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Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of radiology focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, spine, and head and neck using neuroimaging techniques. Primary imaging modalities include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Plain radiography is utilized on a limited basis and ultrasound is used in limited circumstances, in particular in the pediatric population. Angiography is traditionally used for diagnosis of vascular abnormalities or diagnosis and characterization of masses or other lesions but is being replaced in many instances by CT or MRI angiography and imaging.

In the United States, radiology residents are required to spend at least four months learning neuroradiology to be eligible for radiology board certification. Neuroradiology fellowship is a one- or two-year program that follows diagnostic radiology residency. Interventional neuroradiology is a further subspecialization that adds another year or two of training. This area involves endovascular or minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system or head and neck lesions such as tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, or stroke.

The major professional association in the United States representing neuroradiologists is the American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR). The ASNR publishes the American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR). The ASNR annual meeting rotates through different cities, and usually takes place between late April and early June. The major professional association in Europe is the European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR), in Japan is the Japanese Neuroradiological Society and in France the French Society of Neuroradiology (SFNR). The ESNR and the Japanese society publish Neuroradiology and the SFNR publishes the Journal of Neuroradiology.

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