Open front rounded vowel
|Open front rounded vowel|
The open front rounded vowel, or low front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, not confirmed to be phonemic in any spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɶ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is &. The letter ⟨ɶ⟩ is a small caps rendition of ⟨Œ⟩. Note that ⟨œ⟩, the lowercase version of the ligature, is used for the open-mid front rounded vowel.
The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".
Riad (2014) reports that [ɶː] in Stockholm Swedish is sometimes difficult to distinguish from [ɒː]. He states that it is "a sign that these vowels are phonetically very close".
|IPA vowel chart|
|Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded|
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- Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth – that is, as low as possible in the mouth.
- Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
- It's rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.
A phoneme generally transcribed by this symbol is reported from the Amstetten dialect of Austro-Bavarian German. However, phonetically it is open-mid, i.e. [œ].
It occurs allophonically in Danish, Weert Limburgish and some speakers of Swedish.
|Danish||Standard||børn||[ˈb̥ɶ̽ɐ̯n]||'children'||Near-open near-front; allophone of /ø(ː)/ and /œ(ː)/ after /ʁ/, sometimes also before it. May vary between near-open and open-mid. See Danish phonology|
|Limburgish||Weert dialect||bùj||[bɶj]||'shower'||Allophone of /œ/ before /j/.|
|Swedish||Stockholm||öra||[ˈɶ̂ːˈrâ]||'ear'||Pre-/r/ allophone of /œ/ and (more often) /øː/ for younger speakers. Open-mid [œ, œː] for other speakers. See Swedish phonology|
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Riad (2014:38)
- ↑ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Grønnum (1998:100)
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Grønnum (2005:268)
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Grønnum (2003)
- ↑ Basbøll (2005:46): "Nina Grønnum uses two different symbols for the vowels in these and similar words: gøre she transcribes with (...) [œ] (narrow transcription), and grøn she transcribes with (...) [ɶ̝] (narrow transcription). Clearly, there is variation within Standard Danish on this point (...)."
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:110)
- Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, 2: 289–333, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>