Oscar-class submarine

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Oscar class
Томск в Вилючинске.jpg
Tomsk in Vilyuchinsk.
Class overview
Builders: SEVMASH, Severodvinsk
Preceded by: Papa-class submarine
Succeeded by: Severodvinsk-class submarine
Built: 1975-1996
In service: 1981-present
In commission: 1980-present
Building: 2[1]
Planned: 20 (2 949, 18 949A)[2]
Completed: 13 (2 949, 11 949A)
Cancelled: 7 (3 incomplete, 4 never laid down)
Active: 5[3]
Laid up: 2[3]
Lost: 1 Kursk 12 August 2000
Retired: 4
General characteristics
  • 12,500/14,700 tons surfaced
  • 16,500/19,400 tons submerged[2]
Length: 155 m (508 ft 6 in)[2] maximum
Beam: 18.2 m (59 ft 9 in)
Draught: 9 m (29 ft 6 in)
Installed power: 2 × pressurized water cooled reactors
Propulsion: 2 × steam turbines delivering 73,070 kW (97,990 shp) to two shafts
  • 15 knots (28 km/h) surfaced
  • 32 knots (59 km/h) submerged[2]
Endurance: 120 days[2]
Complement: 94/107[2]
  • 4 × 533 mm (21.0 in) and 2 × 650 mm (26 in) torpedo tubes in bow
  • 28 × 533 mm and 650 mm weapons, including Tsakra (SS-N-15 Starfish) anti-submarine missiles with 15 kt nuclear warheads and Vodopad/Veder (SS-N-16 Stallion) and anti-submarine missiles with 200 kt nuclear warhead or Type 40 anti-submarine torpedo or 32 ground mines
  • 24 × P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 Shipwreck) cruise missiles with 750 kilograms (1,650 lb) HE or 500 kt nuclear warheads

Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) are Soviet Navy/Russian Navy cruise missile submarines (NATO reporting names: Oscar-I and Oscar-II respectively).

Project 949 submarines were the largest cruise missile submarines in service, until the Ohio-class SSGN cruise missile submarine converted from SSBN and returned to service on October 15, 2007. They are the fourth largest class of submarines in terms of displacement and length. Only the Typhoon-class Soviet/Russian submarines, the American Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines and the Russian Borei-class submarines are larger.


The first submarine of Project 949 was laid down in the mid-1970s and was commissioned in 1980. In 1982 an updated and larger version (Project 949A) replaced the earlier version. In total thirteen submarines were constructed. The Oscar class was designed to attack NATO carrier battle groups using long-range SS-N-19 "Shipwreck" anti-ship missiles and targeting data provided by the EORSAT satellite system.[4][5] In the financial problems that followed the fall of the Soviet Union the Oscar class was prioritized by the Russian navy and when many older submarine classes were retired the Oscar class remained active in both the Northern and Pacific fleets. In 2011, five submarines are currently active with several more in reserve or waiting for repairs.

Project 949 Granit

Project 949

Two Project 949 Granit submarines were built at Severodvinsk and assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet. They were K-525 laid down in 1975 and K-206 laid down in 1979. Both were decommissioned in 1996[6] and scrapped in 2004.[7]

Project 949A Antey

Eleven Project 949A Antey submarines were completed at Severodvinsk, of which five were assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet.

At one stage it had been planned to develop a new fourth-generation follow-on to the Project 949A, but this plan was later scrapped. [8]

The external differences between the two classes were that the 949A class is about 10 metres (33 ft) longer than its predecessor (~154 metres (505 ft) rather than 143 m (469 ft)), providing space for improved electronics and possibly quieter propulsion. Some sources speculate that the acoustic performance of the Oscar II class is superior to early Akula-class submarine but inferior to the Akula II as well as subsequent (4. generation) designs.[9] It also has a larger fin, and a seven-bladed propeller instead of a four-bladed one.[10]

Like all post-World War II Soviet designs, they are of double hull construction.[3] Similarly, like other Soviet submarine designs, Project 949 not only has a bridge open to the elements on top of the sail but, for use in inclement weather, there is an enclosed bridge forward and slightly below this station in the fin/sail.

A distinguishing mark is a slight bulge at the top of the fin. A large door on either side of the fin reaches this bulge. These are wider at the top than on the bottom, and are hinged on the bottom. The Federation of American Scientists[10] reports that this submarine carries an emergency crew escape capsule; it is possible that these doors cover it. The VSK escape capsule can accommodate 110 people.[11]

The Oscar Class is commonly referred to as Mongo by crews of US patrol aircraft in reference to their massive size.[citation needed]

In December 2012, construction began on a special purpose research and rescue submarine, designated project 09852, and allegedly based on project 949A (Oscar II class) submarines.[12] The submarine is designed to carry smaller submarines.[12] Some sources speculated that the boat being built/modified is actually the incomplete "Belgorod".[13] However, another source gave a different account stating that the boat is similar to AS-31 Losharik, a far smaller special purpose submarine.[14][15]

In September 2015, during a visit to the Zvezda shipyard at Bolshoy Kamen on Russia's Pacific coast, Russian defence minister Sergei Shoigu announced that at least three Oscar-class submarines will be modernized to a new Project 949AM standard. The modernization will include updated electronic and communication equipment as well as new weaponry.[16]

Ships in the class

Northern Fleet Oscar class submarines[2]
# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
K-525 Arkhangelsk (ex Minskiy Komsomolets) 949 25 July 1975 3 May 1980 30 December 1980 Decommissioned 1996,[6] scrapped in 2004[7]
K-206 Murmansk [17] 949 22 April 1979 10 December 1982 30 November 1983 Decommissioned 1996,[6] scrapped in 2004[7]
K-148 Krasnodar 949A 22 July 1982 3 March 1985 30 September 1986 Retired, scrapping began in late 2012.[18]
K-119 Voronezh 949A 25 February 1986 16 December 1988 29 December 1989 Active, after overhaul finished in November 2011[19]
K-410 Smolensk 949A 9 December 1986 20 January 1990 22 December 1990 Active, after overhaul finished in December 2013[20][21]
K-266 Orel 949A 19 January 1989 22 May 1992 30 December 1992 Active, to be overhauled in 2013,[22] Caught fire in dock during repair[23]
K-141 Kursk 949A 22 March 1992 16 May 1994 30 December 1994 Lost 12 August 2000
Pacific Fleet Oscar class submarines[2]
# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
K-173 Krasnoyarsk 949A August 4, 1983 March 27, 1986 December 31, 1986 Inactive, to be scrapped[24]
K-132 Irkutsk 949A May 8, 1985 December 27, 1987 December 30, 1988 modernization in 2014 [25]
K-442 Chelyabinsk 949A May 21, 1987 June 18, 1990 December 28, 1990 waiting overhaul/upgrade[26]
K-456 Vilyuchinsk 949A February 9, 1988 June 28, 1991 August 18, 1992 Active
K-186 Omsk 949A July 13, 1989 May 10, 1993 July 20, 1996 Overhaul 2007-2008 [27]
K-150 Tomsk 949A August 27, 1991 July 20, 1996 December 30, 1996 Active

Three more Project 949A Antey submarines were planned.[2]

Unfinished Oscar class submarines[2]
# Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Status
K-139 Belgorod 949A July 24, 1992 Converted for special missions.[29]
K-135 Volgograd 949A September 2, 1993 Construction maybe restarted[1]
K-165 Barnaul 949A April 1994 Construction stopped
launched incomplete



  1. 1.0 1.1 "Russia to Complete and Modernize Antei-class Subs". rusnavy.com. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Podvodnye Lodki, Yu.V. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2002, ISBN 5-8172-0069-4
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  4. "SSGN Oscar II Class (Project 949.A) (Kursk) - Naval Technology". naval-technology.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. http://faculty.fordham.edu/siddiqi/writings/p14_siddiqi_jbis_rorsat_1999.pdf
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  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Zvezdochka dismantling two nuclear subs". Bellona Foundation. 2 April 2004. Retrieved 2011-12-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  9. "China's Noisy Nuclear Submarines » FAS Strategic Security Blog". Fas.org. Retrieved 2013-03-24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Project 949 Granit / Oscar I ; Project 949A Antey / Oscar II". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2011-12-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Barry, John; Bartholet, Jeffrey; Caryl, Christian (27 August 2000). "A Mystery In The Deep". Newsweek. The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2012-10-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Russia builds deep-sea research submarine". World-nuclear-news.org. 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2013-02-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Russia builds nuclear submarine for deep-water research". Barents Observer. Retrieved 29 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. 20.12.2012 (2012-12-20). "Second Research Sub Keel-Laid at Sevmash". Rusnavy.com. Retrieved 2013-02-06.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. John Pike. "Project 210 Losharik". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-02-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Russia details ambitious effort to modernise nuclear-powered submarines to bolster order of battle". janes.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "State of the Russian Navy". Russian Warfare. Retrieved 2011-12-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Nerpa Shipyard Starts Dismantling of Nuc Sub Krasnodar". rusnavy.com. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. ЦС "Звездочка" завершил ремонт атомного подводного ракетного крейсера К-119 "Воронеж". flot.com (in Russian). I-mash.ru. Retrieved 2012-01-01. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Repair of SSN Voronezh Completed". rusnavy.com. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Repair Works Started on SSN Smolensk". rusnavy.com. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "SSBN Orel to Pass Upgrade in 2013". rusnavy.com. 31 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Russian nuclear submarine 'on fire' in Arctic dock". bbc.com. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "Title unknown" (in Russian). deepstorm.ru. Retrieved 2012-10-27. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. |url=http://flot.com/2014/179419/ http://q99.it/uUekudp "Title unknown" (in Russian). deepstorm.ru. Retrieved 2012-10-27. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. to be modernised at 'Zvezda' shipyard http://flot.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=170535 "Title unknown" (in Russian). deepstorm.ru. Retrieved 2012-10-27. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Defense shipyard Zvezda claims RUR 65 mln for repairs of SSGN Omsk". rusnavy.com. 7 September 2010. Retrieved 2012-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Court obliged Pacific Fleet to pay for repair of SSN Omsk". rusnavy.com. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 2012-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Safronov, Sergey (9 February 2012). "Russia to Convert Belgorod Submarine for Special Missions". Ria Novosti. Retrieved 2012-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • The Encyclopedia Of Warships, From World War Two To The Present Day, General Editor Robert Jackson.

External links