russian border toward Donetsk on 15 July 2014, and then moving back to the east on the afternoon of 17 July 2014, just hours before Flight MH17 was shot down.[197]

Recovery of bodies

First arrival of bodies at Eindhoven Airport

A Ukraine Foreign Ministry representative said that the bodies found at the crash site would be taken to Kharkiv for identification, 270 kilometres (170 mi) to the north. By the day after the crash, 181 of the 298 bodies had been found.[198]

Bodies were observed being moved, placed in body bags, and loaded on to lorries.[199][200][201]

Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte complained about the lack of respect shown to the personal belongings of the dead which were reportedly looted. He initially announced his disgust about the handling of the bodies that were reportedly being "dragged around" and "thrown", but later stated they had been handled with more care than originally estimated.[202][203] On 20 July, Ukrainian emergency workers, observed by armed separatists, began loading the remains of the passengers of MH17 into refrigerated railway wagons for transport and identification.[204]

On 21 July, pro-Russian rebels allowed Dutch investigators to examine the bodies. By this time, according to Ukrainian officials 272 bodies had been recovered.[205] Remains left Torez on a train on the evening of 21 July, en route to Kharkiv to be flown to the Netherlands for identification.[206] On the same day, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak announced that the Malaysian government had reached a tentative agreement to retrieve the remains of the Malaysians who died in the crash, following any necessary forensic work.[207]

Convoy of 40 hearses heading to Hilversum, while other traffic stopped

It was reported on 21 July that with 282 bodies and 87 body fragments found, there were still 16 bodies missing.[208] An agreement had been reached that the Netherlands would co-ordinate the identification effort. All remains were moved to the Netherlands with Dutch air force C-130 and Australian C-17 transport planes.[209][210] A train carrying the bodies arrived at the Malyshev Factory, Kharkiv on 22 July,[211] and the first remains were flown to Eindhoven on 23 July.[212] The investigation is being conducted at the Netherlands Army medical regiment training facility in Hilversum by an international team.[213] The UK Metropolitan Police sent specialist officers to assist with the recovery, identification and repatriation of those who died.[103]

Dutch authorities stated on 23 July that they found 200 bodies on the train when it arrived at Kharkhiv, leaving almost 100 unaccounted for.[214] Two Dutch and one Australian aircraft flew the first bodies out of Kharviv later that day. The aircraft landed at Eindhoven Airport just before 16:00 local time.[215] The day after, another 74 bodies arrived.[216]

On 1 August it was announced that a search and recovery mission, including about 80 forensic police specialists from the Netherlands, Malaysia and Australia, and led by Colonel Cornelis Kuijs of the Royal Marechaussee, would use drones, sniffer dogs, divers and satellite mapping to search for missing body parts at the crash site.[217][218] Australian officials had believed that as many as 80 bodies were still at the site,[157] but after some days of searching the international team had "found remains of only a few victims" and concluded that "the recovery effort undertaken by local authorities immediately after the crash was more thorough than initially thought."[78]

On 6 August the Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte announced that the recovery operation would be temporarily halted due to an upsurge in fighting around the crash site threatening the safety of crash investigators and recovery specialists, and that all international investigators and humanitarian forces (approximately 500 Australians and 80 Dutch/Malaysians) would leave the country leaving behind a small communications and liaison team.[219] Three areas of the crash site remained unsearched.

On 22 August the bodies of 20 Malaysians (of 43 killed in the incident) arrived in Malaysia.[220] The government announced a National Mourning Day, with a ceremony broadcast live on radio and television.[221]

On 9 October a spokesman for the Dutch national prosecutor's office stated that one victim had been found with an oxygen mask around his neck; a forensic investigation of the mask for fingerprints, saliva and DNA did not produce any results and it is therefore not known how or when that mask got around the neck of the victim.[30]:99

By 5 December, the Dutch-led forensic team had identified the bodies of 292 out of 298 victims of the crash.[222]

In February and April 2015 new remains were found on the site.[223][224] By this time only 2 victims, both Dutch citizens, out of 298 were unidentified.[224]

Dutch Safety Board preliminary report

On 9 September 2014, the preliminary report was released by the Dutch Safety Board (DSB).[2][225]:16

The preliminary report concluded that the aircraft and crew prior to the ending of the CVR and FDR recording at 13.20:03 hrs (UTC) were not implicating any technical or operational failure, due to the absence of any corresponding evidence. Furthermore, the report said that "damage observed on the forward fuselage and cockpit section of the aircraft appears to indicate that there were impacts from a large number of high-energy objects from outside the aircraft". According to the investigators, this damage likely led to a loss of structural integrity that caused an in-flight break-up first of the forward parts of the aircraft and then the remainder with expansive geographic spread of the aircraft's pieces.

Tjibbe Joustra, Chairman of the Dutch Safety Board, explained on the date of the preliminary report that the investigation thus far "point towards an external cause of the MH17 crash", but determining the exact cause of the crash requires further investigation and investigators will be able to use "additional evidence" to produce the final report. The Board's press release for the preliminary report also established a time frame for the final report: "The Board aims to publish the report within one year of the date of the crash."[226]

Dutch Safety Board final report

Narrated reconstruction of the missile impact, produced by the Dutch Safety Board

The Dutch Safety Board issued its final report into the crash on 13 October 2015. There were 61 flight operators from 32 countries who flew over eastern Ukraine at the time, all who thought it was safe to fly there at cruising altitude. In the DSB's opinion, there was sufficient reason to fully close the airspace over eastern Ukraine as a precaution. The DSB recommended that states involved in armed conflicts should exercise more caution when evaluating their airspace, and operators should be more transparent into their methods of selecting flight routes.

They found the crash was caused by a Buk surface-to-air 9M38-series missile with 9N314M warhead. The missile hit the left side of the cockpit and fired fragments, killing all the flight crew. The cockpit was then torn off by the impact, which meant it was likely that most passengers were unconscious by this time due to lack of oxygen. Based on evidence they were able to exclude meteor strikes, the plane having technical defects, a bomb, and an air-to-air attack as causes of the crash. The DSB calculated the trajectory of the missile and found it was fired within a 320-square-kilometre (120 sq mi) area southeast of Torez. Narrowing down a specific launch site was outside the DSB's mandate.[30] According to Al Jazeera, the area identified by the DSB was controlled by separatists at the time of the downing.[227]

Criminal investigation

The criminal investigation into the downing of MH17 is being led by the Public Prosecution Service of the Dutch Ministry of Justice. The investigation is the largest in Dutch history, involving dozens of prosecutors and 200 investigators with different specialties.[228] Detectives are looking at forensic samples from bodies and luggage, interviews with witnesses, satellite data, intercepted communications, and information on the Web.[229]

Participating in the investigation along with the Netherlands, are the four other members of the Joint Investigation Team (JIT),[230] Belgium, Ukraine, Australia, and Malaysia.[231] Malaysia was the last to join the JIT, being accepted as a full member in late November 2014.[230]

In a letter to the UNSC, the Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands wrote that "The Dutch government is deliberately refraining from any speculation or accusations regarding legal responsibility for the downing of MH17.[232] During an appearance at the American Enterprise Institute, the Assistant Secretary of DoS's European and Eurasian Affairs said in December, "We have given all of our information, including our classified information to the Dutch who are the investigators and to ICAO... So any efforts to say that we have not are also untrue."[233]

On 30 March 2015, the JIT released a Russian-language video calling for witnesses in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions who might have seen a Buk missile system. The video included some previously undisclosed recordings allegedly of tapped phone conversations between rebel fighters about the Buk. In one recording, of a conversation a few hours after the shoot down, a fighter says that a member of the Buk's accompanying crew had been left behind at a checkpoint. In another alleged recording, dated the day after the shootdown, a rebel says the Buk system and its crew had been brought from Russia by "the Librarian." The video presents a "scenario" whereby a BUK missile was transported on a Volvo low loader truck from Severnyi, a town located within a kilometer of the Russian border, to Donetsk during the night of 16/17 July.[234] In the week following the public appeal, the JIT received more than 300 responses resulting in dozens of "serious witnesses".[235][236] In 2016 the presence of the transloader of matching color with a Buk missile was confirmed on a satellite photo of the area taken just a few hours before downing of the plane, which was described as "correlating with other evidence" by Stratfor who found the photo in DigitalGlobe archive.[237][238]

On 9 April 2015 Dutch authorities made available 569 documents concerning the shoot-down. Personal information and official interviews had been redacted. 147 more documents were not made public.[239]

The Netherlands discussed with the other JIT members a proposal to create an international tribunal to prosecute those suspected of downing the Malaysian airliner. This court would take up the case after the closing of the current criminal investigation. The Dutch hoped that an international tribunal would induce Russian cooperation, which is considered critical.[240] In late June 2015, the Russian government rejected a request by the five countries on the investigative committee to form a UN tribunal which would try those responsible for the shooting down of the aircraft, calling it "not timely and counterproductive."[241] On 8 July 2015, Malaysia, a member of the UN Security Council, formalized this proposal by distributing a draft resolution to establish a UN tribunal to prosecute the parties responsible for the shoot-down. The resolution is a joint proposal put forward by Malaysia, Australia, the Netherlands, Belgium and Ukraine. Russian UN Ambassador Vitaly Churkin responded, "I don't see any future for this resolution. Unfortunately, it seems that this is an attempt to organize a grandiose, political show, which only damages efforts to find the guilty parties."[24] Russia later circulated a rival resolution which didn't call for a tribunal, but instead criticised the international investigation and demanded those responsible for the crash be brought to justice.[242] In a vote, Malaysia's resolution gained majority support of the UNSC, but was vetoed by Russia.[25]

In May 2016 families of 33 victims of the crash sued Russia and president Vladimir Putin in the European Court of Human Rights, arguing Russian actions violated the passengers' right to life.[243]

Reactions


Countries

Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko called the crash the result of an act of terrorism, and also called for an international investigation into the crash.[244]

Malaysian Deputy Foreign Minister Hamzah Zainuddin said that the foreign ministry would be working with the Russian and Ukrainian governments with regard to the incident.[245] Prime Minister Najib Razak later said that Malaysia was unable to verify the cause of the crash and demanded that the perpetrators be punished.[246] The Malaysian government flew the national flag at half-mast from 18 July until 21 July.[247]

Flag at half mast in front of city hall of Hoorn during the national day of mourning on 23 July

Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte and King Willem-Alexander voiced their shock at the crash,[248][249] and Minister of Foreign Affairs Frans Timmermans joined the Dutch investigation team sent to Ukraine.[250] Dutch government buildings flew the flag at half-mast on 18 July.[251] Music was cancelled and festivities were toned down on the last day of the Nijmegen Marches.[252] On 21 July the Netherlands opened a war crimes investigation on the downing of the aircraft. The country's prosecutor is in Ukraine for that purpose. Rutte threatened tough action against Russia if it did not help in the investigation.[253]

Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott said in an address to parliament that the aircraft was downed by a missile which seems to have been launched by Russian-backed rebels.[254] Julie Bishop, the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, said in an interview on an Australian television programme that it was "extraordinary" that her Russian counterparts have refused to speak to her over the shootdown after the Russian ambassador was summoned to meet her.[254] The Russian government was critical of Abbott's response; Abbott was one of the first world leaders to publicly connect the shootdown to Russia.[255] Abbott later criticised the recovery efforts as "shambolic", and "more like a garden clean-up than a forensic investigation"; Bishop publicly warned separatist forces against treating the victims' bodies as hostages.[256] Abbott also said in an interview on 13 October 2014, in anticipation of Russia's President Vladimir Putin's attendance at the 2014 G20 summit, scheduled for mid-November 2014 in Brisbane, Australia: "Australians were murdered. They were murdered by Russian-backed rebels using Russian-supplied equipment. We are very unhappy about this."[257]

Russian President Putin said that Ukraine bears responsibility for the incident which happened in its territory, which he said would not have happened if hostilities had not resumed in the south-east of Ukraine.[3][258][259] He also said that it was important to refrain from making any hasty conclusions and politicised statements before the end of the investigation. He said that Russia would help an international inquiry led by the ICAO.[260] By end of July a Duma deputy Ilya Ponomarev said in an interview for German Die Welt that there's no doubts that it was the separatists who shot down the plane by mistake and "Putin now understood that he has passed the weapon to wrong people".[261]

United States President Barack Obama said the United States would help determine the cause.[3] In a press statement, White House spokesman Josh Earnest called for an immediate ceasefire in Ukraine to allow for a full investigation.[262] Vice-President Joe Biden said the plane appeared to have been deliberately shot down, and offered American assistance for the investigation into the crash.[259] American Ambassador to the United Nations Samantha Power called on Russia to end the war.[263] The British government requested an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council and called an emergency Cobra meeting after the incident.[264][265] Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin E. Dempsey has said that instead of backing away from supporting the rebels in the wake of the airline tragedy, Putin had "taken a decision to escalate."[266]

Commenting on the response by the German government to questions about what military intelligence the government has on the downing of MH17, Alexander Neu, New Left Party MP and chairman of the Defence Committee, said, "The federal government has no knowledge of whether MH17 was shot in the Ukraine, and especially of which belligerent shot it down. Thus, there is blame based on wild speculation based on wishful thinking, and above all on political interests hostile to Russia."[267]

Organizations

Commander of the Donbass People's Militia Igor Girkin was quoted as stating that "a significant number of the bodies weren't fresh". He followed up by saying "Ukrainian authorities are capable of any baseness"; and also said that blood serum and medications were found in the plane's remnants in large quantities.[268][269]

The European Union's representatives José Manuel Barroso and Herman Van Rompuy released a joint statement calling for immediate and thorough investigation.[270] The EU officials also said that Ukraine has first claim on the plane's black boxes.[271]

The International Civil Aviation Organization declared that it was sending its team of experts to assist the National Bureau of Air Accidents Investigation of Ukraine (NBAAI), under Article 26 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation.[272] The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 2166 on 21 July, regarding an official crime investigation into the incident. On 24 July 2014 the ICAO issued a State Letter reminding signatory states of their responsibilities with respect to the safety and security of civil aircraft operating in airspace affected by conflict.[273]

A makeshift memorial at the Schiphol Airport for the victims of flight MH17

After the crash, memorial services were held in Australia[274] and in the Netherlands, which declared 23 July, the day when the first victims arrived in the country, a national day of mourning, the first since 1962.[275][276] The opening ceremony of the AIDS 2014 conference, of which several delegates were on board flight MH17, began with a tribute to the victims of the crash.[277] In Malaysia, makeshift memorials were created in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur.[278]

Hacking incident

On March 2016 teenager Cyber Anakin breached the databases of Russian online portal KM.RU and game company Nival Networks to avenge this tragedy.[279]

Russian media coverage

Media coverage of the crash in Russia has differed from coverage in most other countries of the world.[280][281]

On the evening following the crash, the lifenews.ru portal released a statement saying that a "Ukrainian Air Force An-26 transport plane" had been shot down by a missile and crashed.[282] ITAR-TASS and RIA Novosti had also reported that an An-26 had been shot down by the militia (separatists) near Torez at around 16:00 local time.[283][284]

The Russian government-funded[285] outlet RT initially said that the plane may have been shot down by Ukraine in a failed attempt to assassinate Vladimir Putin, in a plot which was organised by Ukraine's "Western backers".[286][287] Other theories propagated by Russian media include: that the Ukrainians shot down the plane in a botched attempt at mass murder of Russian citizens or by mistake (reported twice, in July[288] and in December[289]); that Ukrainian air traffic controllers purposefully redirected the flight to fly over the war zone; and that the Ukrainian government organised the attack on the plane to bring infamy upon the pro-Russian rebels.[290] On 22 July an unnamed American official said that the Russian government was manipulating the media towards Russia's version of the story.[6]

According to the poll conducted by the Levada Center between 18 and 24 July 80% of Russians surveyed believed that the crash of MH17 was caused by the Ukrainian military. Only 3% of respondents to the poll blamed the disaster on pro-Russian separatists in eastern Ukraine.[291][292][293]

Sara Firth, a correspondent with RT, for which she had worked over the previous five years, resigned in protest at the channel's coverage which she described as misinformation.[294] RT said Firth had left to take another job.[295]

On 25 July, the liberal Russian opposition newspaper Novaya Gazeta published a bold headline in Dutch that read "Vergeef ons, Nederland" ("Forgive Us, Netherlands").[296][297]

On 15 November, Russia's Channel One reported on a supposedly leaked spy satellite photo which shows the plane being shot from behind by a Ukrainian fighter jet.[298][299] Many other Russian media reprinted the photo. The authenticity of the photo was quickly debunked by online commentators, using supporting evidence.[300] The photo had been emailed to the Vice-President of the Russian Union of Engineers by a self-described aviation expert who had found it on a Russian online forum.[301] The aviation expert apologised for the use of the information stating that he was unhappy with how it had been used.[301]

In January 2015 the Council of the European Union expressed concern over Russian statements questioning the investigation into the downing of flight MH 17 and emphasised that the investigation "is carried out by a fully independent expert team of international experts in full compliance with ICAO rules and regulations, and calls on all parties to fully cooperate with the investigation."[302]

Maps

Location of crash site; departure and destination airports
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Crash site
Crash site
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Location of departure, crash site and destination
Location of departure and crash site
Amsterdam Airport
Amsterdam Airport
Crash site
Crash site
Location of departure and crash site
Presumed route ending in an area controlled by pro-Russian rebels[66][lower-alpha 8]

See also

Notes

  1. MH is the IATA designator and MAS is the ICAO designator. The flight is also marketed as KLM Flight 4103 (KL4103) through a codeshare agreement.[1]
  2. The aircraft is a Boeing 777-200ER (for Extended Range) model; Boeing assigns a unique customer code for each company that buys one of its aircraft, which is applied as an infix in the model number at the time the aircraft is built. The code for Malaysia Airlines is "H6", hence "777-2H6ER".
  3. Dual Canadian-Romanian citizen boarding with Canadian passport.
  4. Including:
    • 1 dual German-Dutch citizen
  5. 28 passengers and 15 crew
  6. Including:
    • 1 dual Dutch-Belgian citizen;
    • 1 dual Dutch-Israeli citizen;
    • 1 dual Dutch-Italian citizen;
    • 1 dual Dutch-American citizen
  7. Including:
    • 1 dual British-South African citizen; and
    • 1 dual British-New Zealand citizen.
  8. "A United States official said the missile that shot down the plane was launched from a region near the towns of Torez and Snizhne"[263]

References

  1. "Statement Malaysia Airlines MH17". KLM. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Report: MH17 hit by burst of 'high-energy objects' from outside". CNN. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Alexander, Harriet (17 July 2014). "Malaysia Airlines plane crashes on Ukraine-Russia border – live". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Higgins, Andrew; Clark, Nicola (9 September 2014). "Malaysian Jet Over Ukraine Was Downed by 'High-Energy Objects,' Dutch Investigators Say". The New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 "U.S. officials believe attack against Malaysian plane was mistake". Los Angeles Times. 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Greg Miller (22 July 2014), U.S. discloses intelligence on downing of Malaysian jet The Washington Post
  7. Blakkarly, Jarni (May 22, 2016). UPDATE 1-Australian firm names Russia, Putin in MH17 compensation claim -report. Reuters. Retrieved: May 22, 2016.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Weaver, Matthew. "MH17 crash report: Dutch investigators confirm Buk missile hit plane – live updates". the Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Ukraine crisis: Poroshenko offers rebels more autonomy". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Сводки от Стрелкова Игоря Ивановича". VKontakte. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Arthur Bright (17 July 2014). "Web evidence points to pro-Russia rebels in downing of MH17 (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Alec Luhn. "The Guardian 20 July 2014". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Bellingcat MH17 Investigation Team (8 November 2014). "MH17: Source of the Separatists' Buk" (PDF). Bellingcat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Gorchinskaya, Katya; Lavrov, Vlad (9 November 2014). "Journalists find 'solid' Russian ties to missile that hit MH17". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 18 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Tucker, Maxim (22 June 2015). "Meet Eliot Higgins, Putin's MH17 Nemesis". Newsweek. Retrieved 24 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 Sweeney, John (8 September 2014). "MH17 disaster: Russians 'controlled BUK missile system'". BBC News. Retrieved 9 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Bellingcat: New evidence against Russian soldiers on MH17". DW.COM. Retrieved 4 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "bellingcat - The Lost Digit: Buk 3x2 - bellingcat". bellingcat. Retrieved 4 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Yatsenyuk: 'We need to survive first'". Kyiv Post. 22 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "The evidence that may prove pro-Russian separatists shot down MH17". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Ostukraine: BND macht Separatisten für MH17-Absturz verantwortlich". Der Spiegel. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Deadly Ukraine Crash: German Intelligence Claims Pro-Russian Separatists Downed MH17". Der Spiegel. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Kumar, Kalyan (21 October 2014), "MH17 Crash: German Spy Agency Blames Ukraine Rebels And Refutes All Theories Mooted By Ukraine, West and Russia", International Business Times Australia, archived from the original on 13 November 2014, retrieved 21 October 2014 Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. 24.0 24.1 "Malaysia Airlines MH17: Russia rebukes push for UN tribunal". CBC News. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 Michelle Nichols (29 July 2015). "Russia vetoes bid to set up tribunal for downed flight MH17". Reuters.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety Database > Type index > ASN Aviation Safety Database results". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Saturday, July 19, 07:30 pm GMT +0800 Media Statement 7 : MH17 Incident". Malaysia Airlines. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Malaysia Airlines 9M-MRD (Boeing 777 – MSN 28411) | Airfleets aviation". Airfleets.net. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. 30.00 30.01 30.02 30.03 30.04 30.05 30.06 30.07 30.08 30.09 30.10 30.11 30.12 30.13 30.14 30.15 Crash of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 (Report). Dutch Safety Board. 13 October 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Larry Copeland (17 July 2014). "Boeing 777 has excellent track record, experts say". Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "777 Model Orders and Deliveries summary". Boeing. June 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17: Top 5 deadliest airliner shootdowns". Reuters. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Lillebuen, Steve (18 July 2014). "Crash claims top AIDS researchers heading to Melbourne". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Robin, Myriam (23 July 2014). "100 AIDS researchers on MH17? Why and how the media got it wrong". Crikey. Retrieved 23 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Senator Witteveen (PvdA) omgekomen bij crash – Binnenland – VK". De Volkskrant. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "Victorians among those killed in MH17 crash: Premier". Bendigo Advertiser. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "Malaysian actress, Dutch hubby and baby die with MH17". The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "Malaysia Airlines MH17 crash: 20 families gone in one shot". The Straits Times. 21 July 2014. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Miranda, Charles; Wockner, Cindy; McPhedran, Ian; Magnay, Jacquelin (22 July 2014). "MH17 train in Kharkiv as Tony Abbott says MH17 aftermath is evidence tampering on industrial scale". News Corp Australia. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Revealed: Pet dogs and pigeons were among casualties of MH17 as documents show it was carrying everything from fresh cut flowers to helicopter parts". Daily Mail. 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "MH17航班华裔机长父妻均曾就职马航" (Translated article) Note: this translation was made automatically and has low technical quality, lends itself only to specific queries. (Archive). Sina. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  43. "The crew of MH17" (Archive). The Star. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  44. "MH17 crash: Airlines divert flights from eastern Ukraine". BBC. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "U.S. air carriers to avoid Russia-Ukraine border airspace". Reuters. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Whitehead, Tom (17 July 2014). "Air operators belatedly avoid Ukraine war zone". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Absturz von Flug MH17: Lufthansa flog zuletzt 56-mal über Kriegsgebiet". Der Spiegel (in German). 18 July 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "Donetsk militia takes control of Ukrainian anti-air installation". Voice of Russia. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. 49.0 49.1 Ополченцы ДНР взяли под контроль воинскую часть ПВО с зенитно-ракетными комплексами "Бук" (in Russian). Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. Донецкие ополченцы обзавелись зенитно-ракетными комплексами "Бук". NTV News (in Russian). NTV. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Panda, Ankit (17 July 2014). "Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 Shot Down Over Donetsk, Ukraine". The Diplomat. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Ополченцы сообщили, из чего сбили украинский Ан-26". Vzglyad. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. Today the self-defence destroyed An-26 airplane using SAM "9К37М1" (better known as 'Buk') ... said the militia, distributed in social networks [translation after ellipsis from Google translate]<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 Peter Baker (18 July 2014), U.S. Sees Evidence of Russian Links to Jet's Downing The New York Times
  54. "Ukraine conflict: Russia accused of shooting down jet". London: BBC News. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "Russia Rejects 'Absurd' Accusation Over Downed Ukrainian Jet". RFE/RL. Prague: RFE/RL. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. Netherlands knew about dangers of flying over Donbas prior to the MH17 tragedy. Ukrayinska Pravda. 24 January 2015
  57. Vertrouwelijkheid MH17 is onzin. De Telegraaf. 23 January 2015
  58. Communication was lost with the plane AN26 of ATO forces in the Luhansk region. LIGANews. 14 July 2014
  59. In Luhansk Oblast militants downed Ukrainian plane, pilot was ejected – witnesses. Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 14 July 2014
  60. "Polish politics: Where is Radek?". The Economist. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Peter Leonard (17 July 2014). "Ukraine: Air Force jet downed by Russian missile". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 Yuras Karmanau & Peter Leonard (25 July 2014). "What happened? The day Flight 17 was downed". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Daily Telegraph, 14 November 2014,the unlikely pilgrimage site of saur mogila
  64. "17 июля в зону АТО должен был вылететь транспортный Ан-26 с украинскими десантниками" [On 17 July an An-26 transport was to fly with Ukrainian paratroopers] (in Russian). 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Crash of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 (Report). Dutch Safety Board. 13 October 2015. p. 182. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2015. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. 66.0 66.1 "Maps of the Crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17". The New York Times. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Freed, Jamie (20 July 2014). "Ukraine responsible for airspace safety: IATA". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. Tom Whitehead, Nick Collins, Martin Evans (18 July 2014). "MH17 disaster: Flights over war zones 'because it's cheaper". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 July 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "Malaysia Airlines crash: video believed to show moment of plane's impact". The Telegraph. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. Nelson, Sara C (17 July 2014). "Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 'Shot Down in Ukraine Near Russian Border'". The Huffington Post. United Kingdom. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "Maleisisch passagiersvliegtuig in Oekraïne neergestort". De Telegraaf (in Dutch). 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Cahal Milmo (19 July 2014). "Malaysia Airlines MH17 crash: No forensic investigators, co-ordination or body bags as Ukraine locals are left to scour gruesome scene". The Independent. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "MH17 – Ukraine". Eurocontrol. 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "Air India flight with 126 on board was right behind MH 17". The Times of India. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. "Dutch Banks Respond to Reports of MH17 Victims' Looted Credit Cards". NBC News. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. Mendick, Robert; Sawer, Patrick; Ross, Time (19 July 2014). "MH17: Malaysia Airlines crash victims robbed of their dignity by rebels". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Wagner, Meg (18 July 2014). "Heartless looters raid Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 crash site, swipe victims' luggage, personal items". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 20 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. 78.0 78.1 Toby Sterling, "Dutch premier halts search for Ukraine victims," Associated Press, 6 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. Archived 18 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  79. Shaun Walker with Harriet Salem and Josh Halliday, "MH17: world's anger at Russia grows as bodies pile on to train at crash site," The Guardian, 21 July 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  80. 80.0 80.1 "Full transcript: Russian-backed rebels ransack the wreckage of MH17 in shocking 17-minute video". news.com.au. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Jansen, Bart (18 July 2014). "Malaysia will stop using No. 17 next week". USA Today. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "MH17: Malaysia Airlines retires flight number after Ukraine crash". 21 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "Malaysia Airlines Cancels Amsterdam / Paris Routes from late-Jan 2016". Airlineroute.net. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "Malaysia Airlines Shares Tank". Business Insider. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. "Ukraine: missiles that brought down jets may have been fired from Russia". Retrieved 19 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Anthony Deutsch (11 November 2014). "Where are the bodies, MH17 families ask". Reuters. Retrieved 11 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. Wall, Robert (27 August 2015). "Final Report on Downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 Due October". The Wall Street Journal.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. "Onderzoek MH17 niet voor 2016 afgerond" [Research MH17 not completed before 2016]. De Telegraaf. 27 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Lévesque, Julie (3 December 2014). "MH17 investigation – why is Malaysia excluded?". eTN Global Travel Industry News. Retrieved 21 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. "Call for witnesses". Joint Investigation Team. Retrieved 30 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. "Press statement by the Trilateral Contact Group". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. Shaun Walker. "MH17: pro-Russia rebels will allow access to crash site if ceasefire agreed". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. "Malaysia Airlines MH17 black boxes reportedly recovered, Russia denies it will take them from rebels". National Post. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Parker, Andrew; Olearchyk, Roman (21 July 2014). "Netherlands to lead MH17 investigation". Financial Times. Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. Bewerkt door: redactie. "Nederlandse leidersrol krijgt juridische basis −0 Vliegtuigcrash in Oekraïne – VK". De Volkskrant. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. "Dutch Safety Board heads investigation: investigation effort in full swing, black boxes currently being read out" (PDF). onderzoeksraad.nl. Dutch Safety Board, The Hague. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (Archive)
  97. "Investigation crash MH17, 17 July 2014". onderzoeksraad.nl. Dutch Safety Board. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (Archive)
  98. "Investigation crash MH17, 17 July 2014 Donetsk Introduction" (Archive). Dutch Safety Board. Retrieved 2 August 2014. "The Dutch Safety Board was formally informed on the air disaster by its Ukrainian counterpart (NBAAI) on 18 July 2014. The NBAAI also requested the Dutch Safety Board to participate in the international investigation. "
  99. "Розслідування катастрофи літака Boeing 777". NBAAI. 18–25 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. "Investigation crash MH17, 17 July 2014." Dutch Safety Board. Retrieved 22 August 2014. "Ukraine has transferred responsibility for investigating the cause of the crash to the Dutch Safety Board. The request came from Ukraine. This request was made because the flight departed from the Netherlands, and due to the large number of Dutch nationals who died in the crash"
  101. "MH17 plane crash: Dutch experts examine bodies". BBC. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. "MH370 search coordinator to lead Australia's MH17 probe Panel". news.biharprabha.com. Indo-Asian News Service. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. 103.0 103.1 "Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17: British Investigators Join Probe in Ukraine Amid Fears of Evidence Tampering". The Huffington Post. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. "MH17 investigators reach crash site two weeks after plane brought down". The Guardian. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "Summary Report of a Briefing at Civil Service Level". House of Representatives. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Kolyandr, Alexander; Steinhauser, Gabriele (30 July 2014). "Still No Safe Passage to Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Crash Site in Eastern Ukraine". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "21 More MH17 Crash Victims Identified, Experts Leave Site". Outlook India. Press Trust of India. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. "Netherlands deploys more experts to probe MH17 crash". CNN-IBNLive. Press Trust of India. 13 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. "Additional MH17 crash investigators return to Netherlands". Oneindia.in. 20 September 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. "Dutch Experts Help Recover MH17 Crash Items Despite Nearby Clashes". Newsweek. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. "MH17 crash: Dutch salvage team 'unable to start'". BBC. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. "Ukraine crisis: Timeline". BBC. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  113. "MH17: Dutch complete recovery of Malaysia Airlines wreckage in eastern Ukraine". ABC News. Agence France-Presse. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  114. "Grim homecoming tests new morgue". Law Institute Journal. Law Institute of Victoria. December 2014. Unknown parameter |registration= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. "Bodies of MH17 victims 'contain missile fragments', SBU says". Ukraine Today. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2015. Some of the bodies of the passengers of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17, which crashed in Donetsk on July 17, contain metal fragments that indicate the plane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile, Ukraine's SBU security service said on Friday<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. "Dutch investigation concludes MH17 downed by Buk missile from Russian battery". Archived from the original on 19 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  117. Lanting, Bert; Visser, Jeroen (30 March 2015). "BUK-raket MH17 was afkomstig uit Rusland". De Volkskrant (in Dutch).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. Dearden, Lizzie (11 August 2015). "MH17 crash: Investigators find possible parts of BUK missile used to shoot plane down". The Independent. Retrieved 11 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. Parket, Landelijk. "Investigation into possible Buk-missile-parts". Openbaar Ministerie (Dutch public prosecution service). Retrieved 11 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  120. 120.0 120.1 120.2 120.3 "MH17 report: Five key findings from the Dutch Safety Board". BBC News. Retrieved 13 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  121. "MH17 Ukraine disaster: Dutch report blames missile". BBC News. Retrieved 13 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. Landay, Jonathan S. "WASHINGTON: U.S. officials still don't know who shot down Malaysian airliner | World". The Bellingham Herald. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  123. "Militants admit to shooting down MH17 – reports". ONE News. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  124. Demirjian, Karoun. "Watch: Ukraine's pro-Russian rebels discuss MH17′s black box in secret recording". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  125. Ensor, Josie (19 July 2014). "MH17: what we know two days after Malaysia Airlines crash over Ukraine". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  126. Thijssen, Wil (19 July 2014). "De bewijsstukken: Wie schoot MH17 neer?". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 19 July 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. 127.0 127.1 Vartabedian, Ralph; Hennigan, W.J. (17 July 2014). "High-tech spycraft tracked missile's path to Malaysia Airlines jet". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  128. 128.0 128.1 Robert Mendick (27 July 2014) MH17: why the culprits may never be caught The Daily Telegraph
  129. 129.0 129.1 "MH17 likely shot down by mistake by Russian separatists, US intelligence official says". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 23 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  130. "SBU releases more conversations implicating Russia in shooting down Malaysia Airlines flight (VIDEO, TRANSCRIPT)". Kyiv Post. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  131. "Wreckage Offers Clues on Why Flight 17 Went Down". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  132. Rose Powell (22 July 2014). "Photo of MH17 wreckage proves missile attack, claims report". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  133. Catherine A. Fitzpatrick (27 July 2014). "Evidence of Separatists' Possession of Buk System Before Downing of MH17". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 25 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  134. 134.0 134.1 Catherine A. Fitzpatrick (13 August 2014). "Novaya Gazeta Editor: Boroday Called Moscow Press About Downing of Civilian Airliner". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 25 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  135. Rick Feneley. "Attack on Flight MH17: After the tragedy, the accusations rain down". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  136. "MH17: Ultimate responsibility lies with Putin". The Age. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  137. "Web evidence points to pro-Russia rebels in downing of MH17 (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  138. 138.0 138.1 Walker, Shaun. "Ukrainians report sightings of missile launcher on day of MH17 crash". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  139. Polityuk, Pavel; Piper, Elizabeth (19 July 2014). Ireland, Louise (ed.). "Ukraine says has 'compelling evidence' Russian crew shot down Malaysian plane". Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  140. "Ракетним комплексом "Бук", який збив Boeing-777 керували росіяни, – СБУ (Missile complex "BUK", that shot Boeing-777 was managed by Russian citizens) – Espreso.tv (leading Ukrainian news agency)". Espreso.tv. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  141. Schofield, Matthew. "Ukraine video claims proof of Russia-supplied anti-aircraft system". Mcclatchydc.com. Retrieved 20 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  142. Gregory, Paul Roderick (18 July 2014). "Smoking Guns: Russian Separatists Shot Down Malaysian Flight MH17; Putin Must Be Held Responsible". Forbes.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  143. Gregory, Paul Roderick (19 July 2014). "Here Are The Intercepted Transcripts Indicating Russian Rebels Shot Down Malaysian Flight MH17". Forbes. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  144. "Бес отверг обвинения в уничтожении "Боинга"". Lenta.ru. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  145. "MH17 Malaysia plane crash in Ukraine: What we know". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  146. Leonard, Peter; Chernov, Mstyslav. "Both sides in Ukraine deny shooting down plane". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  147. "Malaysian plane was shot down by rebels, intercepted phone calls prove, Ukraine's president says". National Post. Associated Press via Postmedia Network. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  148. "The Guardian 29 July 2014". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  149. "Separatists planned terrorist attacks against Aeroflot aircraft on day of MH17 crash as pretext for Russian invasion into Ukraine- SBU chief", Radio Ukraine International, 7 August 2014, archived from the original on 29 November 2014, retrieved 21 November 2014 Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  150. Dolgov, Anna (8 August 2014). "Ukraine Says Rebels Mistook Doomed Flight MH17 for Aeroflot Plane". Moscow Times. Retrieved 21 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  151. "Terrorists and militants planned cynical terrorist attack at Aeroflot civil aircraft", Security Service of Ukraine, 7 August 2014, retrieved 7 June 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  152. Cremonesi, Lorenzo (22 July 2014). "Così è stato colpito l'aereo" [So the plane was struck]. Corriere de la Serra (in Italian). Retrieved 22 July 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  153. Konrad Schuller (22 July 2014). "Separatisten am Abschussort sollten Piloten festnehmen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 2 October 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  154. Stewart, Phil; Hosenball, Mark (19 July 2014). "U.S scrambles to determine who fired Russian-made missile at jet". Reuters. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  155. M.J.S. (18 July 2014). "Flight MH17: The Evidence". The Economist. Retrieved 17 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  156. Ishaan Tharoor – The evidence that may prove pro-Russian separatists shot down MH17 – The Washington Post – 20 July 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  157. 157.0 157.1 "Australia says all MH17 bodies should be retrieved from crash site within days". The Guardian. Australian Associated Press. Retrieved 4 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  158. Paul McGeough (14 June 2012). "Ukraine war zone tempers Federal Police attempts to access MH17 crash site". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  159. "Britain says highly likely MH17 shot down by Russian-supplied missile". Reuters. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  160. "US Claims of Flight MH17 Downing by Militia Remain Unfounded – Russia's Defense Ministry". RIA Novosti. 24 July 2014. The United States has not yet provided any documented evidence to prove that the rocket that brought down the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 was launched from militia-controlled territory, Russian Deputy Defence Minister Anatoly Antonov said Thursday.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  161. Hartmann, Margaret (22 July 2014), "Russia's 'Conspiracy Theory': MH17 Shot Down by Ukrainian Fighter Jet or Missile", New York, retrieved 20 September 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  162. Razumovskaya, Olga (21 July 2014), "Russia Presents Its Account of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Crash", The Wall Street Journal, retrieved 20 September 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  163. "Ukrainian Su-25 fighter detected in close approach to MH17 before crash – Moscow". RT. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  164. Razumovskaya, Olga (22 July 2014). "Russia Presents Its Account of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Crash". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  165. "General designer of Su-25 says aircraft couldn't have shot down MH17". Ukraine Today. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  166. "MH17-Absturz kontert Kritik mit neuen Satellitenbildern". De Zeit (in German). 12 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  167. Anton Zverev (23 July 2014). "Ukraine rebel commander acknowledges fighters had BUK missile". Reuters.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  168. Shaun Walker in Donetsk. "MH17: Ukraine separatist commander 'admits' rebels had Buk missile system". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  169. Buckley, Neil (4 July 2014). "Separatist leader admits Ukraine rebels held Buk missile system". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  170. Walker, Shaun. "MH17: Ukraine separatist commander 'admits' rebels had Buk missile system". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  171. Lanting, Bert (4 November 2014). "Wij hadden raket, maar haalden MH17 niet neer" (in Dutch). de Volkskrant. Retrieved 4 November 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  172. Natasha Culzac (28 July 2014). "MH17 crash: Black boxes show plane suffered 'massive explosive decompression' following shrapnel hit – Europe – World". The Independent. Retrieved 28 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  173. "Is The MH17 Joint Investigation Team Avoiding The Question of Kremlin Guilt?". Forbes. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  174. Ostanin, Iggy (8 September 2014). "Images Show the Buk that Downed Flight MH17, Inside Russia, Controlled by Russian Troops". Bellingcat. Retrieved 9 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  175. "Germany says Ukraine rebels downed MH17 with seized missiles: report". Agence France-Presse. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> "He also said Ukrainian photos had been "manipulated", the magazine reported but did not elaborate on what the pictures showed, who had provided them or altered them."
  176. "Ooggetuige MH17: 'Mijn doel is rechtvaardigheid'" [Eyewitness of MH17: "My goal is justice"]. RTL News (in Dutch). 22 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  177. "New Competing Claims on Downing of MH17". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 24 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  178. "Глава ДНР о крушении MH17: "Я видел, как это происходило"" [Head of the DPR about the crash of MH17: "I saw how it happened"]. RIA News (in Russian). 25 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  179. "Kremlin-backed insurgent leader claims personally witnessing Ukrainian aircraft shooting down MH17". Ukraine Today. 25 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  180. Tucker, Maxim (10 January 2015). "New report says it proves Russian forces downed flight MH17". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 9 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  181. Robert Coalson (13 May 2015). "Evidence mounts that Russia supplied the missiles that shot down MH17 in Ukraine". Business Insider. Retrieved 13 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  182. Anton Zverev. "Exclusive: From 'Red October' village, new evidence on downing of Malaysian plane over Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 12 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  183. "Evidence proving that flight MH-17 was taken down by a BUK missile". RTL Nieuws. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  184. "MH17 crash: My revealing fragments from east Ukraine". BBC News. Retrieved 17 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  185. "Reaction to Dutch broadcast RTL News about MH17 investigation". Investigation crash MH17, 17 July 2014. Dutch Safety Board. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  186. "Это был "Бук-М1"". Novaya Gazeta. 5 May 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  187. Nick Miller (2 June 2015). "MH17 plane was shot down by a Buk missile, Russian weapons manufacturer says".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  188. "СБУ: Новые "доказательства" крушения Boeing на Донбассе основаны на фейковых снимках" [SBU called the Russian analysis on Boeing based on fake photos]. StopFake.org. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  189. Lukashevich, Vadim (6 May 2015). "Я не увидел в этом докладе экспертов ВПК". Авиационный эксперт Лукашевич о том, кто и зачем готовил документ, раздобытый "Новой газетой" ["I haven't seen military experts in that report", aviation expert Lukashevich who and why published the report leaked by Novaya Gazeta]. TV Rain. Retrieved 6 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  190. "ЗМІ: Російські експерти в секретній доповіді підтвердили, що Боїнг збили з "Бука"" [Media: Russian experts confirmed in secret report, that Boeing was shot from "Buk"]. Ukrainska Pravda. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  191. Solonin, Mark (12 May 2015). "Сверим траектории". Novaya Gazeta.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  192. "There Was No Buk in Our Field". The Interpreter. Retrieved 11 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  193. "На нашем поле "Бука" не было. Ни следа – ни от гусениц, ни от велосипеда". Retrieved 8 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  194. Röpcke, Julian (8 May 2015). "BILD entlarvt falsche Satellitenaufnahme". Bild (in German). Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  195. "MH17 – Forensic Analysis of Satellite Images Released by the Russian Ministry of Defence". Bellingcat. 31 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  196. Dillon, Conor (1 June 2015). "Forensic report: Russia faked MH17 satellite photos". Deutsche Welle.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  197. "Examining the Evidence of Russia's Involvement in a Malaysia Airlines Crash". Stratfor. Retrieved 16 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  198. "Official: 181 bodies found at MH17 crash site". The Hindu. Associated Press. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  199. "Raw: Crews begin moving bodies at jet crash site". USA Today. Associated Press. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  200. Miller, Nick (19 July 2014). "MH17: 'Unknown groups' use body bags". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  201. Grytsenko, Oksana. "MH17: armed rebels fuel chaos as rotting corpses pile up on the roadside". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  202. "Rutte geschokt over 'respectloos gedrag' op rampplek" (in Dutch). Nu.nl. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  203. Laura de Jong (21 July 2014). "Rutte: 'Zorgvuldiger met lichamen omgegaan dan werd gevreesd'". de Volkskrant (in Dutch).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  204. Sonne, Paul; Alexander Kolyandr, Margaret Coker (20 July 2014). "Bodies Removed From MH17 Crash Site Human Remains Moved to Railcars at Torez Station". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  205. "MH17 plane crash: Dutch experts examine bodies". BBC. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  206. "MH17 plane crash: Train with bodies leaves Ukraine station". BBC News. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  207. Marlow, Iain (21 July 2014). "MH17: Malaysia reaches 'behind the scenes' deal to recover bodies". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  208. "Obama calls for Russia 'pivot' on Ukraine as MH17 investigation begins". Al Jazeera. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  209. "Netherlands to coordinate MH17 victim identification efforts | Business Standard News". Business Standard. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  210. "MH17: Tony Abbott announces Operation Bring Them Home to secure and identify victims of Malaysia Airlines disaster – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  211. Higgins, Andrew (22 July 2014). "Bodies of Crash Victims Safely Moved Out of Combat Area". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  212. "MH17 bodies leave Ukraine rebel area and reach Kharkiv". BBC News. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  213. "Hilversum treft voorbereidingen voor lichamen MH17". Nieuws.nl. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  214. McGeough, Paul (23 July 2014). "MH17 crash: families' worst fears realised as bodies go missing". The Age. Retrieved 23 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  215. Heather Saul (23 July 2014). "MH17 crash victims: First bodies arrive in Netherlands from Ukraine". The Independent.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  216. "Weer 74 kisten naar Hilversum". NOS (Nederlandse Omroep Stichting). 24 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  217. Parfitt, Tom (1 August 2014). "Dutch and Australian police to use drones, divers and sniffer dogs in perilous search for victims". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 3 August 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  218. "MH17 investigators frustrated at limited access due to fighting,". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  219. Helen Davidson and agencies (6 August 2014). "MH17 crash: search for remains halted as Australia begins day of mourning". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  220. "MH17 bodies arrive in Malaysia". Agence France-Presse in Kuala Lumpur. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  221. TheStar (22 August 2014). "MH17 day of mourning: White hearses arrive at KLIA".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  222. Grindstad, Ingrid (5 December 2014). "Six MH17 victims remain unidentified". NL Times. Retrieved 6 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  223. Anthony Deutsch (2 February 2015). "Dutch search team recovers remains, MH17 wreckage in Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 16 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  224. 224.0 224.1 "Dutch investigators recover human remains from MH17 crash site". Agence France-Presse. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  225. "Preliminary report – Crash involving Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777-200 flight MH17" (PDF), DSB, 17 July 2014, retrieved 24 September 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  226. Prof. mr. dr. Erwin Muller. "Investigation crash MH17, 17 July 2014 Donetsk". Dutch Safety Board. Onderzoeksraad voor Veiligheid. Retrieved 14 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  227. "Dutch board says Russian-made missile downed MH17". 13 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  228. Mu Xuequan, ed. (15 August 2014), MH17 criminal investigation largest ever in the Netherlands, Xinhua News Agency, retrieved 27 October 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  229. MH17 crash: Investigation focuses on '25 metal shards', BBC News, 12 September 2014, retrieved 27 October 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  230. 230.0 230.1 "MH17: Malaysia accepted as full member of probe team". The Star. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  231. "Speculation on MH17 is damaging to investigations". Free Malaysia Today. Bernama. 22 November 2014. Retrieved 22 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  232. van Oosterom, Karel J.G (16 December 2014). "Letter to President of the UNSC" (PDF). Retrieved 21 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  233. "US Submits Classified Information on MH17 to Investigators: State Dep't". Sputnik. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  234. MH17 Politie [Police] International Joint Investigation Team
  235. van der Graaf, Jolande (9 April 2015). "Tientallen bruikbare tips over MH17" [Dozens of useful tips about MH17]. De Telegraaf (in Dutch). Retrieved 17 June 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  236. Van Jaarsveldt, Janene (9 April 2015). "Hundreds respond to call for MH17 witnesses". NL Times. Retrieved 17 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  237. "Examining the Evidence of Russia's Involvement in a Malaysia Airlines Crash". Stratfor. Retrieved 13 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  238. "The image Russia doesn't want the world to see". NewsComAu. Retrieved 16 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  239. "Wat we niet mogen zien: 147 documenten MH17 blijven geheim". RTL Nieuws. Retrieved 30 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  240. Deutsch, Anthony (23 June 2015). "Exclusive: International tribunal looks like best chance for MH17 justice – Dutch sources". Reuters. Retrieved 25 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  241. "Russia rejects calls for UN tribunal to prosecute MH17 suspects". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  242. Edith M. Lederer (20 July 2015). "Russia's UN Draft on MH17 Crash Doesn't Call for Tribunal". Associated Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  243. "MH17 crash: Victims' families sue Putin and Russia". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  244. "Malaysia Airlines crash: President Poroshenko calls shooting down of Malaysian plane an 'act of terrorism'". The Daily Telegraph. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  245. "Malaysia to Work with Russia, Ukrainian Governments on MH17". English.cri.cn. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  246. "Malaysian PM Demands Swift Justice if Plane Was Shot Down". Voice of America. Reuters. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  247. Yong Yen Nie (18 July 2014). "Malaysia Airlines MH17 crash: Flags to fly at half-mast over next three days, says Najib". Straits Times Asia Report. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  248. "Verklaring premier Rutte over crash MH17 | Binnenland". De Telegraaf (in Dutch). Retrieved 17 July 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  249. "Statement of His Majesty King Willem-Alexander on Malaysian flight MH17". Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  250. "Timmermans mee met onderzoekers naar Oekraïne". ANP (in Dutch). 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  251. Novum (17 July 2014). "Vlaggen overheidsgebouwen halfstok na vliegramp" (in Dutch). Nieuws.nl. Retrieved 17 July 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  252. Novum (18 July 2014). "Vierdaagse Nijmegen: muziek geschrapt wegens vliegramp" (in Dutch). nieuws.nl. Retrieved 18 July 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  253. Thomas Escritt, Angus MacSwan (21 July 2014). "Netherlands opens war crimes investigation into airliner downing". Yahoo! News.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  254. 254.0 254.1 Maiden, Samantha (19 July 2014). "MH17: Russia says Tony Abbott 'operating only on speculation' in his tough stance over separatist involvement in plane tragedy". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  255. "Malaysia Airlines MH17: Russia says Tony Abbott's comments blaming separatists are 'unacceptable', Julie Bishop criticises Moscow for lack of talks – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  256. "MH17: Prime Minister Tony Abbott hits out at 'shambolic' recovery effort; Government considers listing outrage as terrorist act; rebels move bodies to refrigerated train – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  257. Sabra Lane (13 October 2014). "Tony Abbott promises to 'shirtfront' Putin at G20 Summit". 7:30. Retrieved 14 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  258. Путин: за авиакатастрофу несет ответственность Украина (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. "Безусловно, государство, над территорией которого это произошло, несет ответственность за эту страшную трагедию", – сказал глава РФ Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  259. 259.0 259.1 "Joe Biden: Malaysia Airlines flight 'apparently' shot down". MSNBC. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  260. "Malaysia Airlines MH17 plane crash in Ukraine LIVE UPDATES". RT. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  261. Silke Mülherr und Inga Pylypchuk (26 July 2014). "Putin realisiert, dass er die Falschen bewaffnete". Die Welt. Retrieved 1 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  262. Mason, Jeff; Holland, Steve (18 July 2014). "White House urges Ukraine ceasefire for plane probe, Obama talks to Putin". Reuters. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  263. 263.0 263.1 Shear, Michael D.; Sengupta, Somini; Tavernise, Sabrina (18 July 2014). "Obama Points to Pro-Russia Separatists in Downing of Malaysia Airlines Plane". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  264. Leonard, Peter. "Ukraine: 295 on Malaysia plane shot down over east". Associated Press. The Big Story. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  265. "MH17 plane crash: David Cameron urges those responsible for downing jet to be 'held to account'". The Daily Telegraph. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  266. David M. Herszenhorn (25 July 2014), Russia Steps Up Help for Rebels in Ukraine War, The New York Times.
  267. Leurs, Rainer (7 September 2014), "Bundesregierung zu Flug MH17: Keine "gesicherten Erkenntnisse" über Abschuss", Der Spiegel (in German), retrieved 20 September 2014CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  268. "Rebel leader gives bizarre account of plane crash". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  269. Игорь Стрелков (18 July 2014). Игорь Стрелков: часть людей из Боинга умерли за несколько суток до катастрофы (in Russian). RusVesna. Retrieved 19 July 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  270. "EUROPA PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Joint statement by the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso, and the President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, on the crash of the Malaysian airliner in Ukraine". Europa (web portal). 13 May 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  271. "Malaysian plane MH17 crash investigators face struggle : Asia, News". India Today. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  272. "Ukraine Requests ICAO Assistance in MH17 Accident Investigation". ICAO. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  273. "ICAO Clarifies State Responsibilities Arising from Conflict Zones". ICAO. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  274. "Australia mourns MH17 victims at memorial service". ITV News. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  275. "Woensdag 23 juli dag van nationale rouw | nu.nl/binnenland | Het laatste nieuws het eerst op". Nu.nl. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  276. "Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17: Netherlands Declares National Day of Mourning For MH17 Victims". International Business Times. 20 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  277. Jahshan, Elias (20 July 2014). "AIDS 2014 opening ceremony tinged with sombre mood". Star Observer. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  278. Leyl, Sharanjit (21 July 2014). "MH17 crash: Malaysians mourn at makeshift memorials". BBC News. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  279. "A Teen Hacker Is Targeting Russian Sites as Revenge for the MH17 Crash".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  280. Adamczyk, Ed (22 July 2014). "Russia offers alternate scenarios for Malaysia Airlines crash". United Press International. Retrieved 2 November 2014. Russian media offers explanations conflicting with the information provided by the rest of the world.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  281. Ioffe, Julia (20 July 2014). "The Russian Public Has a Totally Different Understanding of What Happened to Malaysia Airlines Flight 17: And it's more of a problem than you think". New Republic. Retrieved 21 July 2014. The picture of the catastrophe that the Russian people are seeing on their television screens is very different from that on screens in much of the rest of the world, and the discrepancy does not bode well for a sane resolution to this stand-off<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  282. Ополченцы сообщили о сбитом Ан-26 на востоке Украины (in Russian). 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. On July 17 near the village of Rassypnoye over the Torez city in Donetsk region an An-26 transport plane of Ukrainian Air Force was taken down, said the militia. According to them, the plane crashed somewhere near the "Progress" mine, away from residential areas. According to one of the militias, at about 17:30 local time an An-26 flew over the city. It was hit by a rocket, there was an explosion and the plane went to the ground, leaving a black smoke. Debris fell from the skyCS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  283. "Donetsk People's Republic militia downs another Ukraine's An-26 plane – eyewitnesses". Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. 17 July 2014. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  284. "Транспортный Ан-26 сбит на востоке Украины, заявили очевидцы". ria.ru. RIA Novosti. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  285. Squires, Nick (18 July 2014). "British journalist working for Russian TV resigns over bias in Ukraine MH17 coverage". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  286. Radziwinowicz, Wacław (18 July 2014). "'Zamach na Putina', 'Ile odszkodowań zapłacą Ukraińcy' i zmiany w Wikipedii. Ofensywa propagandowa Moskwy". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Retrieved 19 July 2014. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  287. Szoldra, Paul (18 July 2014). "Here's The Ridiculous Way Russia's Propaganda Channel Is Covering The Malaysia Airlines Crash". Business Insider.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  288. "German media published a shock confessions of pilots Ukraine on Su-25 in day when MH17 got disaster". LiveLeak. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  289. "MH17: Russia reveals 'witness' who blames Ukraine pilot". BBC. 24 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  290. Mills, Laura (22 July 2014). "Russians Fed Conspiracy Theories on Ukraine Crash". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  291. "Катастрофа "Боинга" под Донецком". Levada.ru. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  292. Luhn, Alec. "MH17: vast majority of Russians believe Ukraine downed plane, poll finds". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  293. "More Than 80% of Russians Blame Ukrainian Army for MH17 Crash". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 8 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  294. "MH17 fallout: Russian reporter Sara Firth quits over Ukraine 'lies'". News.com.au. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  295. "Russia Today reporter resigns in protest at MH17 coverage". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  296. "Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta prints front-page apology for MH17 disaster in Dutch". News.com.au. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  297. Groll, Elias (25 July 2014). "Russian Paper Issues Front Page Apology to Netherlands for MH17". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 25 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  298. "Снимок малайзийского "Боинга", сбитого под Донецком, обсуждают во всем мире". Channel One Russia. 15 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  299. "Russia's Channel One show satellite photo evidencing MH17 was downed by fighter jet", TASS, 14 November 2014, retrieved 15 November 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  300. Miller, Nick (15 November 2014). "'Sensational' Russian photo of MH17 being shot debunked by citizen journalist group". The Age. Retrieved 15 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  301. 301.0 301.1 Seddon, Max (15 November 2014), "Russian TV Airs Clearly Fake Image To Claim Ukraine Shot Down MH17", BuzzFeed, retrieved 15 October 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  302. "Council conclusions on Ukraine". Council of the European Union. 29 January 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015. The Council notes with concern recent Russian statements questioning the investigation into the downing of flight MH 17. The Council emphasises that this investigation is carried out by a fully independent expert team of international experts in full compliance with ICAO rules and regulations, and calls on all parties to fully cooperate with the investigation<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links