Party of Regions

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Party of Regions
Leader (position liquidated), leadership now in the hands of the Enlarged Bureau[1][2]
Executive secretary Borys Kolesnikov[3][4]
Founded 26 October 1997
Headquarters Kiev, Ukraine
Newspaper Vremya Regionov
Youth wing Young Regions
Ideology Catch-all[5][6][7]
International affiliation None
Colours      Blue
Politics of Ukraine
Political parties

The Party of Regions (Ukrainian: Партія регіонів, pronounced [ˈpɑrtijɑ rɛɦiˈɔniu̯]; Russian: Партия регионов) is a Russophone[12][13] political party of Ukraine created in late 1997 that then grew to be the biggest party of Ukraine. But since the February 2014 Ukrainian revolution the party has not competed in elections and since most of its representatives have left the party to continue their careers in other parties.[14][15] Best known former party members are former Prime Minister Mykola Azarov and former President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych.[16] Both fled to Russia in February 2014.[17]

The party was created on 26 October 1997, just prior to the 1998 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, under the name of Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine[18] and led by Volodymyr Rybak. Throughout its existence the party has contained different political groups with diverging ideological outlooks.[5][6][7]

The party was reorganized later in 2001 when it united with several others. According to the party’s leadership in 2002, from the creation of the party to the end of 2001 the number of members jumped from 30,000 to 500,000.[19] The party claims to ideologically defend and uphold the rights of ethnic Russians and speakers of the Russian language in Ukraine. It originally supported president Leonid Kuchma and joined the pro-government For United Ukraine alliance during the parliamentary elections on 30 March 2002.

Its electoral and financial base has always been located primarily in the east and south-east of Ukraine, where it got wide popular electoral support.[20] In the eastern Ukrainian Donetsk Oblast the party claimed in 2010 to have over 700,000 members. The party was always supported mostly by people older than 45 years.[20]

The party won 185 seats in the Ukrainian parliament in the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election.[21] On 12 December 2012 it formed a parliamentary faction of 210 deputies.[22]

During the 2014 Ukrainian revolution on February 20, 2014, several party members called for the disintegration of Ukraine and a union with the Russian Federation. Oleksandr Yefremov, leader of the Ukrainian parliamentary faction in full support of these proposed actions,[23] and Vladimir Konstantinov, chairman of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea went to Luhansk to support these decisive actons.[24] On 23 February 2014 the Party of Regions condemned and disassociated itself from Victor Yanukovych for corruption, "criminal orders", his escape, and "cowardice".[25] The following months more than 120 MPs left the party's parliamentary faction.[22][26][27]

In 2014 the party's symbol and activities were banned in the Chernivtsi,[citation needed] Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk regions.[28][29]

The Party of Regions faction in Zhytomyr announced its dissolution on 19 February 2014, in connection with the crisis of the preceding three months.[30]

The party did not participate in the 2014 parliamentary elections.[14][31] In the following months, the majority of its representatives continued their political careers predominantly with Opposition Bloc, Revival or Our Land.[15][32]


Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine

The founding congress of the Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine was held on 26 October 1997 in Kiev.[33] The first leader of the party was the mayor of Donetsk, Volodymyr Rybak.[33] On 6 November 1997, the Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine was registered at the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice.[18] On 27 November 1997 there took place the 1st Party Congress, which adopted the electoral party list and platform for the next elections. Already on 13 January 1998 a parliamentary faction was created in the parliament of Ukraine, the Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine (head of coordination council – Gennadiy Samofalov).

During the 1998 parliamentary elections the Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine won 0.90% of the votes.[18] A single party representative was elected to the Ukrainian Parliament by winning one constituency at the regular elections.[33] The party was among the top 10 in Chernivtsi and Donetsk Oblasts. Volodymyr Rybak was the winner of constituency number 45 in Donetsk Oblast.[34]

During the 2nd Party Congress that took place in two stages during the spring of 1999 it was decided to support the presidential candidate Leonid Kuchma for the next presidential elections. It was recommended that the candidate include in his election campaign propositions of the Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine, including one on granting the Russian language official status. In the summer of 1999, the party entered the electoral bloc "Our choice - Leonid Kuchma", consisting of 23 parties and led by Eugene Kushnaryov, who endorsed incumbent President Leonid Kuchma in the presidential election of 1999.[33]

Creation of the Party of Regions

On 17 November 2000, the 3rd Extraordinary Party Congress adopted the merger of five political parties, For Beautiful Ukraine (Leonid Chernovetsky), All-Ukrainian Party of Pensioners (A.Kapusta), Party of Labor (Valentyn Landyk), Party of Solidarity of Ukraine (Petro Poroshenko), and Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine (Volodymyr Rybak), into a new one under the name of Party of Regional Revival "Labor Solidarity of Ukraine". The co-leaders of the new political polity became Valentyn Landyk, Petro Poroshenko, and Volodymyr Rybak. Also, prior to the merger the Party of Solidarity of Ukraine was completely abandoned by its base party of Serhiy Dovhan, the Peasant Party of Ukraine, which dissolved its union with Solidarity. On February 21, 2001, the Ministry of Justice registered the newly established Party of Regional Revival "Labour Solidarity of Ukraine".

On March 3, 2001, at the 3rd Party Congress, the party changed its name to Party of Regions. At the congress Mykola Azarov, who at that time was chairman of the State Tax Administration of Ukraine, was elected the party leader, but soon resigned in December 2001,[35] being replaced by his deputy and at that time Vice Prime Minister Volodymyr Semynozhenko.[36] In an interview with the newspaper Den (Ukrainian: День) on 6 March 2001, Azarov said that he agreed to become the chairman for a brief period "until the party nominated a leader who will claim the office of the President of Ukraine in 2004".[37] In December 2001 the Party of Regions member Ihor Yushchko was appointed Minister of Finance of Ukraine.[36] On 21 March 2001, the Ministry of Justice re-registered the party under the number 939 with the older date of registration.

On 23 May 2001, the party signed an agreement of partnership and cooperation with the party Labour Ukraine (Serhiy Tihipko), and on 7 June 2001, with the Agrarian Party of Ukraine.

Regions of Ukraine was the parliamentary wing of the Party of Regions; it was created at the end of March 2001[36] after several deputies defected from their original faction. Critics claimed the deputies were "lured away" from those other factions by pressure and analysts claimed most of them had nothing to do with the new party.[37] Nine out of seventeen members of the faction had their political and business roots in the Donetsk region.[36] In July 2002 the party had a faction of 24 people (one deputy left the faction later).[38]

On 20 March 2001, Solidarity announced it would "be as a single bloc".[37] (Eventually the (Solidarity) party became part of the Viktor Yushchenko Bloc Our Ukraine during the 2002 parliamentary elections.)[39]

During the Ukrainian parliamentary election the party was a member of the For United Ukraine electoral bloc.[18][40] It was then led by Volodymyr Semynozhenko.[41]

From 21 November 2002 until 7 December 2004, Viktor Yanukovych was Prime Minister of Ukraine.

At a congress held on 19 April 2003 Viktor Yanukovych was elected party leader, succeeding Volodymyr Semynozhenko.[42] At that time the party had 20 seats in parliament.[43]

Electoral breakthrough

The party shifted its political ideology to the left and became much more populist in nature before the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004 and, as a result, Yanukovych won over a large part of the Communist party's electorate in eastern Ukraine. The party announced support for making Russian a second official language in Ukraine, a pro-Russian foreign policy, and increased social spending. It also advocates the regionalist ideology, and many members support making Ukraine a federation.

The Party of Regions moved to opposition after its candidate, Viktor Yanukovych, lost the 2004 presidential election. The party leader first claimed an electoral victory, but strong allegations of electoral fraud triggered a series of events commonly known as the Orange Revolution. In the re-run of the presidential election ordered by the country's Supreme Court, Viktor Yanukovych lost the election to Viktor Yushchenko.

The Party claimed to be a victim of a political persecution campaign organised by the new government, also because Borys Kolesnykov, the head of the regional party branch and of the Donetsk regional council, was arrested in April 2005 and charged with criminal extortion.[44] The Party of Regions claimed this was an act of political repression, while the authorities believed that Kolesnykov had links to organised crime and his arrest was a purely criminal matter. The Council of Europe called the investigation "in full compliance with European standards".[45] Kolesnykov has since been cleared of charges and released from pre-trial detention.[46]

The party signed a collaboration agreement in 2005 with Russia's "United Russia".[47]

American consultant Paul J. Manafort has advised the party and Yanukovych since 2005.[48][49]

Map showing the results of POR the percentage of total national vote per region for the 2006 parliamentary election.

2006 Parliamentary Election results

At the parliamentary elections on 26 March 2006, the party gained 32.14%[18] of votes and 186 (out of 450) seats in the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian Parliament), forming the largest parliamentary group. On 6 July 2006, the Socialist Party of Ukraine abandoned the "Orange Coalition" between Our Ukraine and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc following the failure of each bloc to reach agreement on the formation of a governing coalition.

On 10 July 2006 a new parliamentary majority titled the "anti-crisis coalition", led by the Party of Regions and including the Socialist Party and the Communist Party, was formed, nominating Viktor Yanukovych to the post of prime minister.

The coalition remained in office until the special parliamentary elections held in September 2007.

At the Crimean parliamentary election, 2006 the party was part of the For Yanukovych! election bloc.[50]

On 19 January 2007, Yevhen Kushnaryov, a member of the Party of Regions, died in Izium as a result of an accidental gunshot wound received while hunting.

In mid-2007, the Ukrainian Republican Party and Labour Ukraine merged into the Party of Regions.[51]

Map showing the results of the Party of Regions (percentage of total national vote) per region for the 2007 parliamentary election.

2007 Parliamentary Election results

At the parliamentary elections held on 30 September 2007, the party won 175 seats (losing 11 seats) out of 450 seats with 34.37% of the total national vote.[18] The party received the highest number of votes, with a swing of +2.23% in comparison to the 2006 vote.

Following the formation of a governing coalition between Our Ukraine and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc and the election of Yulia Tymoshenko as prime minister on 18 December 2007, the Party of Regions formed the parliamentary opposition.

On 13 March 2009, Victor Yanukovych stated the Party of Regions was ready to unite into a coalition with its archrivals[52][53] the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (BYuT). He noted that: "We are ready to unite, but only on the base of the program on struggle with crisis".[54] The previous day the deputy leader of the Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko faction, Andriy Portnov, said that the union of his political force with the Party of Regions was highly improbable, but that the union of the BYuT and the Party of Regions could be possible after the next Ukrainian presidential elections.[55] Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko stated on 17 March 2009 that her bloc was ready to join efforts with the Regions Party to pass certain bills in the Ukrainian parliament (Verkhovna Rada). "You are a representative of the Regions Party, [and] I represent the BYuT. It's time to join efforts for the benefit of the country," Tymoshenko said.[56] On 30 March 2009 Victor Yanukovych stated he did not believe in the possibility of forming a coalition with the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc in the current parliament. At the same time he added that “it would be necessary to agree on main issues” concerning amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine involving local self-government reform, judicial reform and clear division of authority among President, government and parliament.[57] According to Yanukovych, talks with the BYuT were still ongoing in late May 2008.[58]

In early June talks to build a national unity government to address the economic crisis collapsed, and Yulia Tymoshenko accused Yanukovych of betrayal: "He unilaterally, without warning anyone, quit the negotiation process, making a loud political statement, killing the merger and the chances for Ukraine".[59]

In September 2009 Member of Parliament Vasyl Kiselev was expelled from the party and the political council of the Party of Regions. Kiselev was expelled “for violation of provisions and demands of the charter of the Party of Regions and harming the reputation of the party”.[60]

In September 2009 Mykola Azarov announced the creation of the Anti-Fascist Forum of Ukraine, the chairmen of which were the member of parliament Dmytro Shentsev (Kharkiv) and the head of the Luhansk Region State Administration, Valeriy Holenko.[61][62]

Yanukovych presidency

Electoral campaign for the Party of Region says in Russian "Our Party!" (Kharkiv, 31 October 2010)

The Party of Regions endorsed Viktor Yanukovych as their candidate for the 2010 presidential election.[63] The party intended to create a new coalition in the Verkhovna Rada and form a new government if Yanukovych won the 2010 presidential elections.[64] Yanukovych was elected President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.[65][66] On 19 February the Ukrainian parliament terminated the powers of Ukrainian Member of Parliament (MP) Yanukovych, in his place #179 on the electoral list of the Party of Regions at the 2007 early parliamentary elections. Tamara Yehorenko was registered as an MP by the Central Election Commission of Ukraine on 26 February.[67] On 3 March Ukrainian President Yanukovych suspended his membership in the Party (Yanukovych was barred by the Constitution from heading a political party[68]) and handed over leadership in the party and in the parliamentary faction to Mykola Azarov.[42] Nine days later Azarov handed it to Oleksandr Yefremov. On 11 March 2010, together with Bloc Lytvyn and Communist Party of Ukraine, the party joined the first Azarov Government.[69]

The party elected a new Chairman at its 12th congress on 23 April 2010.[68][70] Prime Minister Mykola Azarov was elected.[16]

Seven extra deputies (four Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko (BYuT) members) joined the Party of Regions faction in October 2010.[71][72] In March 2011 five more former BYuT deputies joined the faction.[73][74] By late November 2012 the Party of Regions faction consisted of 195 lawmakers (20 more than the 175 elected in September 2007).[18][71]

During the 2010 Ukrainian local elections the party won majorities on most regional and city councils as well as most of the mayoralties (except in western Ukraine), and in the 2010 Crimean parliamentary election (where it won over 70% of the seats).[75] It was the only party that won representatives in all Ukrainian Oblasts where elections were held, and it won the most votes in all but four of those Oblasts (the four Oblasts where it did not were situated in Western Ukraine).[76]

In September 2010, the party was planning to sign a memorandum on cooperation with China's Communist Party.[77] On 14 October 2010, the Party of Regions formed a co-operative arrangement a with the Socialists and Democrats European parliamentary group.[78][79]

President Yanukovych and the Party of Regions have been accused of trying to create a "controlled democracy" in Ukraine and as a means to this of trying to "destroy" the main opposition party BYuT, but both have denied these charges.[80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89]

2012 Parliamentary Election results

Results in the 2012 elections

In August 2011 Strong Ukraine and People's Party announced that both parties aimed to merge with the Party of Regions.[90][91][92][93] The merger between People's Party and Party of Regions did not materialise.[94] Strong Ukraine and Party of Regions merged on 17 March 2012.[95] (Former) Strong Ukraine leader Serhiy Tyhypko was unanimously elected Party of Regions deputy chairman and member of the Party of Regions political council the same day.[96] Party of Regions parliamentarian Olena Bondarenko had stated (early March 2012) that Party of Regions, Strong Ukraine party and "another party" planned to hold a unity congress on 17 March 2012.[97] No additional third party merged with the Party of Regions on 17 March 2012; according to Ukrainian media Tyhypko had personally prevented a merger of United Centre with the Party of Regions in March 2012.[98]

In October 2011 a cooperation agreement was signed in Astana between the Kazakhstani Nur Otan and the Party of Regions.[99]

In late 2011, the party's popularity dropped in opinion polls below 20%, mainly because the party was losing votes to the Communist Party of Ukraine.[100][101][102][103]

In April 2012, the top PR consultancy Burson-Marsteller was hired to represent the interests of the Party of Regions, "to help them communicate its activities as the governing party of Ukraine, as well as to help it explain better its position on the Yulia Tymoshenko case", as explained by Robert Mack, a senior manager at Burson-Marsteller.[104]

In the October 2012 parliamentary elections the party won 72 seats and 30% of the votes under party-list proportional representation (falling from 34% in 2007 and 32% in 2006)[105] and another 115 by winning 115 simple-majority constituencies (it had competed in 204 of the 225 constituencies);[106] this sum gave them a total of 187 seats and 41,56% of the 450 seats in the Ukrainian Parliament.[107] The party had lost about 2 million voters compared with the previous election.[108] On 12 December 2012 the party formed a parliamentary faction of 210 deputies.[22] On 31 December 2013 this faction was 204 votes strong.[71]

At least 18 Party of Regions deputies have criminal ties, according to Hennadiy Moskal, deputy head of Parliament's Committee on Organized Crime and Corruption.[109]

In June 2013, 148 people's deputies of Ukraine signed a letter to the Polish Sejm asking to recognized the Volhynian tragedy as a genocide (uk:Звернення депутатів від Партії регіонів і КПУ до польського Сейму). 119 of those parliamentarians were members of Party of Regions, while other 23 were from the Communist Party of Ukraine.

Post-Yanukovych presidency

Yanukovych impeachment

On 22 February 2014, during the "Maidan revolution", the Verkhovna Rada voted to impeach the honorary chairman of the party, Viktor Yanukovych, as President of Ukraine.[110] Out of the 38 PoR deputies present, 36 voted in favor of ousting Yanukovych, while two did not take part in the vote.[111] Simultaneously both Yanukovych and former Prime Minister Mykola Azarov fled to Russia.[17]

In a written statement the next day, the party denounced Yanukovych, stating they "strongly condemn the criminal orders that led to human victims, an empty state treasury, huge debts, shame before the eyes of the Ukrainian people and the entire world."[112]

On 24 February 2014 faction leader Oleksandr Yefremov declared that the party was moving into the opposition.[113] 77 of its MPs had left the faction over the past few days.[113]

On 25 February 2014 Anatoliy Kinakh and 32 other mostly former PoR deputies created the parliamentary faction Economic Development.[71][114]

On 28 March 2014 Yanukovych asked the Party of Regions to exclude him.[115] The next day, at a party congress, the party nominated Mykhailo Dobkin as its presidential candidate for the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election.[116] The congress expelled from the party Yanukovych, Azarov, former First Deputy Prime Minister Serhiy Arbuzov, ex-chairman of the Ministry of Revenue and Duties Olexander Klimenko, former Energy Minister Eduard Stavitskyi, ex-governor of the Donetsk region Andrew Shishatskiy and Valery Konovalyuk.[2]

On 7 April 2014 the political council of the party expelled Sergiy Tigipko, Oleh Tsariov and Yuriy Boiko from the party.[116]

On 3 June 2014 twenty PoR deputies left the party's parliamentary faction.[117] Thus the faction's strength was reduced from (at its highest point on 12 December 2012) 210 deputies to 80 deputies on 6 June 2014.[22][27][71] A by-product of this was that it became the second biggest faction in parliament, after the faction of Batkivshchyna with 85 members.[71] On 2 July 2014 the 32 member strong new parliamentary faction For Peace and Stability, composed mostly of former Party of Regions MPs, was formed.[118][119]

Criminal case against deputies

On September 17, 2014, amidst the ongoing war in Donbass, a group of 24 people's deputies of Ukraine from the Party of Regions and the Communist Party of Ukraine, who are members of the Ukrainian parliamentary group For Peace and Stability, met with Sergei Naryshkin, the chairman of the Russian State Duma.[120] On September 25, 2014, the Central Investigation Administration of the Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs opened a criminal case against those deputies charging them with infringement on the territorial integrity of Ukraine.[121]

2014 Parliamentary Election and disintegration

On 14 September 2014 Party of Regions chose not to participate in the 2014 parliamentary elections; the party deemed the election as lacking legitimacy because the residents of the Donbass could not vote in the election.[14][31] Many individual members of Party of Regions ended up as candidates of Opposition Bloc.[122][31]

By the summer of 2015 most representatives of the party in 2014 were members of Opposition Bloc, Revival or Our Land.[15] Others continued their political careers in other parties (mostly Petro Poroshenko Bloc)[32]

Party's electoral results

Verkhovna Rada
Constituency /total
Overall seats won
Seat change
Popular vote
Seats /total
1998 241,262 0.9% 0/225 2/225
2 / 450
Increase 2 minority support
2002 For United Ukraine bloc 6/225 25/225
31 / 450
Increase 29 coalition government
2006 8,148,745 32.14% 186/450 N/A
186 / 450
Increase 155 coalition government
2007 8,013,895 34.37% 175/450 N/A
175 / 450
Decrease 11 opposition
2012 6,116,815 30.00% 72/225 113/225
185 / 450
Increase 10 government
2014 No participation 0% 0 0
0 / 450
Decrease 185 opposition
Presidency of Ukraine
Election year Candidate First Round Second Round
# of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
1999 Leonid Kuchma 9,598,672 38.0 15,870,722 57.7
2004 Viktor Yanukovych 11,008,731 39.3 12,848,528 44.2
2010 Viktor Yanukovych 8,686,642 35.3 12,481,266 49.0
2014 Mykhailo Dobkin 546,138 3.0
Date Party leader Remarks
1997–2001 Volodymyr Rybak
2001–2002 Mykola Azarov
2002–2003 Volodymyr Semynozhenko
2003–2010 Viktor Yanukovych
2010–2014 Mykola Azarov
2014–present Borys Kolesnikov

In 2012 Taras Kuzio claimed the electorate of the party is very loyal to them.[123] According to a poll by the Kyiv International Sociology Institute, the number of voters ready to go to polling stations to vote for the Party of Regions dropped from 38% in June 2010 to 13.9% in April 2011.[124]

Recent issue stances

The party asserts it has a pragmatic approach to Ukrainian EU membership with respect to the country's foreign economic interests; it supports "to walk the path of European integration and the implementation of respective standards in the social and economic spheres". Yet, given the European financial crisis, the party sees the issue of Ukraine's accession to the EU as "purely theoretical."[125]

The party accepts Ukrainian as the only state language in Ukraine, but also claims to promote "both the development of the state Ukrainian language and languages of other nationalities residing on the territory of Ukraine".[126][127][third-party source needed]

The Party of Regions supports the cancellation of a number of benefits for deputies of the Ukrainian parliament.[128] Leading party members have stated the party "would mercilessly expel corrupt officials from its ranks".[129]

In November 2013 Party of Regions MP Oleh Tsariov demanded a criminal investigation into the activities of United States Department of State lead TechCamp in Ukraine because he believed it was engaged in "preparations for inciting a civil war" because during training "instructors share their experience of Internet technologies, which are aimed at shaping public opinion and enhancing the protest potential and which were used to organize street protests in Libya, Egypt, Tunisia and Syria".[130]

The Party of Regions has lost much of its influence amid the ongoing crisis in Ukraine. 72 deputies[131] have left the party, and remaining deputies either supported key opposition demands like impeaching Yanukovich, firing Zakharchenko and the General Prosecutor or did not vote.

On 23 February, the party faction of Verkhovna Rada published a statement blaming everything wrong on ″Yanukovych and his inner circle″, accusing him in particular of giving out ″criminal orders″ and lamenting that the whole party had been ″in effect hostage of one corrupt Family″.[132]

On 7 April 2014 the party presented its new economic doctrine that consisted of minimal taxes and fees, maximum investor protection, increasing investment attractiveness, as well as deregulation and simplification of licensing procedures, the establishment of a transparent tax system and tax cuts (a reduction of income tax to 12.5%, reducing the income tax rate to 14%), decreasing the inspections of small and medium-sized businesses to not more than once in 5 years, maintaining a 15-year preferential tax system in agriculture, the introduction of effective direct subsidies to farmers to compete on the world market, a compensation of 50% of new fixed assets in crop and livestock in creation of new industries.[133]

Political program

European integration

On the question of European integration, different views exist within the party. On the one hand, President Viktor Yanukovych, who is a member of the party, has repeatedly underlined his pro-European stances.[134][125] On the other hand, experts have described the Party of Regions as eurosceptic.[135][136] The Party's official stance is for increased European integration, but within a framework that is favorable to Ukraine.[137]

Domestic policy

Blue flags at a demonstration
Party of Regions flags in Donetsk, 2010

A strong family is the basis of a healthy society. The party supports affordable housing through state mortgages with a 3% annual percentage rate, social contracts with employers, financial aid for newborns (to be doubled in 2017), perinatal centers in each region and the upgrading of maternity homes.

Education is an investment in the future. The party supports at least 75-percent placement in higher-educational institutions, a minimum-wage student stipend, a minimum 20-percent annual raise in educator salaries and universal Internet access. In labor, the party supports fully subsidizing employers of the disabled, orphans, single mothers and workers over age 50; training the unemployed for occupations with labor shortages; providing internships to students; giving young professionals their first job, and a median salary of 8,000 by 2017.

Public health is the basis of prosperity. The party supports a median salary of ₴8,000 for physicians and ₴5,500 for other medical personnel, reducing basic-medicine prices by 30 percent, providing access to medicines to patients with cancer, heart disease, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, mobile medical facilities in all rural areas, treatment and rehabilitation for people with limited physical abilities and new pools, stadiums, ice arenas and sports fields in all regions.

The party supports comfortable, affordable housing; security for senior citizens; the repayment of all deposits in the Sberbank of the USSR up to ₴5,000 by 2017; a minimum pension 20 percent over the poverty threshold, and significant pension increases for military and law-enforcement personnel. In the environmental sector, the party supports the completion of the Shelter Project for the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by 2015, the installation of 20,000 centralized water-purification systems and recycling plants in each region.

National economy

Economic growth – key to high social standards

  • Modern economy
    • Main goals: GDP growth (at least 5% annually), stability of national currency
    • Implementation through: gradual reduction of corporate income tax (16% before 2014), introduction of tax holidays for IT and innovation projects for period of 10 years, providing domestic manufacturers with affordable bank loans
  • Effective power generation, energy independence
    • increase the extraction of domestic coal, oil and shale gas
    • begin developing the shelf gas fields
    • enhance the use of solar, wind and hydropower
    • modernizing power plants for efficient use of domestic coal and other fuels
  • New life of Ukrainian village
    • creation of 1,500 agricultural cooperatives
    • construction of new elevators, vegetable and fruit storage
    • establishing prices for land share (no less than 20,000 hrv/ha) and rent (no lower than 1,000 hrv/ha)
    • development of social infrastructure in rural areas (auto roads, hospitals and schools, gas supply)
  • For Ukraine – modern infrastructure
    • construction of modern automobile roads (with ability to travel from west to east of Ukraine in 14 hours)
    • new speed rail link between the capital and regions
    • affordable aviation transportation for each Ukrainian
    • construction and redevelopment of airports, sea and river ports, rail stations
    • construction of new metro stations and development of commuter transportation

Government and society

Effective nation: responsible government and open society

  • Country of free people
    • intellectual freedom
    • freedom of speech
    • equal opportunities for women and men in all spheres of life
    • legislative support for the native language
    • granting to the Russian language the status of the second state language
  • Strong regions – prosperous nation
    • increased role of local government
    • 60% of consolidated state budget to local councils
  • Effective law-enforcement authorities and efficient army
    • effective contract army
    • abolition of compulsory conscription from January 1, 2014
  • For Ukraine – worldwide recognition
    • preservation of the non-aligned status of Ukraine – safety guarantee for every citizen
    • gaining associate membership in the European Union, creation of free-trade zone, removal of visa barriers between Ukraine and the EU
    • strengthening economic cooperation within the free-trade zone framework with countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States
    • strategic partnership with Russia, United States, China
    • opening to Ukraine the markets of "Big Twenty" and of developing countries
    • realization of competitive advantages of the country for the right to host sporting and cultural events at European and world levels

Selected members

Vremya Regionov

The Party of Regions publishes a nationwide newspaper called Время Регионов (English trans. Time of the Regions). The newspaper is based and published in Kiev. It is released weekly, every Thursday, in Ukrainian and Russian. The newspaper was launched on 24 August 2008. It is available online[dead link] in PDF format.

See also


  1. Yanukovych and Azarov are excluded from PR. Ukrayinska Pravda. March 29, 2014
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Politics ""Party of Regions" has excluded Yanukovich, Arbuzov, Klimenko and proceeded to the form of collective management". Breaking news "NovostiMira"". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Anna German: Boris Kolesnikov, de facto, is the leader of PARTY OF REGIONS. Party of Regions. March 29, 2014
  4. Reformed PR is headed by Borys Kolesnikov - Herman. Ukrayinska Pravda. March 29, 2014
  5. 5.0 5.1 Against All Odds:Aiding Political Parties in Georgia and Ukraine by Max Bader, Vossiuspers UvA, 2010, ISBN 978-9056296315 (page 82)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Strange Familiar Faces, The Ukrainian Week (15 September 2012)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ideological Splits, The Ukrainian Week (10 March 2011)
  8. Arsenyi Svynarenko (29 August 2014). "Ukraine's political landscape is shifting". Retrieved 28 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Barrington, Lowell (2006), After Independence:Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States, University of Michigan Press, p. 205, ISBN 978-0472068982<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Viktor Yanukovych's party claims victory". The Economist. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Regionalists principally will speak in Russian - Bondarenko. ("Регіонали" принципово будуть виступати російською - Бондаренко). Ukrayinska Pravda. 2012-12-14
  13. Kuzio, T. Populism in Ukraine. Problems of Post-Communism. Vol.57. "M. E. Sharpe". 2010. p.15
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Ukraine's Party of Regions Refuses to Participate in Rada Elections, RIA Novosti (23 September 2014)
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 (Ukrainian) "Revival" "our land": Who picks up the legacy of "regionals", BBC Ukrainian (16 September 2015)
    (Ukrainian) Party of Regions: Snake return, The Ukrainian Week (2 October 2015)
  16. 16.0 16.1 Azarov elected Regions Party head[dead link], Kyiv Post (23 April 2010)
  17. 17.0 17.1 Ex-PM Azarov, In Moscow, Proclaims 'Salvation Committee' For Ukraine, Radio Free Europe (3 August 2015)
    Ukraine accuses Russia of breaking CIS agreements over Yanukovych extradition, Interfax-Ukraine (12 January 2015)
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 (Ukrainian) Партія регіонів, Database DATA
  19. Whose Ukraine Is It Anyway?, TIME Magazine/Transitions online, April 4, 2002
  20. 20.0 20.1 Poll: Political forces of Tigipko, Yatseniuk, Communist Party in Top 5 of April rating of parties, Kyiv Post (12 May 2010)
  21. Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 It was announced about creation of 5 factions in VRU – Party of Regions, Batkivshchyna, UDAR, Svoboda and CPU, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (12 December 2012)
  23. Yefremov travels to Luhansk to discuss possibility of the separation of the South-East - source. LB. February 20, 2014
  24. The Crimean speaker in Moscow threatens of the Crimea's secession to Russia. The Crimean Tatar question. February 21, 2014
  25. "Address of the PARTY OF REGIONS faction to compatriots". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Party of Regions keeps losing members, voters, Kyiv Post (8 April 2014)
  27. 27.0 27.1 20 lawmakers quit Party of Regions faction in Ukrainian parliament, ITAR-TASS (3 June 2014)
  28. "Party of Regions, Communist Party banned in Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil regions". KyivPost. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Ivano-Frankivsk Regional Council bans activities of Communist Party, Regions Party, Opposition Bloc, Ukraine Development Party". Interfax-Ukraine. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Житомирские регионалы самораспустились". Обозреватель. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 (Ukrainian) What distinguishes the "opposition bloc" of the Party of Regions?, BBC Ukrainian (23 September 2014)
  32. 32.0 32.1 (Ukrainian) Activists noticed that most ex-Regions are on lists of Poroshenko, Ukrayinska Pravda (22 October 2015)
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 (Ukrainian) Ілюзорна ідилія, Den (7 February 2007)
  34. "Central Election Commission. Elections of People’s Deputies of Ukraine ::: 29.11.1998 :::". Retrieved 16 February 2015. C1 control character in |title= at position 49 (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Ukraine Political Parties,
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 2001 Political sketches: too early for summing up, Central European University (January 4, 2002)
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 New «region» formed in Ukrainian Parliament, Central European University (26 March 2001)
  38. Understanding Ukrainian Politics: Power, Politics, and Institutional Design by Paul D'Anieri, M.E. Sharpe, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7656-1811-5
  39. Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 3-525-36912-3 (page 391)
  40. "parties of the "Za Yedynu Ukrayinu" bloc". Za Yediny Ukrayinu! (in Ukrainian). 2002-11-24. Archived from the original on 2004-11-06. Retrieved 2008-02-25.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Leaders of the "Za Yedynu Ukrayinu" bloc". Za Yediny Ukrayinu! (in Ukrainian). 2002-11-24. Archived from the original on 2004-12-08. Retrieved 2008-02-25.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. 42.0 42.1 Yanukovych suspends his membership in Party of Regions, hands over party leadership to Azarov, Kyiv Post (3 March 2010)
  43. UKRAINE COUNTRY ASSESSMENT April 2003, (April 2003)
  44. Lutsenko suggests Regions Party to deal with Piskun, who sanctioned proceedings against Kolesnykov, Kyiv Post (3 March 2009)
  45. Countries at the crossroads: a survey of democratic governance by Sanja Tatic & Christopher Walker, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006, ISBN 0742558010/ISBN 978-0742558014 (page 580)
  46. Yanukovych’s inner circle, Kyiv Post (24 January 2010)
  47. Party of Regions hopes for strengthening collaboration with 'United Russia' party, Kyiv Post (22 November 2009)
  48. Paid advisers descend on candidates, nation, Kyiv Post (19 November 2009)
  49. Spin Doctors at elections 2006: those who worked for Yanukovych, Akhmetov, Tymoshenko, Medvedchuk…, Ukrayinska Pravda (10 May 2006) Archived April 4, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  50. (Russian) [1], Росбалт.RU (06/10/2009)
  51. [2][dead link] ITAR-TASS
  52. "Aliens took Tymoshenko on their flying saucer?". UNIAN. 5 September 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Regions Party ready to form coalition 'to save country'". Interfax Ukraine. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  54. "Party of Regions is ready to unite with BYUT– Yanukovych". UNIAN. 13 March 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. BYT says union Party of Regions highly improbable, Interfax-Ukraine (13 March 2008)
  56. BYT ready to join efforts with Regions Party to pass law on aviation development, says Tymoshenko[dead link], Interfax-Ukraine (17 March 2008)
  57. Yanukovych does not believe in coalition with BYUT, UNIAN (30 March 2009)
  58. Party of Regions holding talks with BYuT – Yanukovych, UNIAN (25 May 2009)
  59. Ukraine Premier Fails to Form Alliance to Oppose President, The New York Times (8 June 2009)
  60. Lawmaker Kiselev expelled from Party of Regions , UNIAN (16 September 2009)
  61. "- MediaPort". MediaPort. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "Азаров і Добкін створили Антифашистський форум". ТСН.ua. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "Party Of Regions Nominates Yanukovych As Its Presidential Candidate". 2009-10-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  64. Regions Party aiming for posts of president and premier[dead link], Kyiv Post (26 November 2009)
  65. Ukraine: Tymoshenko vows to contest election result, BBC News (February 15, 2010)
  66. Yanukovych has yet to secure ruling majority in parliament[dead link], Kyiv Post (25 February 2010)
  67. CEC registers new MP from Regions Party to replace Yanukovych[dead link], Kyiv Post (25 February 2010)
  68. 68.0 68.1 Ukraine's Party of Regions to choose new leader[dead link], RIA Novosti (23 April 2010)
  69. Ukrainian parliament creates new coalition[dead link], Kyiv Post (11 March 2010)
  70. Regions Party to elect new leader at congress on Friday[dead link], Kyiv Post (20 April 2010)
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 71.3 71.4 71.5 (Ukrainian) Депутатські фракції і групи VII скликання Deputy fractions and Groups VII convocation, Verkhovna Rada
  72. "Seven individual MPs join Regions Party faction, Our Ukraine MP joins Lytvyn Bloc". Interfax-Ukraine. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Former BYUT members Feldman, Yatsenko and Glus joined PR faction". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "Former BYUT members Bagraev and Pavlenko joined PR faction". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Local government elections in Ukraine: last stage in the Party of Regions’ takeover of power[dead link], Centre for Eastern Studies (4 October 2010)
  76. (Ukrainian) Results of the elections, preliminary data, on interactive maps by Ukrayinska Pravda (8 November 2010)
  77. Regions Party planning to sign memorandum on cooperation with Communist Party of China, Kyiv Post (14 September 2010)
  78. Perspectives of good cooperation between S&D and the party of regions of Ukraine, 14 Oct 2010. Retrieved 25 Aug 2011.
  79. Kuzio, Taras (22 Nov 2010). "Ukrainian Democracy Will Be Built By Deeds, Not Pronouncements". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 25 Aug 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, (3 January 2011)
  81. Olszański, Tadeusz A. (29 Sep 2010). "The Party of Regions monopolises power in Ukraine". OSW Commentary. Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW). Retrieved 3 Aug 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. Ukraine ex-PM Tymoshenko charged with misusing funds, BBC News (20 December 2010)
  83. Ukraine viewpoint: Novelist Andrey Kurkov, BBC News (13 January 2011)
  84. Ukraine launches battle against corruption, BBC News (18 January 2011)
  85. Ukrainians' long wait for prosperity, BBC News (18 October 2010)
  86. Ukraine:Journalists Face Uncertain Future, Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting (27 October 2010)
  87. Yanukovych Tells U.K's Cameron No Fears for Ukraine's Democracy[dead link], Turkish Weekly (6 October 2010)
  88. Yulia Kovalevska:Only some bankrupt politicians try to use the Day of Unification with the aim of self-PR[dead link], Party of Regions official website (21 January 2011)
  89. President: Ukraine must fulfill its commitments to Council of Europe[dead link], (13 January 2011)
  90. Azarov: We welcome other parties joining Regions Party[dead link], Kyiv Post (23 August 2011)
  91. Azarov: Regions Party teams up with Strong Ukraine, Kyiv Post (16 August 2011) Archived November 11, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  92. Strong Ukraine postpones decision on merger with Regions Party[dead link], Kyiv Post (22 October 2011)
  93. Strong Ukraine to prepare its proposals to Regions Party on posts distribution, says Tigipko[dead link], Kyiv Post (22 October 2011)
  94. (Ukrainian) Литвин поведе Народну партію на вибори саму, Ukrayinska Pravda (12 December 2011)
  95. Tigipko hooks up with Party of Regions[dead link], Kyiv Post (20 March 2012)
    Strong Ukraine party decides on disbanding to join Regions Party[dead link], Kyiv Post (17 March 2012)
  96. Tigipko unanimously elected Regions Party deputy head, political council member[dead link], Kyiv Post (17 March 2012)
  97. Lawmaker: Party of Regions to merge with two other parties on 17 March , Kyiv Post (6 March 2012) Archived March 6, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  98. (Ukrainian) Тігіпко зажадав від "Регіонів" не брати Балогу, Ukrayinska Pravda (15 March 2012)
  99. Regions Party to cooperate with ruling party in Kazakhstan, Kyiv Post (24 November 2011)
  100. Electoral moods of the population of Ukraine: Deсember 2011, Rating (20 December 2011)
  101. Poll: Batkivschyna Party's electoral rating tops Regions Party in Ukraine[dead link], Kyiv Post (9 December 2011)
  102. Ratings of parties, Sociological group "RATING"
    Electoral moods of the Ukrainian population: February 2012, Sociological group "RATING" (5 March 2012)
  103. Sparkle Design Studio. "Ukraine, poll: If parliamentary elections were held next Sunday how would you vote? (recurrent, 2010-2013) // Razumkov Centre". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. EU Observer, 27 April 2012
  105. The Distorted Will of the People, The Ukrainian Week (5 November 2012)
  106. (Ukrainian) Candidates, RBC Ukraine
  107. (Ukrainian) Proportional votes[dead link] & Constituency seats[dead link], Central Electoral Commission of Ukraine
    % of total seats, Ukrayinska Pravda
  108. After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
  109. "Outside View: Viktor Yanukovych: From partner to violent kleptocrat". UPI. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. Ukraine: Speaker Oleksandr Turchynov named interim president, BBC News (23 February 2014)
    Ukraine protests timeline, BBC News (23 February 2014)
  111. Поіменне голосування про проект Постанови про самоусунення Президента України від виконання конституційних повноважень (№4193) - за основу та в цілому [Roll-call vote on the draft resolution on the withdrawal of the President of Ukraine from fulfilling constitutional obligations (№4193) - as the primary and on the whole] (in українська). Parliament of Ukraine. 22 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  112. "Where is Viktor Yanukovych? (VIDEO, UPDATE)". KyivPost. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  113. 113.0 113.1 Party of Regions faction becomes opposition, Kyiv Post (24 February 2014)
  114. Rada creates Group for Economic Development, Radio Ukraine (25 February 2014)
  115. "Ousted leader Yanukovych calls for referendum in every region of Ukraine". euronews. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. 116.0 116.1 Ukraine's Party of Regions expels presidential hopefuls Tigipko, Tsariov and Boiko, Interfax-Ukraine (7 April 2014)
  117. 20 MPs leave Regions Party faction, Interfax-Ukraine (3 June 2014)
  118. (Ukrainian) [3], Ukrayinska Pravda (2 July 2014)
  119. (Ukrainian) Dynamics in the fraction For Peace and Stability in the VII convocation, Verkhovna Rada
  120. It became known [Ukrainian] deputies who in Russia "stand for the interest of the Russian World". Ukrayinska Pravda. 18 September 2014
  121. MVS opened a criminal case for the voyage of deputies to the State Duma. Ukrayinska Pravda. 25 September 2014
  122. Opposition Bloc chooses top ten candidates for parliamentary elections, Interfax Ukraine (23 September 2014)
    Allies of Yanukovych trying for parliament, Kyiv Post (21 September 2014)
    Party Of Regions Will Not Contest Snap Parliamentary Elections Independently[dead link], Ukrainian News Agency (14 September 2014)
  123. Eight Reasons Why Ukraine’s Party of Regions Will Win the 2012 Elections by Taras Kuzio, The Jamestown Foundation (17 October 2012)
    UKRAINE: Yushchenko needs Tymoshenko as ally again by Taras Kuzio, Oxford Analytica (5 October 2007)
  124. Poll: Party of Regions of Ukraine losing support[dead link], Kyiv Post (April 28, 2011)
  125. 125.0 125.1 Regions Party: Question of Ukraine's EU membership now 'purely theoretical'[dead link], Kyiv Post (15 December 2011)
  126. Yuriy Miroshnychenko: Viktor Yanukovych promotes the comprehensive development and use of the official language[dead link], Official Information Server of the party (21 February 2011)
  127. Volodymyr Zubanov: The current government promotes the development of the languages of all people in Ukraine[dead link], Official Information Server of the party (21 February 2011)
  128. Olexander Yefremov: The Party of Regions supports cancellation of a number of benefits for MPs[dead link], Official Information Server of the party (5 December 2011)
    Yefremov says Party of Regions ready to vote for cancelation of parliamentary immunity[dead link], Interfax-Ukraine (15 April 2013)
  129. Kliuyev:Corruption a key reason for delay in reforms in Ukraine[dead link], Kyiv Post (2 March 2012)
  130. Party of Regions MP Tsariov accuses US Embassy in Ukraine of training revolutionaries for street protests, Interfax-Ukraine (20 November 2013)
  131. "Еще трое депутатов вышли из Партии регионов, в сумме уже 72". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  132. "Ответственность за события в Украине лежит на Януковиче и его ближайшем окружении – заявление фракции Партии регионов". Интерфакс-Украина. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  133. Наталья Кобзар (7 April 2014). "Партия регионов презентовала новую экономическую доктрину". Status Quo. Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  134. Ukraine's course for European integration remains the same, repeats president & Ukraine will decide on conditions of signing agreement with EU before March summit - Yanukovych, Interfax-Ukraine (10 December 2013)
    Yanukovych orders government to analyze economic risks of partnership treaty with EU by March, Interfax-Ukraine (10 December 2013)
  135. Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, (January 3, 2011)
  136. Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3525369128 (page 396)
  137. ""ЕС – да, сокращению рабочих мест – нет": митинг ПАРТИИ РЕГИОНОВ на Европейской площади". Retrieved 16 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links