Natan Sharansky in 2007
|Date of birth||20 January 1948|
|Place of birth||Stalino, Soviet Union
(now Donetsk, Ukraine)
|Knessets||14, 15, 16, 17|
|Faction represented in Knesset|
|1996–1999||Minister of Industry and Trade|
|1999–2000||Minister of Internal Affairs|
|2001–2003||Deputy Prime Minister|
|2001–2003||Minister of Housing & Construction|
|2003–2005||Minister of Jerusalem Affairs|
Natan Sharansky (Hebrew: נתן שרנסקי; Russian: Ната́н Щара́нский, Natan Shcharansky; born 20 January 1948) is a Soviet-born Israeli politician, human rights activist and author who spent nine years in Soviet prisons for allegedly spying for the American Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). Natan Sharansky has served as Chairman of the Executive of the Jewish Agency since June 2009.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Activism
- 3 Arrest and imprisonment
- 4 Release from detention
- 5 Aftermath
- 6 Israeli political career
- 7 Media recognition and awards
- 8 Published works
- 9 Political views
- 10 Criticism
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 External links
Anatoly Borisovich Shcharansky (Russian: Анато́лий Бори́сович Щара́нский) (later Natan Sharansky) was born in Donetsk (then called Stalino), Soviet Union on 20 January 1948 to a Jewish family. He graduated with a degree in applied mathematics from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. As a child, he was a chess prodigy. He performed in simultaneous and blindfold displays, usually against adults. At the age of 15, he won the championship in his native Donetsk. When incarcerated in solitary confinement, he claims to have maintained his sanity by playing chess against himself in his mind. Sharansky beat the world chess champion Garry Kasparov in a simultaneous exhibition in Israel in 1996.
Natan Sharansky is married to Avital Sharansky and has two daughters, Rachel and Hannah. In the Soviet Union, his marriage application to Avital was denied by the authorities. They were married in a Moscow synagogue in a ceremony not recognized by the government, as the USSR only recognized civil marriage and not religious marriage.
Sharansky was denied an exit visa to Israel in 1973. The reason given for denial of the visa was that he had been given access, at some point in his career, to information vital to Soviet national security and could not now be allowed to leave. After becoming a refusenik, Sharansky became a human rights activist, working as a translator for dissident and nuclear physicist Andrei Sakharov, and spokesperson for the Moscow Helsinki Group and a leader for the rights of refuseniks.
Arrest and imprisonment
On 15 March 1977 Sharansky was arrested on multiple charges including high treason and spying for an American agency (Defense Intelligence Agency). The accusation stipulated that he passed to the West lists of over 1,300 refuseniks, many of which were denied exit visas because of their knowledge of state secrets, which resulted in a publication by Robert C. Toth, "Russ Indirectly Reveal 'State Secrets': Clues in Denials of Jewish Visas". High treason carried the death penalty. The following year, in 1978, he was sentenced to 13 years of forced labor.
Sharansky spent time in the Lefortovo Prison in Moscow, followed by Vladimir and Chistopol prisons, where for part of the time he was placed in solitary confinement. His health deteriorated, to the point of endangering his life. Later he was detained in Perm 35, a post-Stalin-Gulag-type so-called "strict regimen colony" in Perm Oblast, East Siberia. He kept himself sane during solitary confinement by playing chess with himself, in his head.
Sharansky appeared in a March 1990 edition of National Geographic magazine. The article, "Last Days of the Gulag" by Mike Edwards, profiles through photographs and text one of the few remaining Soviet prison labor camps. The article featured a photo of Natan Sharansky and his wife Avital in their home in Israel viewing photos of the same Gulag where he had been imprisoned, but as it appeared in 1990. Sharansky remarked in the article that after viewing images of the prisoner's faces he could discern that the protocol of oppression was still at work. The author also showed Sharansky a photo of the cold isolation cell where he had himself been confined. Sharansky commented with irony that conditions had improved slightly—the stark cell now featured a thin bench bolted to the middle of the floor. He said that if that bench had existed when he was there he could have utilized it to sleep, albeit uncomfortably.
Release from detention
As a result of an international campaign led by his wife, Avital Sharansky (including assistance from East German lawyer Wolfgang Vogel, New York Congressman Benjamin Gilman and Rabbi Ronald Greenwald), Sharansky was released on 11 February 1986 as part of a larger exchange of detainees. He was the first political prisoner released by Mikhail Gorbachev due to intense political pressure from Ronald Reagan.
Sharansky and three low-level Western spies (Czech citizen Jaroslav Javorský and West German citizens Wolf-Georg Frohn and Dietrich Nistroy) were exchanged for Czech spies Karl Koecher and Hana Koecher held in the USA, Soviet spy Yevgeni Zemlyakov, Polish spy Marian Zacharski and East German spy Detlef Scharfenorth (the latter three held in West Germany). The exchange took place on the Glienicke Bridge between East and West Berlin, which had been used before for this purpose.
Sharansky immediately immigrated to Israel, adopting the Hebrew name Natan and eventually simplifying his surname to Sharansky. His wife had become religiously observant during his detention, but he did not follow her on this path.
In 1988, he wrote Fear No Evil, his memoirs of his time as a prisoner, and founded the Zionist Forum, an organization of Soviet immigrant Jewish activists dedicated to helping new Israelis and educating the public about integration issues, known in Israel as klita (lit. "absorption"). Sharansky also served as a contributing editor to The Jerusalem Report and as a Board member of Peace Watch.
Freedom fighter awards
Israeli political career
In 1995 Sharansky and Yoel Edelstein founded the Yisrael BaAliyah party (a play of words, since "aliya" means both Jewish emigration to Israel, and "rise", thus the party name means "(People of) Israel immigrating (to the State of Israel)", as well as "Israel on the rise"), promoting the absorption of the Soviet Jews into Israeli society. The party won seven Knesset seats in 1996. It won 6 seats in the Israeli legislative election, 1999, gaining two ministerial posts, but left the government on 11 July 2000 in response to suggestions that Prime Minister Ehud Barak's negotiations with the Palestinians would result in a division of Jerusalem. After Ariel Sharon won a special election for Prime Minister in 2001, the party joined his new government, and was again given two ministerial posts.
In the January 2003 elections the party was reduced to just two seats. Sharansky resigned from the Knesset, and was replaced by Edelstein. However, he remained party chairman, and decided to merge it into Likud (which had won the election with 38 seats). The merger went through on 10 March 2003, and Sharansky was appointed Minister of Jerusalem Affairs.
From March 2003 – May 2005, he was Israel's Minister without Portfolio, responsible for Jerusalem, social and Jewish diaspora affairs. Under this position Sharansky chaired a secret committee that approved the confiscation of East Jerusalem property of West Bank Palestinians. This decision was reversed after an outcry from the Israeli left and the international community.
Previously he served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Israel, Minister of Housing and Construction since March 2001, Interior Minister of Israel (July 1999 – resigned in July 2000), Minister of Industry and Trade (1996–1999).
He was re-elected to the Knesset in March 2006 as a member of the Likud Party. On 20 November 2006, he resigned from the Knesset.
NGO work and other activities
In June 2009 Sharansky was elected to the Chair of the Executive of the Jewish Agency for Israel by the Jewish Agency Board of Governors. In September 2009 Sharansky secured $6 million from the Genesis Philanthropy Group for educational activities in the former Soviet Union.
He is a Founding Member of One Jerusalem.
Media recognition and awards
In 2005, Sharansky participated in They Chose Freedom, a four-part television documentary on the history of the Soviet dissident movement, and in 2008 he was featured in Laura Bialis' documentary Refusenik. In 2014 he took part in Natella Boltyanskaya's documentary Parallels, Events, People. He was number eleven on the list of Time magazine's 100 most influential people of 2005 in the "Scientists and thinkers" category.
Sharansky is the author of three books. The first is the autobiographical Fear No Evil, which dealt with his trial and imprisonment.
His second book, The Case for Democracy: The Power of Freedom to Overcome Tyranny and Terror was co-written with Ron Dermer. George W. Bush offered praise for the book:
If you want a glimpse of how I think about foreign policy, read Natan Sharansky's book, The Case for Democracy. ... For government, particularly – for opinion makers, I would put it on your recommended reading list. It's short and it's good. This guy is a heroic figure, as you know. It's a great book.
His book Defending Identity: Its Indispensable Role in Protecting Democracy, is a defense of the value of national and religious identity in building democracy.
Sharansky has argued that there can never be peace between Israel and the Palestinians until there is "the building of real democratic institutions in the fledgling Palestinian society, no matter how tempting a 'solution' without them may be." In a Haaretz interview, he maintained the following:
Jews came here 3,000 years ago and this is the cradle of Jewish civilization. Jews are the only people in history who kept their loyalty to their identity and their land throughout the 2,000 years of exile, and no doubt that they have the right to have their place among nations—not only historically but also geographically. As to the Palestinians, who are the descendants of those Arabs who migrated in the last 200 years, they have the right, if they want, to have their own state ... but not at the expense of the state of Israel.
In the wake of the Arab uprisings of 2011, he told Moment Magazine, "To sign an agreement you must have a partner who is dependent on the well-being of his people, which is what democracy means."
- "Leadership, Board & Staff | The jewish agency for Israel". Jewishagency.org. Retrieved 8 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kasparov beaten in Israel. New York Times. (16 October 1996). Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- Desch, Michael (28 March 2005). "Sharansky's double standard". The American Conservative.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Natan (Anatoly) Sharansky". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 8 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Robert C. Toth, "Russ Indirectly Reveal 'State Secrets': Clues in Denials of Jewish Visas", Los Angeles Times, November 22, 1976
- "BBC News – Natan Sharansky: How chess kept one man sane". Bbc.co.uk. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hero Is Home: Israel Cheers Sharansky. Chicago Tribune. (12 February 1986). Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- Sharansky Swap Confirmed. Chicago Tribune. (11 February 1986). Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- Sharansky begins military training
- Congressional Gold Medal recipients. Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- Guide to the Operations and Functions Records in the Hadassah Archives, RG 15, Box 45, Folder 25, American Jewish Historical Society, Boston, MA and New York, NY
- Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients The White House. Office of the Press Secretary. 7 December 2006
- Natan Sharansky to receive Ronald Reagan Freedom Award. Associated Press via Ynetnews (28 February 2008)
- Natan Ščaranskij; Anatoly Sharansky (2006). The Case for Democracy: The Power of Freedom to Overcome Tyranny And Terror. New Leaf Publishing Group. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-89221-644-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- Nonna Gorilovskaya. "The Dissident: An Interview With Natan Sharansky". Mother Jones. Retrieved 8 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sharansky new Beth Hatefutsoth head – Israel Jewish Scene, Ynetnews. Ynetnews.com (20 June 1995). Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- [dead link]
- Berkman, Jacob (2 September 2009). "Genesis group gives Jewish Agency $6 million for education projects in FSU | Jewish Telegraphic Agency". Blogs.jta.org. Retrieved 8 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Chafets, Zev (10 April 2005). "Natan Sharansky: Bush's favorite author". Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- John F. Dickerson (January 10, 2005) What the president reads. CNN
- William Kristol (24 January 2005) Honoring Democracy. From the 24 January 2005 issue: Honor points the path of duty; the path of duty for us is the defense of liberty, Weekly Standard, Volume 10, Issue 18.
- Sharansky Interview regarding Defending Identity, 14 July 2008. Inkwellreview.blogspot.com (26 July 2008). Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- Natan Ščaranskij; Anatoly Sharansky (2006). The Case for Democracy: The Power of Freedom to Overcome Tyranny And Terror. New Leaf Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-89221-644-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Natan Sharansky (May–June 2011). "What Is Israel's Next Move In The New Middle East?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Unknown parameter
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- "Ceasing a life of double thinking". Jewish Quarterly. 33 (3): 15–17. January 1986. doi:10.1080/0449010X.1986.10703688.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "As I see Gorbachev". Commentary. 85 (3): 29–34. 1 March 1988.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The legacy of Andrei Sakharov". Journal of Democracy. 1 (2): 35–40. Spring 1990. doi:10.1353/jod.1990.0035.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "On Hating the Jews. The inextricable link between anti-Semitism and anti-Americanism". The Wall Street Journal. 17 November 2003.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Fear No Evil: The Classic Memoir of One Man's Triumph over a Police State, Public Affairs: 1998. ISBN 1-891620-02-9.
- The Case for Democracy: The Power of Freedom to Overcome Tyranny and Terror, Public Affairs: 2004. ISBN 1-58648-261-0.
- Defending Identity: Its Indispensable Role in Protecting Democracy, Public Affairs: 2008. ISBN 1-58648-513-X.
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- Natan Sharansky on the Knesset website
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Natan Sharansky at the Wayback Machine (archived October 10, 2010) Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Natan Sharansky Jewish Virtual Library
- The View from the Gulag. An interview with Natan Sharansky
- Sharansky's Final Statement in the Soviet Court, 14 July 1978
- Autobiographical article about his time in the GULAG Solitary Lessons October 2008.
- Natan Sharansky short speech on The Strength of a United Jewish People
- Mr. Sharansky, ease my doubts, by Martin Kramer
- Sharansky Interview in Middle East Quarterly
- Natan Sharansky Right Web Profile
- Natan Sharansky Adelson Institute for Strategic Studies
- Is This the Deal We Were Hoping For? February 2009.
- How the U.N. Perpetuates the 'Refugee' Problem (Wall Street Journal) 6 January 2009
- Sharansky's views about the Temple Mount (Haaretz) 16 October 2003
- on YouTube interview by Leon Charney on The Leon Charney Report