Municipal wireless network

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

Municipal wireless network (Municipal Wi-Fi, Muni Wi-Fi or Muni-Fi) is the concept of turning an entire city into a Wireless Access Zone, with the ultimate goal of making wireless access to the Internet a universal service. This is usually done by providing municipal broadband via Wi-Fi to large parts or all of a municipal area by deploying a wireless mesh network. The typical deployment design uses hundreds of routers deployed outdoors, often on poles. The operator of the network acts as a wireless internet service provider.


A municipal Wi-Fi antenna in Minneapolis, Minnesota

Such networks go far beyond the existing piggybacking opportunities available near public libraries and some coffee shops. The basic premise of carpeting an area with wireless service in urban centers is that it is more economical to the community to provide the service as a utility rather than to have individual households and businesses pay private firms for such a service. Such networks are viewed as capable of enhancing city management and public safety, especially when used directly by city employees out in the field. They can also be viewed as a social service to those who cannot afford private high-speed services such as DSL. When the network service is free and a small number of clients consume a majority of the available capacity, operating and regulating the network might prove difficult.[1][2]

In 2003, Verge Wireless, a subsidiary of CamSoft Data Systems, Inc., a small company from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, formed an agreement with Tropos Networks to build one of the first municipal wireless networks in the downtown area of Baton Rouge.[3] Although Tropos' technology is primarily focused on public safety, Carlo MacDonald, the founder of Verge Wireless, viewed it differently. He pitched to Tropos president David Hannah, that the technology was best used to provide public access to Internet wirelessly. He suggested that it could provide cities with a way to attract and improve economical development and developers to build mobile applications that can make use of faster bandwidth not available at that time on current mobile devices. Verge Wireless went on to build networks for Baton Rouge, New Orleans,[4] and other areas, allowing cities to bypass AT&T and other large telecoms in hopes of bringing the technology first to their residents. Knowing what is coming, MacDonald focused on the applications that will be able to run on his networks, providing fast internet to any device. Some applications include wireless security cameras, police mug shot software, and location-based advertising.

The US Federal Trade Commission has expressed some concerns about such private/public partnerships as trending towards a franchise monopoly.[5]

The technology to allow this continues to advance. In 2007, companies with existing cell sites offered competing paid high-speed wireless services where the laptop owner purchased a PC card or adapter which uses communications based on EV-DO cellular data receivers or WiMAX rather than 802.11b/g. High-end laptops in 2007 featured built-in support for these newer protocols. WiMAX is designed to implement a metropolitan area network (MAN) while 802.11 is designed to implement a wireless local area network (LAN).

Within the United States, providing a municipal wireless network is not officially recognized as a priority. Some have argued that the benefits of public approach may exceed the costs, similar to cable television.[6][7][8]


The construction of such networks is a significant part of their lifetime costs. Usually, a private firm works closely with local government to construct such a network and operate it. Financing is usually shared by both the private firm and the municipal government. Once operational, the service may be free to users via public finance or advertising, or a paid service. Among deployed networks, usage as measured by number of distinct users has been shown to be moderate to light. Private firms serving multiple cities sometimes maintain an account for each user, and allow the user a limited amount of mobile service as they move in the cities covered by the firm. As of 2007 some Muni WiFi deployments are delayed as the private and public partners involved in planned networks continue to negotiate the business model and financing.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

In the build-out of such networks, radio communication is used both for the Wi-Fi service and for the "backhaul" or pathway to the Internet. This means that the nodes only need a wire for power (hence the habit of installing them on power and light utility poles). This "all radio" approach means that nodes must be within range of each other and form a contiguous pathway back to special aggregation nodes that have more traditional access to the Internet. Nodes then relay traffic, somewhat like a fire-bucket brigade, from the laptop to the aggregation node. This limits the way in which the network can be grown incrementally: coverage starts near the aggregation point and, as the mesh grows, new coverage can only grow out from the edge of the mesh. If a new, isolated area is to be covered, then a new aggregation point must be constructed. Private firms often take a phased approach, starting with one or a few sectors of a city to demonstrate competence before making the larger investment of attempting full coverage of a city.

Google WiFi is entirely funded by Google. Despite a failed attempt to provide citywide WiFi through a partnership with internet service provider Earthlink in 2007,[15] the company claims that they are currently working to provide a wireless network for the city of San Francisco, California, although there is no specified completion date.[16] Some other projects that are still in the planning stages have pared back their planned coverage from 100% of a municipal area to only densely commercially zoned areas. One of the most ambitious planned projects is to provide wireless service throughout Silicon Valley, but the winner of the bid seems ready to request that the 40 cities involved help cover more of the cost which has raised concerns that the project will ultimately be too slow-to-market to be deemed a success. Advances in technology in 2005–2007 may allow wireless community network projects to offer a viable alternative. Such projects have an advantage that as they do not have to negotiate with government entities they have no contractual obligations for coverage. A promising example is Meraki's demonstration in San Francisco, which already claims 20,000 distinct users as of October 2007.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

In 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo also provided free wireless to select regions in the United States. Yahoo's free WiFi was made available for one full year to the Times Square area in New York City beginning November 10, 2009.[24][25] Microsoft made free WiFi available to select airports and hotels across the United States, in exchange for one search on the Bing search engine by the user.[26]

Potential externalities

Unintended externalities are possible as a result of local governments providing Internet service to their constituents. A private service provider could choose to offer limited or no service to a region if that region's largest city opted to provide free Internet service, thus eliminating the potential customer base. This could prevent other municipalities in that region from benefiting from the services of the private provider. The smaller municipalities would at the same time not benefit from the free service provided by the larger city. Overuse could be another issue. If usage of the publicly provided network became heavier than existing private options network overload issues could arise, forcing the municipality to invest more heavily, thus spending more revenue, on infrastructure to maintain the existing level of service. This issue could be compounded if private providers begin exiting a market as mentioned above.

Cities with Municipal Wi-Fi service

In many cases several points or areas are covered, without blanket area coverage.





  • Bologna Italy - free, limited to three hours a day, hotspots in historical city center and around[42]
  • Blackpool, UK - free, 1.6 km area around city centre Wireless Blackpool - Wireless Blackpool Leaflet
  • Brașov, Romania - free wifi over the entire city deployed into existing 5G network by of Ireland, over 40,000 daily users at peak.
  • Bristol, UK - free, 3 km area around city centre[43]
  • Brussels, Belgium UrbiZone covers a number of institutions for higher education and some city or regional administration buildings and public hospitals.[44]
  • Chişinău, Moldova - Currently two metropolitan Wi-Fi networks exist: StarNet and Orange. StarNet's coverage area includes most of the city's central streets and residential districts as well as parks and other public recreational places. Company offers paid and free access to its network, free access has limitations on time of use.[45] Orange coverage area includes most of city's mass transit areas and buss stops. Network access is limited to Orange subscribers only.[46]
  • Comiso Italy - free, limited to one hour a day, hotspots in historical city center and around[47]
  • Dublin, Ireland - free wifi in certain areas of city centre, area being expanded, with map available.[48][49]
  • Geneva, Switzerland - free, city-operated[50]
  • Helsingborg, Sweden - unrestricted, free and city-operated in 220 locations around the town. SSID: Helsingborg[51] Helpdesk: #freewifihbg on most social platforms.
  • Helsinki, Finland - free, city-operated network in the city center[52]
  • Heraklion, Greece - free, city-operated network, covers major city squares and roads with over 80 access points.[53]
  • Lagkadas, Greece - free, city-operated, covers almost all the city of Lagkadas, it is expanding to cover more towns in Lagkadas municipality.[54]
  • Leiden, Netherlands - free, community project covering city and region Wireless Leiden
  • Lidköping, Sweden - unrestricted, free and commercially operated. Available in town square. SSID: Lidkoping[55]
  • Liverpool, UK - paid service, covering central areas.
  • Luxembourg, Luxembourg—paid, currently covering downtown and Central Station Hotcity
  • Kaunas, Lithuania - free, in represental street of the city.
  • Kyiv, Ukraine - free wifi in certain areas of city centre and Passenger Railway Station.
  • Milan, Italy - free, limited to two hours a day, hotspots in historical city center and around.[56] Free internet is also available at the Milano Malpensa airport.
  • Moralzarzal, Spain - free for inscribed citizens, limited time for visitors.[57]
  • Moscow, Russia - paid service, Golden Telecom[58]
  • Newcastle, County Down, Northern Ireland, UK
  • Norwich, England - free, city center and university, 18-month pilot Openlink (Norwich,UK)
  • Nova Gorica, Slovenia - free, city center and suburbs
  • Oulu, Finland - free - panOULU
  • Plovdiv, Bulgaria - free throughout the city center and the historical part, along with in many of the city`s outskirts.[59]
  • Paris, France - free in many parks and in municipal libraries, museums, and public places (7 AM to 11 PM or opening hours, renewable 2-hour sessions)[60]
  • Roman, Romania - free, deployed by Minisoft Romania as part of MetroWireless free internet access project,[61] paid by advertisements, covers much of the city,[62] expanding to nearby villages
  • Rzeszów, Poland - free, city-operated, with hot-spots located on public schools participating in the project[63]
  • Samobor, Croatia - membership/free and unlimited 24/7 for members, deployed and maintained by NGO SMBWireless,[64] with inter-connected hot-spots located all over the wide city area, placed on houses and buildings of the NGO members.
  • Tallinn, Estonia - free Wifi covers not only the capital city Talinn, but most of the entire country, [as of 2011] thanks to the Tiigrihüpe (Tiger Leap) project.[65]
  • Trondheim, Norway, paid/free network in city centre[66]
  • Vatra Dornei, Romania, 85% of city covered with free wifi deployed by using free guest user and Facebook connect.
  • Velika Gorica, Croatia - free, city center and nearby villages as a part of project "e-Gorica"
  • Venice, Italy, free to residents and city users, network of hotspots in historical city centre and mainland[67]
  • Vienna, Austria - free service at about 400 places around the city through the city lights,[68] at major train stations,[69] and in the Vienna International Airport[70]
  • Wrocław, Poland - free service Miejski Internet, in few places, renewable 1-hour sessions
  • Zrenjanin, Serbia - free, city center only
  • Pančevo, Serbia - free, city center only, with time limit session.
  • Örebro, Sweden - free, around Järntorget.

North America

United States

In addition, a few U.S. states, such as Iowa and Massachusetts, offer free Wi-Fi service at welcome centers and roadside rest areas located along major Interstate highways.

  • Guadalajara, Jalisco - Free, 150 parks and municipal areas. 1 hour continuous connect and 2 hour connection time allowed per day. In operation since 2011. Installation and operation is municipal government funded. A few of the areas are provided with free electrical outlets to charge / use your device.[120]
  • Mérida, Yucatán - Free. Most major city parks and other areas. Provided by Axtel and Telmex. Usually also provide standing tables with power outlets. The parks are identified by "parque en linea" (online park) signs and branding of the utility providing the connectivity. The SSID is usually "park en linea".


  • Adelaide, Australia - AdelaideFree WiFi is a contiguous network available throughout the CBD, provided by Internode
  • Auckland, New Zealand - Citywide network based in all popular areas across Auckland including CBD and Waterfront [18] from Tomizone.
  • Perth, Australia - paid, RoamAD-based metro wide coverage in the CBD by metromesh
  • Taupo, New Zealand, paid/free large RoamAD-based zone in tourist area by Kordia Metro WiFi
  • Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, prepaid access and free 1 hr daily, available at many locations region wide by NOW
  • Wellington, New Zealand - Free Wifi at the Waterfront, CBD & Airport

South America



  • Stellenbosch, South Africa Free service. Town centre online since February 25, 2012. Coverage to be increased to whole town.[125]
  • Northpine, South Africa Paid. WISP and media delivery services as well as video surveillance focused on the suburb. Community social portal for information sharing, collaboration and local business partnerships. Proof of concept to be expanded to neighbouring areas.



North America

United States


South America

Canceled or closed

See also


  1. Ellig, Jerry (November 2006). "A Dynamic Perspective on Government Broadband Initiatives" (PDF). Reason Magazine. Retrieved 2007-08-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "MuniWireless: WiFi, LTE, mobile apps, broadband". MuniWireless: WiFi, LTE, 4G.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. [1] September 10, 2003
  4. [2] Los Angeles
  5. Should Municipalities Provide Wireless Internet Service? FTC Staff Report Provides Guidance to Promote Competition October 10, 2006
  7. "Case Study Database".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Municipal broadband and wireless projects map of USA | CNET last updated 2005
  9. EarthLink’s Citywide Wi-Fi Gamble is a Calculated Risk June 6, 2006
  10. Charny, Ben (2007-09-12). "San Francisco formally ends citywide Wi-Fi effort". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2007-09-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Wu, Tim (2007-09-27). "Where's My Free Wi-Fi? Why municipal wireless networks have been such a flop". Slate. Retrieved 2007-09-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Wakefield, Jane (2007-06-05). "City wi-fi plans under scrutiny". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-06-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Why Wi-Fi Networks Are Floundering: Faced with weak user demand, AT&T and other telecoms are stepping up pressure on cities to foot more of the bill for muni Wi-Fi projects August 15, 2007
  14. Companies Grow Wary of Building Out Municipal Wi-Fi Networks May 23, 2007
  15. San Francisco pulls the plug on Google / Earthlink's citywide WiFi... for now August 6, 2007
  16. Google Wifi: Are there plans to bring Google WiFi to any other cities?
  17. Easier said than done: Second thoughts about municipal Wi-Fi May 25, 2007
  18. Silicon Valley Cities Pause, Reflect On Muni Wi-Fi Commitments: The cities are studying whether to participate in an ambitious project to unwire several million people. The project has already encountered problems. July 23, 2007
  19. Municipal WiFi — no wires, lots of strings August 6, 2007
  20. It's Crunch Time for Silicon Valley Wi-Fi: An executive backing Silicon Valley's wireless network expects test sites to be built this year. September 16, 2007
  21. Municipal WiFi: A not-so-free lunch August 6, 2007
  22. Citywide Wi-Fi isn't dead yet September 25, 2007
  23. Free Wi-Fi Still an Elusive Goal September 26, 2007
  24. Free Wi-Fi Wars: Google vs. Microsoft vs. Yahoo November 10, 2009
  25. Yahoo Joins The Free-WiFi Marketing Bandwagon November 9, 2009
  26. Microsoft Bing Gives WiFi Users Free Search November 9, 2009
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Index of /".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Free Wi-Fi service starts in Khan Market - Business Today". Business Today.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Free Wi-Fi in Delhi's Khan market - Tech 2 Firstpost". Tech 2 Firstpost.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Free WiFi service starts in Delhi's Connaught Place - IBN Live". IBN Live.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Connaught Place is now a Wi-Fi hotspot - The Hindu". The Hindu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Free Wi-Fi Service Finally Launched at New Delhi Railway Station - NDTV". NDTV.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Free WiFi service at New Delhi Railway Station launched - IBN Live". IBN Live.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Home". cityofbalanga.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Bangalore, first Indian city to get free Wi-Fi hotspots - The Times of India". The Times Of India.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. 37.0 37.1 Public Wi-Fi Services
  38. Wireless@KL
  39. Super User. "About Us".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Wifly
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 "Đà Nẵng phủ sóng Wifi toàn thành phố".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "Iperbole wireless". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. "Cityspace to extend Bristol's wireless network".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "Urbizone".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "wifi_starnet".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Orange Moldova". Orange Moldova.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Wi-FreeCom wi-fi". Retrieved 2014-05-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "Dublin Free WiFi". Retrieved 7 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Dublin City Wifi map". Retrieved 7 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. "Accès Wi-Fi - Environnement urbain et espaces verts - Thèmes - Ville de Genève - Site officiel".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "Surfzoner".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Free WiFi in Helsinki".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Ασύρματο Δίκτυο Δήμου Ηρακλείου - Η κινητή σύνδεσή σας στο Διαδίκτυο - Ασύρματο Δίκτυο - e-heraklion - Δήμος Ηρακλείου".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Lagkadas WiFi
  55. Sveriges Radio. "Lidköping först ut med fritt nätverk".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "OpenWifiMilano".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "Red WiFi municipal". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "Golden WiFi".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "coverage".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "Mairie de Paris : site officiel de la ville de Paris –".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "MetroWireless Romania , Free Metropolitan Networks".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Wireless coverage in Roman, Romania
  63. "/ Main page".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Udruga SMBWireless - Više od veze!".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Farivar, Cyrus (2011) The Internet of Elsewhere: the Emergent Effects of a Wired World. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. p. 109-149. Covers the history of the Internet and public WiFi access in Estonia.
  66. "Trådløse Trondheim". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "Cittadinanza Digitale". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. " Public WiFi".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "OeBB Blog: gratis WLAN am Westbahnhof".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Flughafen Wien - Passagiere".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "WestNet Wireless - Calgary Wi-Fi Coverage". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Fred-e Zone
  74. "London Area Wireless Network (LAWN)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. " - Services Online - Wireless Mississauga: Free WiFi Zone".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Île Sans Fil".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 77.3 [3] Archived March 26, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  78. "ZAP Québec".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. "ZAP Montérégie".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "Bienvenue chez ZAP". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "Rhyzome Networks". Retrieved 2013-08-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "Albany FreeNet". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "State".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. [4] Archived February 26, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  86. "Town of Bethany Beach, DE - Official Website". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. City of Binghamton Downtown WiFi. 2009
  88. 88.0 88.1 88.2 "In the Slow Lane: Why the U.S. Has Fallen Behind in Internet Speed and Affordability", New York Times, October 30, 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. "Wi-Fi Hotspots Around Burlington".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. One of the most successful beach tourist free wireless networks implemented and maintained. 2008
  91. "Welcome -".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "City of Decatur : Decatur WiFi".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. [5] 2009
  94. "ackrion Superior Municipal Outdoor Wireless Wi-Fi Solutions". ackrion.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. "Downtown Englewood, NJ".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. Pomares, Alberto (23 September 2011). "Fenton parks and downtown now have free wireless Internet access". Tri County Times. Retrieved 3 January 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. [6] 2014
  98. Houston WeCAN (Wireless Empowered Community Access Network)
  99. Dwight Silverman (August 18, 2008). "Updated: It lives! City of Houston turns on free downtown Wi-Fi". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-02-18. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Nina Wu (October 4, 2007). "Free Wi-Fi boots up in Chinatown". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 2007-12-11. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. "Kenosha WiFi". Facebook. 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. "Fiber backbone brings broadband to Western Mass.", Boston Globe, June 12, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. "Lexington announces free downtown, East End wi-fi". Ace Weekly.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "WiFi @ Marion Square now has wifi". Retrieved 2014-11-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. "WiFi @ City of Miami Beach". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "Wireless Minneapolis Build Out Schedule & Coverage Map". USI Wireless. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. Wireless Minneapolis
  109. "Pacifica Net".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. "Peachtree City, GA - Official Website". 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. "Ponca City, OK - Wi-Fi (Free Wireless Internet)". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. Powell, OH Wifi
  113. Susan P. Crawford (August 13, 2014), "How Maine Saved the Internet", Bloomberg View, Bloomberg, retrieved August 15, 2014<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  114. San Jose launches new free downtown outdoor wireless, Mercury News, March 15, 2013
  115. Santa Clara launches free outdoor Wi-Fi on backs of smart meters March 23, 2013
  116. Santa Monica City Net Case Study March 5, 2014
  117. "Village of Skokie, Skokie Link WiFi, Skokie, IL". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. "Wilkes-Barre's Wi-Fi connects city to future". Retrieved 2008-08-09. External link in |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. "City of Winston-Salem - Discover Winston-Salem".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  121. Felipe Zmoginski, do Plantão INFO. "INFO Online - Aparecida estréia rede Wi-Fi gratuita - (08/05/2007)". Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. [7] November 11, 2007 - free, need some subscribe at logon on Wi-Fi network. AP in some public places and builds
  123. "Argentina. La Plata ofrece WiFi gratuito y apunta a convertirse en una Ciudad Digital | Moebius Digital | Diseño web | Web Hosting | Argentina". Moebius Digital. 2009-05-07. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  124. ""BA WiFi" official site, with map and list (Spanish)". Retrieved 7 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  125. "Free Wi-Fi for Stellenbosch" MyBroadband, February 21, 2012.
  126. "Aam Aadmi Party government sets up WiFi task force in Delhi - DNA India". DNA India.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. "Free Wi-Fi in Delhi : AAP to consult with stakeholders - Times of India". Times of India.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  128. "Delhi's AAP govt asks people for suggestions for the free WiFi plan - Firstpost". Firstpost.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  129. Bar Ben Ari. "Tel Aviv to initiate free municipal WiFi pilot".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  130. "Makati eyes becoming PH's first 'Wi-Fi city' - Yahoo! News Philippines". 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  131. "BMC plans WiFi cover for Mumbai - The Times of India". The Times Of India.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  132. "Amidst Metro bus fanfare, Sharjeel Memon promises free WiFi for Karachi". Pakistan Herald.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  133. "Free public Wi-Fi scheme for town" BBC News, November 17, 2009.
  134. "FoxesTalk Reference - Leicester Mercury Reported" Leicester Mercury, June 24, 2011.
  135. Neate, Rupert (2012-06-01). "London tube stations to get Wi-Fi". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 June 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  136. China's ZTE To Build Massive Wi-Fi Network For Mexico City: The Wi-Fi network will connect schools and government offices as well as some 4,000 security cameras April 3, 2007
  137. Mexico City explores wireless Internet: Planning hot spots throughout city for 8.7 ,million residents April 3, 2007
  138. "Autoridad Nacional para la Innovación Gubernamental".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  139. New Object Inc. "CityBridge - LinkNYC". CityBridge - LinkNYC.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  140. thunder::tech :: an integrated marketing agency. "Cleveland City Council - Cleveland City Council - Page Not Found".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  141. Smith, Brad (2007-06-22). "Sacramento Goes Wireless". Wireless Week. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  142. Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network Announces Test Cities for Wireless Silicon Valley Initiative, February 14, 2007.
  143. Esptein, Reid J. "Waukesha could be next city to go Wi-Fi" Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, February 3, 2006.
  144. Queensland to give train commuters wireless internet access
  145. "Free wireless internet for Civic, Canberra". The Sydney Morning Herald.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  146. "Victoria's first free public Wi-Fi zones launched at Queen Victoria Market and central Ballarat, Bendigo". The Age.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  147. TOM COWIE (13 March 2014). "Ballarat to get free public wi-fi by the end of the year". The Courier.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  148. Fairfax Regional Media (13 March 2014). "Free WI-FI for Bendigo". Bendigo Advertiser.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  149. [8]
  150. [9] Archived September 16, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  151. [10][dead link]
  152. Reily Gregson. "Verge Wireless to deploy Baton Rouge Wi-Fi network with Tropos gear". RCR Wireless News.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  153. "Chicago scraps municipal wireless plans". FierceWireless.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  154. "City Initiative: Charleston, South Carolina | MuniWireless: WiFi, LTE, 4G". MuniWireless. 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  155. Kyle Stock. "City to exit wireless project | The Post and Courier | Charleston SC, News, Sports, Entertainment". The Post and Courier. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  156. [11] RTÉ reports cancelled Wi-Fi
  157. "Draadloos Groningen BV".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  158. "Twitter".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  159. Trevey, Mick (2007-08-09). "Citywide Wi-Fi Might Not Happen". Local & Regional News. Journal Broadcast Group. Retrieved 2007-08-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  160. "EarthLink To Shut Down New Orleans' Municipal Wi-Fi - Mobility - Muni Wireless". Informationweek. 2008-04-25. Retrieved 2012-08-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  161. 161.0 161.1 "NSW govt dumps plans for free city WiFi". The Age.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  162. Rogoway, Mike (January 19, 2010). "Portland set to dismantle, donate abandoned Wi-Fi antennas". The Oregonian. Retrieved 3 February 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  163. "Blanket Wi-Fi plans unplugged in Waterloo Region and Guelph, but growing in Stratford". Local. Waterloo Region Record. 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2015-11-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  164. "Riverside, California - City of Arts & Innovation - Innovation and Technology".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  165. Ben Charny. "San Francisco formally ends citywide Wi-Fi effort". MarketWatch.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  166. "City of Tempe, AZ : WiFi Terms of Service".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links