Philosophy, Politics and Economics

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) is a popular interdisciplinary undergraduate/post-graduate degree which combines study from three disciplines.

The first institution to offer degrees in PPE was the University of Oxford[when?] and this particular course has produced a significant number of notable graduates such as Christopher Hitchens, the British–American author, philosopher, polemicist, debater, and journalist;[1] David Cameron, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; Ed Miliband, the former Leader of the Opposition; and Tony Abbott, the former Prime Minister of Australia.[2]

In the 1980s, the University of York went on to establish its own PPE degree based upon the Oxford model; the University of Warwick, the University of Manchester, and other British universities later followed. According to the BBC, the Oxford PPE "dominate[s] public life" (in the UK).[3] It is now offered at several other leading colleges and universities around the world.


Philosophy, Politics and Economics was established as a degree course at the University of Oxford in the 1920s,[4] as a modern alternative to classics (known as "literae humaniores" or "greats" at Oxford) because it was thought that a course in philosophy and ancient history was no longer relevant for those entering the civil service. It was thus initially known as "modern greats".[3][5] The regulation by which it was established is Statt. Tit. VI. Sect. 1 C; "the subject of the Honour School of Philosophy, Politics, and Economics shall be the study of the structure, and the philosophical and economic principles, of Modern Society."[6]

Christopher Stray has pointed to the course as one reason for the gradual decline of the study of classics, as classicists in political life began to be edged out by those who had studied the modern greats.[7]

Dario Castiglione and Iain Hampsher-Monk have described the course as being fundamental to the development of political thought in the UK, since it established a connection between politics and philosophy. Previously at Oxford, and for some time subsequently at Cambridge, politics had been taught only as a branch of modern history.[8]

Course material

The programme is rooted in the view that to understand social phenomena one must approach them from several complementary disciplinary directions and analytical frameworks. In this regard, the study of philosophy is considered important because it both equips students with meta-tools such as the ability to reason rigorously and logically, and facilitates ethical reflection. The study of politics is considered necessary because it acquaints students with the institutions that govern society and help solve collective action problems. Finally, studying economics is seen as vital in the modern world because political decisions often concern economic matters, and government decisions are often influenced by economic events. The vast majority of students at Oxford drop one of the three subjects for the second and third years of their course. Oxford now has more than 600 undergraduates studying the subject, admitting over 200 each year.[9]

Academic opinions

Oxford PPE graduate Nick Cohen and former tutor Iain McLean consider the course's breadth important to its appeal, especially "because British society values generalists over specialists".

Geoffrey Evans, an Oxford fellow in politics and a senior tutor, critiques that the Oxford course's success and consequent over-demand is a self-perpetuating feature of those in front of and behind the scenes in national administration, in stating "all in all, it's how the class system works". In the current economic system he bemoans the unavoidable inequalities besetting admissions and thereby enviable recruitment prospects of successful graduates. The argument itself intended as a paternalistic ethical reflection on how governments and peoples can perpetuate social stratification.[3]

List of universities offering PPE

United Kingdom



United States

South Africa, Nigeria, Australia and New Zealand

Continental Europe

Middle East and Asia

South America

See also


  1. 'Hitchens, Christopher Eric', Who's Who; 2012, A & C Black, 2012; online edn, Oxford University Press, December 2012 ; online edn, January 2012 accessed 5 December 2014
  2. Kenny, Mark (November 25, 2013). "Tony Abbott's Oxford transcript released". Sydney Morning Herald.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kelly, Jon (2010-08-31). "Why does PPE rule Britain?". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-09-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. [1] "Balliol was the birthplace of the modern degree of PPE in the 1920s. A. D. Lindsay, who subsequently became the master of the college, played a key role in the establishment of the degree and Balliol has long remained a major college for the study of PPE, and PPE has long been a major subject within Balliol."
  5. "History of Philosophy at Oxford – Faculty of Philosophy". 2009-11-19. Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. University of Oxford (1926) The Examination Statutes. together with the regulations of the boards of studies and boards of faculties for the academical year 1926-1927. Oxford: Clarendon Press; pp. 149=54
  7. Christopher Stray, Classics Transformed: Schools, Universities, and Society in England, 1830–1960. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Pp. xiv, 336. ISBN 0-19-815013-X.
  8. Dario Castiglione and Iain Hampsher-Monk, The History of Political Thought in National Context. Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-78234-1
  9. "Why Study PPE at Oxford?".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Philosophy, Politics and Economics - Durham University". 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2013-09-24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "BA (Hons) Politics, Philosophy & Economics, Goldsmiths, University of London". Retrieved 2013-08-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "King's College London - Upcoming Programmes 2015/16".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Philosophy, Politics, Economics MA". Retrieved 2012-02-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Philosophy, Politics and Economics BA Hons". Lancaster University. Retrieved 23 January 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "BSc Philosophy, Politics and Economics (Four Year Programme)". Retrieved 2014-11-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Q45 - BA (Honours) Politics, Philosophy and Economics - Open University Degree. (2012-10-16). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  17. "Queen's University Belfast | BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". 2010-03-03. Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "BA/BSc Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". Retrieved 2012-12-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. [2] Archived December 20, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  20. "Philosophy, Politics and Economics BSc". Retrieved 2014-11-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Course: Philosophy, Politics and Economics (U1L0V0301)" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-05-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "University of Essex :: Course Finder :: BA Philosophy, Politics and Economics". 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics". BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics. Retrieved 2012-05-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "BA (Hons) Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". University of Hull. Retrieved 2009-11-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Politics, Philosophy and Economics (3 Years) [BA]". Retrieved 2014-04-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "Politics, Philosophy and Economics (3 Years) [BA]". Retrieved 2014-11-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Philosophy, Politics and Economics – University of Oxford". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Study Politics, Philosophy and Economics: PPE BA Degree at University- Undergraduate Courses – Politics, Philosophy and Economics: PPE – University of Stirling".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Sussex PPE". Retrieved 2012-03-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Philosophy, Politics and Economics (Full-Time)". Retrieved 2014-11-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "The PEP School at York". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Philosophy, Politics, and Economics". Philosophy NUIM. Retrieved 2012-12-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Course - A-Z All - Undergraduate - Courses : Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Ireland. (2012-11-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  34. "Mount Allison University - Philosophy, Politics, and Economics". Retrieved 2014-10-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Philosophy, Politics, and Economics (PPE) – Bachelor of Arts Programs – Faculty of Arts and Sciences – Faculties, Schools, and Colleges – Okanagan Calendar 2010/11 – UBC Student Services". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Philosophy, Politics and Economics Program (PPE) - Faculty of Arts - University of Regina". Retrieved 2015-04-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "The University of Western Ontario : THE POLITICS, PHILOSOPHY, AND ECONOMICS (PPE) PROGRAM". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  38. "Wilfrid Laurier University – Student Recruitment Office – Academic Programs – Faculty of Arts – Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "Carroll University :: Philosophy, Politics and Economics :: The Program". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "Welcome to EHPP - Ethics, History, & Public Policy - Carnegie Mellon University". Retrieved 2013-08-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "Ppe At Cmc". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "About Philosophy, Politics and Economics – Denison University". 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  43. "Political Science: PPE Certificate". Retrieved 2013-09-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "EOU's General Catalog". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Eastern Oregon University". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Welcome to one of the best small, private liberal arts colleges :: Emory & Henry College".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Philosophy, Politics, and Economics".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "Juniata College Catalog". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "The King's College - Politics, Philosophy and Economics". Retrieved 2012-12-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. "La Salle University - Political Science, Philosophy, and Economics". Retrieved 2014-09-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "College of Liberal Arts: Philosophy, Politics and Economics". Mercer University. Retrieved 26 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Department of Philosophy – Minnesota State University, Mankato". 2006-10-11. Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. The Murphy Institute. "Undergraduate Program in Political Economy".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. [3][dead link]
  55. "Transylvania University - Program Overview". Retrieved 2015-05-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "The PPE Concentration". Dept. of Philosophy, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Retrieved 2011-06-24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "Philosophy, Political Science, Economy Curriculum" (PDF). Academic Advising Center, University of Akron. Retrieved 2010-02-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "Philosophy, Politics, Economics, and Law". Retrieved 2012-05-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Ethics & Public Policy". Retrieved 2011-12-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "College of Literature, Science, and the Arts: Students :: PPE Concentration". Retrieved 2012-05-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Philosophy, Politics & Economics. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  62. "Department of Philosophy // University of Notre Dame". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "PPE at The University of Pennsylvania". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Politics and Philosophy Major". Retrieved 2010-09-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Philosophy, Politics, Economics, and Law - University of Richmond School of Arts & Sciences". 4 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "Philosophy, Politics and law".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "PPE Degree - Taylor University".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. [4][dead link]
  69. "PPE Program". Department of Philosophy at Virginia Tech. Retrieved 2015-09-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Wesleyan University – College of Social Studies". Retrieved 2011-04-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "Politics/Philosophy/Economics, BA". Retrieved 2013-06-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "Political & Economic Philosophy Major - Wheeling Jesuit University". Retrieved 2015-05-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Program in Ethics, Politics and Economics | Yale University". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "ANU - STUDY 2012 - Bachelor of Philosophy, Politics and Economics". ANU. Retrieved 2012-03-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. "Bachelor of Politics, Philosophy and Economics - La Trobe University". La Trobe University. 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2013-09-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Error".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. "Department of Political Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "Philosophy, Politics & Economics (PPE) Programme". School of Economics, University of Cape Town. Retrieved 2009-04-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. "University of KwaZulu-Natal – Faculties – Humanities, Development and Social Sciences". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  80. Qualification stream: Philosophy, Politics and Economics, Accessed 2014-06-19.
  81. Accessed 2015-09-12.
  82. Accessed 2015-11-10
  83. "Háskólinn á Bifröst – BA in PPE". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "MA in IEPS". Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. "Double Major: Philosophy, Politics & Economics (PPE)". Academics. Erasmus University, Erasmus University College. Retrieved 14 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. "BA programme in Politics, Philosophy and Economics". Retrieved 25 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. "MA programme in Philosophy, specialisation Philosophy, Politics and Economics". Masters in Leiden. Leiden University, Faculty of Humanities. Retrieved 14 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. "Il nostro mondo ti piacerà". LUISS Guido Carli. Retrieved 2012-10-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. "Executive-Masterstudiengang Philosophie, Politik, Wirtschaft". Retrieved 2010-05-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. "Kandidatprogram".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Universiteit van Amsterdam. "PPLE (in English)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "Philosophy & Economics – Bachelor and Master programmes". Faculty of Law, Business Administration and Economics, University of Bayreuth. Retrieved 2011-02-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. "Master Political, Legal and Economic Philosophy (PLEP)". Faculty of Philosophy, University of Bern. Retrieved 2011-08-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. "Politische Ökonomie und Philosophie". Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zurich. Retrieved 2013-08-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. "Master Political, Economic and Legal Philosophy (PELP)". Department of Philosophy, University of Graz. Retrieved 2012-10-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. "Master Program Politics, Economics and Philosophy (M.Sc.)". University of Hamburg. Retrieved 2013-02-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. "Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy, Politics and Economics". University of Lucerne. Retrieved 2013-06-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. "SPO". 2015-09-18. Retrieved 2015-10-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. [5][dead link]
  100. PPE Programme at VU Amsterdam
  101. Philosophie, Politik und Ökonomik B.A.
  102. 北京大学元培学院. (2009-11-10). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  103. Sogang University. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  104. "School of Political Science and Economics | WASEDA University". Retrieved 2010-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. [6][dead link]
  106. "AMITY SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS". Retrieved 2012-08-17. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links