Model United Nations

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Model United Nations in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Turkish International Model United Nations in Istanbul, Turkey

Model United Nations, also known as Model UN or MUN, is an educational simulation and/or academic competition in which students can learn about diplomacy, international relations, and the United Nations. MUN involves and teaches researching, public speaking, debating, and writing skills, in addition to critical thinking, teamwork, and leadership abilities.[1][2] Usually an extracurricular activity, some schools also offer MUN as a class.[3]

Participants in Model UN conferences, known as delegates, are placed in committees and assigned countries, or occasionally other organizations or political figures, where they represent members of that body. They are presented with their assignments in advance, along with a topic or topics that their committee will discuss. Delegates conduct research before conferences and formulate positions that they will then debate with their fellow delegates in the committee, staying true to the actual position of the member they represent.[4] At the end of a conference, the best-performing delegates in each committee, as well as delegations, are sometimes recognized with awards.

Model UN participants include students at middle school, high school, and college/university levels, with most conferences catering to just one of these three levels (high school and college conferences being most common).[5] Delegates usually attend conferences together as delegations sent by their respective schools' or universities' Model UN clubs, though some delegates attend conferences independently.[6]


Model UN began as a series of student-led Model League of Nations simulations. It is believed that the first Model League of Nations conferences were held in the 1920s, before transitioning to Model UN after the formation of the League's successor organization, the United Nations, in 1945.[7] Today, some Model UN conferences include simulations of the League of Nations among their committee offerings.

It is disputed which conference was the first Model UN conference held in the world, with the major claimants being Berkeley Model United Nations (BMUN),[8][9] Harvard Model United Nations (HMUN), and National Model United Nations (NMUN NY). However, it is clear that the first was held some time in the early 1950s.[10][11]

In recent decades, Model UN has spread to East and South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa, with major conference organizers such as Harvard and THIMUN establishing additional conferences in these regions to meet burgeoning demand.[12] The Ivy League Model United Nations, an arm of the Model UN at the University of Pennsylvania, hosts conferences for high-school-aged delegates in India and China, as well.[13][14]


Delegates negotiating during an unmoderated caucus

In order to maintain decorum, most Model UN committees use parliamentary procedure derived from Robert's Rules of Order. However most crisis committees forgo the formality of parliamentary procedure so as to ensure smoother operation. In addition, recently the United Nations has spearheaded efforts to introduce new Model UN rules of procedure that are more closely aligned with those used by the actual UN.[15][16][17][18] Since there is no governing body for MUNs, each conference differs in the rules of procedure. The following rules of procedure apply to general MUNs but may not apply to every MUN:

MUNs are run by a group of administrators known as the dais. A dais is headed by a Secretary-General. Each committee usually has a chair (also known as moderator), a member of the dais that enforces the rules of procedure. A delegate may request the committee as a whole to perform a particular action; this is known as a motion. Documents aiming to address the issue of the committee are known as resolutions and are voted for ratification.[19]

MUN committees can be divided into three general sessions: formal debate, moderated caucus, and unmoderated caucus. In a formal debate, the staff maintains a list of speakers and the delegates follow the order written on the 'speaker list'. Speakers may be added to the speaker list by raising their placards or sending a note to the chair. During this time, delegates talk to the entire committee. They make speeches, answer questions, and debate on resolutions and amendments. If there are no other motions, the committee goes back to formal debate by default. There is usually a time limit. In a moderated caucus, the committee goes into a recess and the rules of procedure are suspended. Anyone may speak if recognized by the chair. A vote on a motion is necessary to go into a moderated caucus. There is a comparatively shorter time limit per speech. In an unmoderated caucus, the delegates informally meet with other delegates and the staff for discussions.[18][20]

Resolutions are the basis of all debate.[21] They are considered the final results of conversations, writings, and negotiations. Resolutions must go through a draft, approval by the dais, and consequent debate and modification.[22]


Placard for the United Kingdom in Spanish at the International Model United Nations of Buenos Aires (MINUBA) in Argentina

Traditionally, English has been the official and working language of most conferences, but, as Model UN has become more popular around the world, and as conferences in countries such as the United States have sought to appeal to underrepresented minorities (such as the Spanish-speaking community), committees using languages other than English, or which are bilingual, have become common.[23] It should be noted, however, that this is still not yet a mainstream phenomenon, especially not in the United States, where most bilingual or Spanish language committees are found at conferences hosted in Puerto Rico or the South.[24] Certain conferences will sometimes have selected committees run in languages related to their topics: for example, some Middle Eastern committees may be run in Arabic.[citation needed]


Nearly all Model UN conferences require delegates to wear Western business attire (WBA), as dressing professionally is an important way to show respect for the nation, organization, or individual one is representing, as well as for the rest of one’s committee.[25] At some conferences delegates may be allowed to dress in a manner that reflects their committee and topic or their assigned nation, organization, or individual (provided their portrayals are accurate and appropriate), however this is less common.


General Assembly delegates at Model United Nations Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart, Germany

The number of possible committees in Model UN is very large, limited only by the creativity and vision of conference organizers. In spite of differences in type and topic, most all committees share a few common characteristics. An example of this would be a dais (also known as a committee staff), which facilitates the smooth running of a committee. A dais is headed by a chair and/or director who presides over the committee, maintaining decorum, ensuring delegates follow the established procedures in committee, and guiding delegates through the resolution or directive-writing process. Another example of a common characteristic would be note passing, which allows delegates to discreetly communicate with one another and the dais during debate.[citation needed] Committees in Model United Nations can be divided into a variety of categories, based on

  • how they are run (traditional committees and crisis committees),
  • when they occur (historical, contemporary, and futuristic committees),
  • whether or not they are based on the real world (realistic and fantastical committees),
  • who the principal actors are (countries, country subdivisions, organizations, or individuals),
  • their powers (executive, legislative, judicial, etc.), and
  • their area of focus (political, economic, social, etc.)
  • their size (large, medium, small, etc.)

Committees at Model UN conferences can simulate a variety of bodies. From the more commonly simulated six main committees of the United Nations General Assembly and the UN Security Council, to corporate executive boards and national cabinets, Model UN committees reflect the diversity of the delegates who participate in them.[citation needed]

Model United Nations committees may be modern, historical, futuristic, or fantastical.

A special committee that does not have a parallel in the actual United Nations which deals with a crisis is known as a 'Crisis Committee.'[26] In this committee, a crisis is given to a team of students and the teams must come up with solutions.[27] The Crisis Committee focuses on a single historical event. The event may be fictional or non-fictional.[26]


MUNs are usually organized by high school clubs or college clubs.[28] Organizations that coordinate MUNs such as the United Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA) are considered important organizing forces.[29]

Model UN by region and country

Although Model United Nations originated in the United States, MUN clubs and conferences are not isolated to that country. Rather, like the actual UN, Model UN is found in countries around the globe.[30] Because Model UN is decentralized and has grown autonomously around the world, there are significant differences in how MUN is done between regions.[31]

The Americas


Several MUN conferences are held annually in Brazil. These include Brazil Model United Nations (BRAMUN), a week-long conference which has an annual average of approximately 700 participants from many nations. São Paulo Model United Nations (SPMUN) is a smaller conference held over a weekend in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Finally, MiniMUN is held at St. Paul's School, in São Paulo, annually, lasting for only one day with approximately 100 participants.[citation needed]

United States

MUN at Otterbein University in Westerville, Ohio

Model UN was first developed in the United States and it is where many of the world's most respected conferences are held. The United States has several regional centers of Model UN,[32] including the East Coast (Northeast), the West Coast (California), the Midwest, the South, and Puerto Rico.[30]


Uruguay hosts THIMUN Latin America, a week-long conference that saw its inaugural conference in 2014. It is held annually at the British School of Montevideo, and hosts several hundred high school students from the region.[citation needed]


Mexico is one of the Latin American countries that do Middle School, High School and University Model UN. There are several international conferences inside the country, like MEXMUN in Mexico City, LAMUN in Puebla and IMMUNS in Monterrey. While there are many important conferences in Mexico City, Mexican Model UN is highlighted in Monterrey, a more "Americanized" city in the North of the country, where more than 20 conferences are held every year.[citation needed]


The Netherlands

MUN in the Netherlands is almost entirely related to The Hague International Model United Nations (THIMUN) conference, which includes over 3500 participants coming from around 200 schools and 100 different countries.[33] Although it is not located near the United-Nations Headquarters in New-York, it is one of the pioneer MUN conferences in the world, since it has been founded in 1968 and located in the International Court of Justice's (ICJ) world city of the Hague. A whole network of conferences is marked by its THIMUN affiliation, a label which basically describes the universality of the procedures that rule the conference and make it part of the UN recognized foundation. In 1995 the THIMUN Foundation was accredited as a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) associated with the United Nations Department of Public Information.[34] Also, the THIMUN has established its own conferences' network throughout time: THIMUN Qatar, THIMUN Singapore, THIMUN Online MUN (O-MUN) and THIMUN Latin America conferences have been set up from 2005.[35]

United Kingdom

Model United Nations is a huge event in the UK particularly at University level, with the larger University conferences including, London (LIMUN), Manchester (MANMUN), Oxford (OXIMUN) and Reading (RUMUN). Reading University Model United Nations is attended by over 200 delegates from both national and international societies, with links to other universities in Belgium, Germany, France, Russia.


Model United Nations is gating popularity as the event is held in both Dublin and Cork city.


Model United Nations is quite popular in Germany, with numerous conferences held each year at high school and college level.[36] Most conferences use English as their working language, though there are also bilingual conferences and committees.


Skagerrak and Nesbru Model United Nations (SANMUN) was first organised in 2005 and has been the largest MUN conference in Scandinavia.[citation needed] Particularly high schools with International Baccalaureate are active in MUN.


Although quite uncommon, some schools now host MUN clubs and meetings. Most notable examples are ILYMUN (International Lyon MUN), in Lyon, hosted by the Cité Scolaire Internationale and the International School of Lyon, and INOMUN (International Nord MUN) in Northern France.


Model United Nations in Spain is becoming popular since 10 years ago, when the first model was held in Barcelona. Since then, various MUN conferences appeared alongside the Spanish territory, being the Universidad Carlos III Model United Nations (UC3MUN) the biggest at the moment, with over 400 participants. As well, SEK International Schools has implemented its own MUN, named after SEKMUN that holds conferences in March for undergraduate students.



Model United Nations conferences in Australia are typically separated into tertiary and high school levels. At the high school level, the large majority of Model United Nations events are organised by the various state and territory branches of UN Youth Australia,[37] or by the many branches of Rotary Australia.[38] Tertiary events, typically running for three to four days, occur within several Australian states, and are timed to coincide with holiday periods in tertiary semesters.


Model United Nations is practiced in Bangladesh since 2002. The first MUN to take place was the Model United Nations on Combating Terrorism - Bangladesh Model United Nations 2002.[39][40] Since then, plenty of MUN conferences have been held in the country. But the concept of MUN became a popular one in Bangladesh from 2013.[41]

United Nations Youth and Students Association of Bangladesh (UNYSAB) is the pioneer of MUN in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Model United Nations conferences, Bangladesh International Model United Nations 2012, Dhaka+20, Brainwiz MUN 2013, UNYSAB MUN 2014 were organized by UNYSAB. MUNs if much larger numbers were organized by UNYSAB the past year when they organized Bangladesh Model United Nations (BANMUN) Session VII in June 2015 with more than 560 delegates [42] and Bangladesh International Model United Nations (BIMUN) Session II in November 2015, with over 850 delegates, the largest number in Bangladesh's history.[43]

The arena of MUN started growing leaps and bounds after the formation of the first university based MUN club of the country Dhaka University Model United Nations Association in 2011. Dhaka University National Model United Nations (DUNMUN), the most prestigious MUN conference of the country, started from 2012.[44][45][46]


Model United Nations first came to China in 1995, when the elite China Foreign Affairs University held the country's first collegiate MUN conference.[47][48][49] Arriving in Chinese high schools in 2005, Model UN expanded rapidly. Peking University (PKU) students, after attending Harvard's HMUN, organized the first national Model UN conference for high school students in China. PKU's conference was initially backed by UNA-USA, however support was curtailed in 2010 due to the Great Recession.

Between 2005 and 2010, national MUN conferences such as those organized by PKU and the rivaling Fudan University in Shanghai drew the best high school students from around the country, who competed for limited spaces. Over time, lesser-known national conferences, as well as regional and even local conferences for high school students, began to develop and gradually spread to cities beyond Beijing and Shanghai.[50]

In the realm of interscholastic MUN conferences in China, the widely acknowledged top 3 conferences are called "the ABC": Asian International Model United Nations held by rumored Peking University; Beijing Model United Nations held by China Foreign Affairs University, the forthgoer of MUN in China; and China National Model United Nations, held by United Nations Association of China, hosted in different cities annually.[51]

Most MUN conferences in China are organized through private or academic enterprises, however some government-affiliated MUNs have also flourished, and recently, unofficial student-run grassroots conferences have begun to dominate the Chinese MUN scene.[50]


The first Model United Nations conference in India was the Cathedral Model United Nations (CMUN) hosted by The Cathedral and John Connon School in Mumbai in 1996.[52] Since then, Model UN has become increasingly popular in India, with an estimated 200 conferences held in the country in 2012 alone, most concentrated in Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune,and Kolkata.[53][54] As major conference organizers have sought to expand internationally, India has seen the creation of such conferences as HMUN India, which in August 2011 became the first major conference established by a well-known group from outside India. However, the growth of Model United Nations in India, is widely believed to be credited to organizations such as the Indian International Model United Nations (IIMUN) which organises over 30 conferences in as many cities across the country apart from organizing the worlds largest residential MUN for high school students at the Aamby Valley City in August 2015.[55][56]


The first Model United Nations conference in Pakistan was the LUMUN hosted by Lahore University of Management and sciences.[citation needed] Since then, Model UN has become increasingly popular in Pakistan.[57][58][59][60][61]

New Zealand

A high number of New Zealand high schools operate their own MUN events, with UN Youth New Zealand functioning as a managing organisation.[62] UN Youth NZ also organises regional and national events, along with Aotearoa Youth Declaration, the Pacific Project, and New Zealand's THIMUN delegation.[63]


The following are Model United Nation Conferences, Model ASEAN Conferences and other model diplomatic conferences held in Singapore.

  • Raffles Model United Nations Conference[64]
  • Dunman High Model ASEAN Plus Summit[65]
  • Youth Model ASEAN Conference[66]
  • Hwa Chong Conflict Resolution and Inquiry[67]
  • International Model United Nations Conferences[68]
  • Middle East Summit[68]
  • River Valley Model United Nations[69]
  • Sustainable Development Youth Convention[70]
  • Nanyang Technological University Model United Nations[71]
  • Singapore Chinese Girls' School Model United Nations Conference[72]
  • United Nations Association of Singapore Model United Nations Preparatory Conference[73]
  • Saint Joseph's Institution Model United Nations[74]
  • Yale-NUS Asia-Pacific Model United Nations[75]

Middle East

Model United Nations is growing in popularity in the region. The largest conference in the region held in Doha, Qatar, held each January at the Qatar National Convention Center.[76] THIMUN Qatar currently hosts over 1500 student participants. The region boasts over 8 THIMUN-affiliated conferences in places such as Jordan (AMMUN), Dubai (DIAMUN),Abu Dhabi (CAMUN), Bahrain (BayMUN), Cairo (CACMUN, HIAMUN, AISMUN and BISKMUN) and Doha (DCMUN). Most countries in the region host numerous smaller conferences. The region also has its own regional MUN magazine, The Olive Branch, co-edited by THIMUN Qatar, THIMUN Online, and Best Delegate.[77]


The largest city in Turkey hosts particularly many High School level conferences, among them there are Model United Nations Development Programme (MUNDP),[78] Kabatas Model United Nations Conference (KMUN),[79] Robert College International Model United Nations Conference (RCIMUN),[80] Turkish International Model United Nations (TIMUN),[81] Yeditepe Model United Nations Training and Development Conference,[82] ITU International Model United Nations,.[83]


Conferences in Lebanon are mostly found in Beirut though hundreds of schools enter from all around Lebanon, these conferences are currently being hosted by LAU, one of the biggest universities in Lebanon.


Conferences in Africa include NIAMUN[84] in bMarrakech, JoMUN[85] in Johannesburg, and the recently founded IMIRAMUN[86] in Windhoek. a recent one took place in Benin, in Cotonou in the Kennedy-king Library of the U.S.A Embassy cotonou on April 22 by 9am. College students were simulating the ECOSOC, the Best model UN were given prize. The first edition of Algeria Model United Nations was held in December 2014[87]

Notable participants

Model UN builds skills that are useful in a wide variety of fields, with many participants having gone on to become leaders in diplomacy, politics, law and the media.

When I was an undergraduate at Stanford, I was twice a delegate to the Model United Nations and once a member of the Secretariat (when Stanford was the host). Students are enthusiastic role-players. We had to learn how nations and their representatives could work with others. We learned about how the United Nations (and international relations) worked in practice. The experience was valuable; the conferences were educational; and it was great fun. I am delighted to learn more than half a century later the Model UN is still going strong. I should think that in today’s great global conversation it offers ... students an even more valuable experience.

— U.S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer

In popular culture

As Model UN has become more well-known, numerous references to the activity have appeared in popular culture.[92] At times inaccurate, the depiction of or reference to the activity in the mainstream media and the entertainment industry, in such shows as Mad Men, How I Met Your Mother, and Jeopardy!, raises the profile of Model UN, and shows how it is perceived, while also shaping the perception of the public in the process.

See also


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Further reading

  • A Guide to Delegate Preparation: A Model United Nations Handbook, edited by Scott A. Leslie, The United Nations Association of the United States of America, 2004 edition (October 2004), softcover, 296 pages, ISBN 1-880632-71-3.

External links