Portal:Logic

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Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning 'speech/word') is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. The term "logos" was also believed by the Greeks to be the universal power by which all reality was sustained and made coherent and consistent.
As a formal science, logic investigates and classifies the structure of statements and arguments, both through the study of formal systems of inference and through the study of arguments in natural language. The field of logic ranges from core topics such as the study of fallacies and paradoxes, to specialized analysis of reasoning using probability and to arguments involving causality. Logic is also commonly used today in argumentation theory. ^{[1]}
Traditionally, logic is studied as a branch of philosophy, one part of the classical trivium, which consisted of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. Since the midnineteenth century formal logic has been studied in the context of the foundations of mathematics. In 1910 Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead attempted to establish logic as the cornerstone of mathematics formally with the publication of Principia Mathematica. However, the system of Principia is no longer much used, having been largely supplanted by set theory. The development of formal logic and its implementation in computing machinery is the foundation of computer science.
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Within the Franciscan Order, he is honored as a martyr. He was beatified in 1857 by Pope Pius IX and his feast day was assigned to 30 June and is celebrated by the Third Order of St. Francis.
 ...that the Law of noncontradiction is the same as the Law of contradiction?
 ...that NAND alone or NOR alone make a functionally complete set of logical operators?
 ...that according to the continuum hypothesis, there is no cardinal number in between aleph null and the cardinality of the continuum?
 ...that all 24 valid syllogistic forms have names like 'Camestros' and 'Felapton'?
 ...that if a statement P implies another statement Q, and a third statement R also implies Q, and either P or R is true; then Q has to be true?
 ...that the dunce cap was named after a logician?
 ...that the collective noun for a group of logicians is a "sequitur of logicians"
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 ↑ J. Robert Cox and Charles Arthur Willard, eds. Advances in Argumentation Theory and Research, Southern Illinois University Press, 1983 ISBN 0809310503, ISBN13 9780809310500
 ↑ Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, Douglas Hofstadter
 ↑ Because nonwellformed formulas are rarely considered, some authors ignore them altogether. For these authors, "formula" and "wellformed formula" are synonyms. Other authors use the term "formula" for any string of symbols in the language; certain of these strings are then singled out as the wellformed formulas.
 ↑ Born 1232 per Mark D. Johnston in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998. Older sources (such as versions of Encyclopædia Britannica at least up to 1955) give 1235; the current Britannica gives 1232/33.
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