Preparation for Thiruvonam day
|Official name||Malayalam: ഓണം|
|Type||Regional Festival/Indian festival|
|Observances||Sadya, Thiruvathira Kali, Puli Kali, Pookalam, Ona-thallu, Thrikkakarayappan, Onathappan, Thumbi thullal, Onavillu, Kazhchakkula in Guruvayur, Athachamayam in Thrippunithura and Vallamkali (Boat race).|
|Date||Thiruvonam Nakshatra in the month of Chingam|
Onam (Malayalam: ഓണം) is the national festival celebrated in Kerala, India. It is also the state festival of Kerala with State holidays on 4 days starting from Onam Eve (Uthradom) to the 3rd Onam Day.
The festival falls during the Malayalam month of Chingam (Aug - Sep) and marks the commemoration of Vamana avatara of Vishnu and the subsequent homecoming of the mythical King Mahabali who Malayalees consider as their King. In Kerala, it is the festival celebrated with most number of cultural elements such as Vallam Kali, Pulikali, Pookkalam, Onathappan, Thumbi Thullal, Onavillu, Kazhchakkula, Onapottan, Atthachamayam etc. Onam is reminiscent of Kerala's agrarian past, as it is considered to be a harvest festival. The official date is set by the Indian National Calendar.
- 1 Significance
- 2 Rituals and activities
- 3 The legend
- 4 Alternate legend
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Onam is an ancient festival which still survives in modern times. Kerala's rice harvest festival and the Festival of Rain Flowers, which fall on the month of Chingam, celebrates the Asura King Mahabali's annual visit from Patala (the underworld). Onam is unique since Mahabali has been revered by the Hindu people of Kerala.The King is so much attached to his kingdom that it is believed that he comes annually from the nether world to see his people living happily. It is in honour of King Mahabali that Onam is celebrated. The deity Vamana, also called Onatthappan, is also revered during this time by installing a clay figure next to the floral carpet (Pookalam) .The birthday of Sri Padmanabhan, the presiding Deity of Thiruvananthapuram, is on the Thiruvonam day in the month of Chingam. Thiruonam day is the most important day of Onam. In Onam 2014, Thiruvonam date is 7 September.
Mahabali's rule is considered the golden era of Kerala. The following song is often sung over Onam:
Onam mythology may have been devised as a political allegory/tool where by the subjects could remind the rulers about an Ideal King and a welfare state. Onam songs mentions many of the modern social/economic indicators of a Welfare State including Crime rates, Child Mortality rates etc. Rulers may also have promoted it as it may have served as an indicator/barometer of the popularity/unpopularity of their Governance policies. The beauty of the festival lies in its secular fabric. People of all religions, castes and communities celebrate the festival with equal joy and verve. Onam also helps to create an atmosphere of peace and brotherhood by way of various team sports organised on the day.
Rituals and activities
Onam falls in the month of Chingam, which is the first month according to the Malayalam Calendar. The celebrations begin within a fortnight of the Malayalam New Year and go on for ten days. All over the state of Kerala, festive rituals, traditional cuisine, dance and music mark this harvest festival. The ten day Onam festival is considered to be flagged off with Atthachamayam (Royal Parade on Atham Day) in Thripunithara (a suburb of Kochi City). The parade is colourful and depicts all the elements of Kerala culture with more than 50 floats and 100 tableaux. The main center of festival is at Vamanamoorthy Thrikkakara temple within Kochi City, believed to be the ancient capital of King Mahabali. The temple is dedicated to Lord Vamana and is directly linked to the mythological background of Onam.
The ten days of Onam are celebrated with great fanfare, by Malayalees. Of all these days, most important ones are the first day, Atham, and the tenth and final day, Thiru-Onam (Thiruvonam). The rich cultural heritage of Kerala comes out in its best form and spirit during the festival.
The floral carpet, known as ‘Onapookkalam’, is made out of the gathered blossoms with several varieties of flowers of differing tints pinched up into little pieces to serve the decorator's purpose. It is considered a work of art accomplished with a delicate touch and a highly artistic sense of tone and blending. (In a similar manner North Indians make something called "Rangoli" which is made of powders of various colors.) When completed, a miniature pandal, hung with little festoons is erected over it.
Traditionally, Atthapookalams (pookalam made on the Atham day) included flowers endemic to Kerala and the Dashapushpam (10-flowers), but nowadays all varieties of flowers are used. Earthen mounds, which look somewhat like square pyramids, representing Mahabali and Vamana are placed in the dung-plastered courtyards in front of the house along with the Pookalam, and beautifully decorated with flowers. In the recent years, the floral designs have evolved from the traditional circular shape to unique designs depicting different cultural and social aspects of Kerala life. All over Kerala, Pookalam competitions are a common sight on Onam day. People start putting atha-pookalams from Atham ( First day of 10 day festival ) till thiruvonam, while some put Onam Pookalams till the 28th day after thiruvonam.
The Onam sadya (feast) is another very indispensable part of Thiruvonam, and almost every Keralite attempts to either make or attend one. The feast is served on plantain leaves and consists of about 26 dishes, including (but not limited to) 
- Chips (especially Banana chips)
- Sharkaraveratti (Fried pieces of banana coated with jaggery) 
Various vegetable curries such as
- Dal served along with a small quantity of ghee
- Moru (Curd with water)
- Pickles, both sweet and sour
- Two different types of buttermilk
- A chutney powder prepared from grated coconut
- A series of dessert called Payasam (a sweet dish made of milk, sugar, jaggery and other traditional Indian savories) eaten either straight or mixed with a ripe small plantain.
In hotels and temples, the number of curries and dishes may go up to 30. The importance of the feast to the Kerala's Onam celebration culture is captured in the famous Malayalam proverb "Kaanam Vittum Onam Unnanam" which means "One must have the Onam lunch even one is forced to sell his property"
Music and dance
Traditional dance forms including Thiruvathira, Kummattikali, Pulikali, Thumbi Thullal etc. are performed as part of celebrations all over Kerala at this time. Thiruvathirakali is a women's dance performed in a circle around a lamp, and is given special importance during Onam. Kummattikali is a famous and colorful-mask dance. In Thrissur, festivities includes a procession consisting of caparisoned elephants surrounded by Kummatikali dancers. The masked dancers go from house to house performing the colorful Kummattikali.
Kathakali dance is also commonly performed during this time, with dancers enacting famous mythological legends. A famous venue for this is at Valluvanad which is associated with the growth of Kathakali, and Cheruthuruthy, where Kerala Kalamandalam is located.
Pulikali, also known as Kaduvakali is a common sight during Onam season. This dance showcases performers painted like tigers in bright yellow, red and black, who dance to the beats of instruments like Chenda and thakil.
At the Thrikkakara temple, every day of the festival showcases one or more of these activities including Kathakali, Thiruvathira, Chakyar koothu, Ottam thullal, Patakam, Onam songs and percussion instrument shows. The Onasadya here is grand in scale, and is attended by over ten thousand people from all religions and faiths.
The Vallamkali (the snake boat race) is another event that is synonymous with Onam. Well-known races include the Aranmula Uthrattadhi Boat Race and the Nehru Trophy Boat Race. About 100 oarsmen row huge and graceful snake boats and men and women come from far and near to watch the snake boats skim through the water. As a tribute to the traditional snake boat race, a similar snake boat race is also held by the Malayali diaspora in Singapore annually during Onam at the Jurong Lake.
The tradition of buying and wearing new clothes for the occasion of Onam is called the Onakkodi.
During the Onam, Keralite Hindus install an image of Thrikkakara Appan or Onatthappan (Vishnu in the form of Vamana) in their home just as Hindus install images or murtis of Lord Ganesh on the Ganesh Chaturthi festival.
Many lamps are lit in Hindu temples of Kerala during this celebration. A palmyra tree is erected in front of temples and surrounded with a wooden balustrade and covered with dry palmyra leaves. It is lit with a torch and burned to ashes to signify that King Mahabali went to Patala as a sacrifice.
The swing is another integral part of Onam, especially in the rural areas. Young men and women, decked in their best, sing Onappaatt, or Onam songs, and rock one another on swings slung from high branches.
Onam season is often associated with creativity as weavers and potters go for excess production to cater to increased demands for their products during the season, especially in North Kerala regions of Kannur and Kasargod. Handloom fairs are an integral part of the spirit of Onam festivities these days.
In some parts of Kerala, people indulge in various games and dances during and post-Thiruvonam. These are known as Onakkalikal. These include competitions such as Ox races (Maramadimatsaram), Uriyady, food eating competitions, Pookalam competitions etc.
The Ten Days of Celebration
The celebrations of Onam start on Atham day, 10 days before Thiruvonam. The 10 days are part of the traditional Onam celebrations and each day has its own importance in various rituals and traditions.
1. Atham The first day of Onam celebrations starts with Atham day in the Malayalam month of Chingam. It is believed that King Mahabali starts his preparations to descend from Pathala to Kerala on this day. The day also marks the start of festivities at Thrikkakara temple, which is considered as one of the centers of Onam and the abode of Mahabali, with the raising of the festival flag. The Onam celebrations across the state, starts off with a grand procession at Thrippunithura near Kochi called Atthachamayam. In olden days, the Kochi Maharaja used to head a grand military procession in full ceremonial robes from his palace to the Thrikkakara temple. After independence, the public took over the function and celebrated as a major cultural procession which kicks off the official celebrations of Onam. Elephant processions, folk art presentations, music and dancing make Athachamyam a spectacular event which is now aggressively promoted as a tourist event.
The traditional ritual of laying pookkalam (floral carpet) starts on Atham day. The pookkalam on this day is called Athapoo, and it is relatively small in size. The size of the pookkalam grows in size progressively with each day of the Onam festival. Only yellow flowers will be used on Atham and the design is kept simple. Statues or figurines of Mahabali and Vamana are also installed at the entrance of each house on this day.
2. Chithira The pookkalam design on the second day consists of a second layer added on top with 2 different colours apart from yellow (mostly orange and creamy yellow). On this day, people start cleaning the household to prepare for the Thiruvonam day.
3.Chodhi On the third day of Onam celebrations, the pookalam starts growing in its size by adding new layers or designs with at least 4 to 5 different flowers. The day also marks the start of shopping activities. Onam is associated with gifting new clothes, hence from this day onwards people start buying new clothes and jewellery.
4.Vishakam The fourth day of Onam celebrations. Vishakam is considered to be one of the most auspicious days of Onam. In olden days, the markets open their harvest sale on this day, making one of the busiest days in the markets for public. Nowadays, Vishakam marks the start of many Onam-related competitions such as Pookkalam competition.
5.Anizham The fifth day of Onam celebrations is one of the most important days in the Onam celebration, as it kicks off the great Vallamkali (Snake boat race) in many parts of Kerala. The snake boats are prepared for participation in the boat race at Aranmula Uthrattathi Vallamkali. A mock Vallamkali is conducted on this day at Aranmula as a dress-rehearsal for the final boat race which will be held after Onam.
6.Thriketa The sixth day of Onam celebrations. By the sixth day, the public frenzy starts building up. Most of the schools and public offices are granted holiday from this day onwards and people start packing their bags to their native homes to celebrate the festival with their dear ones. The pookkalam design will be very large by this time, with at least 5 to 6 new flowers types added to the original designs.
7.Moolam The seventh day of Onam celebrations. On this day, the smaller versions of traditional Ona Sadya (Onam lunch feast) start in many places. Most of the temples offer special sadyas on from this day. Festivities include Puli Kali (masked leopard dance) and traditional dance forms like Kaikotti Kali which are performed in various functions. The official Government celebrations start on this day with heavy illuminations in Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode along with fireworks.
8.Pooradam The eight day of Onam celebrations. The day starts off with a major traditional ritual where the small statues of Mahabali and Vamana will be washed and cleaned and taken around the house in a procession. It will be later installed in the center of the pookkalam smeared with a rice-flour batter. The smearing is done by small children who are called Poorada unnikal. From this day onwards, the statue will be called Onathappan. The pookkalam design from Pooradam day onwards gets much bigger and complex in design. Shopping is one of the major activities as the public will be making final purchases for the great Thiruvonam day.
9.Uthradom The ninth day of Onam Celebrations. Uthradom is the ninth and the penultimate day of the festival of Onam. It is considered as Onam eve and celebrated in a very big way. The importance of this day is last minute extreme shopping frenzy called as Uthradappachil and is considered the most auspicious day for purchase of fresh vegetables and fruits along with other provisions from the Thiruvonam day.
Uthradam is known as 'First Onam' because it marks the day when King Mahabali descends onto Kerala. Traditional myths say that the king will spend the next four days touring his erstwhile kingdom and blessing the subjects. Due to this, Uthradom is celebrated in a very pompous manner with larger pookkalams and celebrations in all households. The Uthradom lunch is generally grand. Women normally cut the first set of vegetables on this day that marks the celebrations of Thiruvonam in each household and preparations for grand Thiruvonam feast also start during the evening of Uthradom day.
10.Thiruvonam The tenth and final day of Onam celebrations that culminates the 10 days of Onam Carnival. The day is known as Thiru-Onam (Sacred Onam Day) also known as 'Second Onam'. Myth says that this was the day Mahabali was sent to the netherworld ( Pathalam) by Vamana. The day marks the return of Mahabali to his fabled land (Kerala), as per the boon he received from Vamana to meet his subjects and bless them. Apart from this myth, this day is considered auspicious being birthdays of several temple deities representing Vishnu, like Vamana of Thrikkakara temple, Sree Padmanabha Swamy of Thiruvananthapuram etc.
Activities begin early in the morning. People clean their house, apply rice flour batter on the main entrance (a traditional welcome sign), take an early bath, wear new clothes and distribute alms to needy. The eldest female member of each family presents clothes to all the members of the family. Special prayers and Masses are organized in temples, churches and mosques that highlight the secular nature of festival. The pookkalam is prepared to welcome Mahabali.
Most cities in Kerala, such as the political, commercial and cultural capitals Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Thrissur, are lit up with lights and fabulous displays of fireworks. Sumptuous Onam Sadya feasts are prepared. In Thrikkakara temple, a mega-feast is conducted which is open to the public and is attended by more than twenty thousand people. The afternoon is marked with various traditional Onam games, usually seen in rural areas, and are organized by resident associations and clubs in large cities. In some parts of Kerala, people indulge in various games and dances (Onakkalikal) during and post Thiruvonam. These include Thiruvathirakali, Kummattikali, Pulikali etc.
Post Onam celebrations
Normally, the largest chunk of Onam celebrations end by Thiruvonam. However the two days following Thiruvonam are also celebrated as Third and Fourth Onam. The third Onam, called Avvittom marks the preparations for King Mahabali's return ascension to heavens. The main ritual of the day is to take the Onathappan statue which was placed in the middle of every pookkalam during the past 10 days and immerse it in nearby rivers or sea. The pookkalam will be cleaned and removed after this. The day is also important, as the famous Pulikali is held in the city of Thrissur. In this, men dressed as lions, tigers and leopards, parade through the city in large numbers. The Puli-Kali also marks the end of traditional Onam celebrations.
The fourth day of Onam is called as Chatayam. The official government celebrations ends on this day with a mega dance festival in the capital city, Thiruvananthapuram.
Celebrations by expatriates
Onam is also celebrated fervently by the huge Malayali diaspora found throughout the world. Celebrations are notable in the United Arab Emirates, Singapore and USA. In Dubai, a large event conducted by the diaspora consisting of arts performances, sadya and pookalam competitions, is a regular feature.
Mahabali was the grandson of Prahlada (son of Hiranyakashyapa who was slain by Vishnu in his Narasimha Avatara). Prahlada, despite being an Asura, had great faith in Vishnu. Mahabali had become a devotee of Lord Vishnu as a child due to his grandfather Prahlada.
Mahabali conquers the three worlds
Mahabali gradually became a powerful ruler of all the realms - heaven and earth, with the able guidance of his guru Shukracharya. The Devas (gods) saw the rise of the Asura king as a threat. Envious of Mahabali's prosperity, the gods approached Vishnu and asked for his help, to which Vishnu agreed.
A variation of this story says that Vishnu stopped Mahabali as a boon to Aditi, who was the mother of the Devas. Kashyapa had two wives, Diti and Aditi, who were the parents of the demons and the gods (Asuras and Devas) respectively. Kashyapa, who had gone to the Himalayas to do penance, on his return found Aditi weeping for the fall of the Devas and the rise of Asuras. He consoled her, asked her to pray to Vishnu and taught her Payovrata, a ritual that has to be observed from the 12th day of the bright half of Karthika (Sukla-paksha Dvadasi). Since Aditi carried out the Vrata with a pious heart, Vishnu appeared before her and agreed to help Indra, the king of Devas.
Another version of the story says that Mahabali grew pompous, due to the praise and respect by his courtiers and subjects, and came to believe that there was no greater person in the world other than him. Believing himself to be the ruler of the three worlds, he took pride in thinking he could grant anyone whatever they asked. It is said that in order to curb his pride, Vishnu decided to teach Mahabali that the Almighty was still above him.
Eventually, Vishnu was born as a boy to Aditi, and known as the Brahmin Vamana.
In the meantime, Mahabali was performing the sacrificial rite of the Viswajith Yagam or Aswamedha Yagam on the banks of the Narmada River in Brugacham, on the advice of his guru Shukracharya. The Vishwajith Yagam would allow Mahabali to secure very powerful weapons against Indra, thus further strengthening the Asura hold over the three worlds. Mahabali also declared that he would give anything that anyone sought from him during this Yagam.
Vamana visits Mahabali
Taking advantage of the Yagam and Mahabali's declaration, Vamana (Vishnu disguised as a Brahmin) came to the Yaga-shala. Mahabali received the Brahmin boy with all traditional honours and courtesies. Mahabali expressed that it was his good fortune that Vamana had chosen to honour him with his presence. He asked Vamana what gift he desired, and said he was ready to fulfill anything. Vamana smiled and said: "I do not ask for anything great. All I need is land equivalent to three paces of my feet".
On hearing this, Mahabali's perceptive guru, Shukracharya, told Mahabali that the boy was no ordinary Brahmin, but Lord Vishnu Himself. He advised Mahabali not to promise the lad anything. But Mahabali was a king who would never go back on his word, considering it sinful to do so. Shukracharya insisted that he should not fulfill the demand of Vamana as he had come to deprive him of all his possessions.
However, all attempts of Shukracharya to dissuade Mahabali proved futile. Mahabali considered everyone who came to him for help as god himself and never refused them anything. Mahabali told his Guru: "Prana (life) and Maana (honour) are like the two eyes of a person. Even if life goes, honour should be protected. Knowing that the person that has come now is the Lord Himself, I should be the most fortunate one as the Lord, who gives everything to mankind, is seeking something from me." Mahabali gladly said that even if Vishnu himself were to come to his sacrifice and ask for anything, he would deliver it.
Mahabali, determined to honour his promise, begged the pardon of his Guru for disregarding his advice, and resumed his promise to Vamana.
Mahabali's reign ends
Saying so, Mahabali asked Vamana to measure out his desired three paces of land.
Vamana grew in size until he towered above the heavens. With one footstep, he measured all of the earth. With the second, he claimed all of heaven. There was still one foot of territory that Mahabali owed him. Mahabali requested Vamana to place the final step on his head as the third step of land, for he had no other left. Vamana did so and in doing so, sent him down to Sutala, the heaven-like underworld. The site where he placed his foot is said to be the village of Thrikkakara (meaning place of the holy foot), and is the centre of the renowned Onam festival celebrated in relation to the legend of King Mahabali.
Vishnu's blessings and birth of Onam
For the devotion of the daitya, Mahabali, Lord Vishnu (Vamana) granted him rule over the underworld. It was also granted that he would hold the position of Indra for one Manvantara (a cyclic measure of time), thus fulfilling his devotee's desire (the office of Indra was a rotating position, changing every Manvantara).
As a last gift, Mahabali was granted permission to visit his subjects once a year. Thus, Keralites celebrate the Onam festival to commemorate the memory of the Great King Mahabali who would keep his promise to visit them every year. Mahabali fulfilled his name as the great martyr for the sake of Truth ("Satya"). The name "Mahabali" itself means Great Sacrifice.
During Onam, the feast and festive mood of the people, dressed in their best, is considered reminiscent of the prosperous and truthful life of the subjects during Mahabali's flawless reign. People wear new clothes (Vastra) during Onam. The 'Vastra' also stands for heart. Thus the significance of wearing new clothes is about making the heart new by removing all bad thoughts and feelings.Carnival lasts for 10 days.
By traditional beliefs; Parasurama, an incarnation of Vishnu is credited to have founded Kerala. An alternate legend defines Onam as the day on which Parasurama recovered Kerala from the sea-bed by throwing his battle-axe. The axe traveled from Gokarnam in the North to Kanyakumari in the South. This legend is mentioned by Hermann Gundert in his Malayalam Dictionary.
- Onam festival.
Onam is the biggest and the most important festival of the state of Kerala. It is a harvest festival and is celebrated with joy and enthusiasm all over the state by people of all communities.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- M. Nazeer (10 August 2010). "The abiding lore and spirit of Onam". The Hindu. Retrieved 26 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Flowers, pookkalam and Onam". The Hindu. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- K. K. Gopalakrishnan (17 November 2011). "Onam and its backdrops". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Thiruvonam celebrated with enthusiasm". The Hindu. 11 September 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Grandeur marks Onam celebrations at Thrikkakkara temple". The Hindu. 11 September 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- PTI (14 August 2010). "'Athachamayam' Festivities held at Tripunithura". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Team MetroPlus. "The feel of Onam". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "'Athappookalam' losing traditional verve". The Hindu. 1 September 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "'Kerala gets ready for 26 dish Onam sadya'". 4 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sarkara varatti recipe". Cheena Chatti. Retrieved 30 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Vinu Vasudevan (9 May 2013). "Majestic portrayals". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Ritual lunch marks Onam at Thrikkakara". The Hindu. 24 August 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Onam celebrated in S'pore". Asia One news. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- P. 179 Genealogy Of The South Indian Deities By Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg, Daniel Jeyaraj
- "Myth, mystique and traditions of Onam". The Hindu. Kochi, India. 21 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Rain no deterrent to 'Uthradappachil'". The Hindu. 8 July 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Thrikkakara temple gears up for Onam". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 August 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Onam celebrations in Dubai to have traditional flair". The Khaleej Times. 15 August 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Shveta Pathak (10 September 2011). "Keralites in the UAE celebrate Onam". Gulf News. Retrieved 30 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Onam…The Annual Sojourn of Mahabali". The Hindu. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- P. 161 Many Ramayanas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia By Paula Richman
- Account of the several Manus and Manwantaras Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Book III: Chapter I. 265:22
- P. 368 Śrīmadbhāgavatam =: Srimad Bhagavata, the Holy Book of God By Tapasyananda
- P. 66 Path to the Soul By Ashok Bedi
- P. 47 Folk-lore Published 1960, Indian Publications
- P. 253 Some South Indian Villages By Gilbert Slater