Technology is the practical use of science, including the making, modification or improvement, applied activity or behavior, use and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, or environmental modifications or arrangement in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, environmental arrangement and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from Greek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē), meaning "art, skill, craft", and -λογία (-logía), meaning "study of-". The term can be applied either generally or to many specific areas, examples of which include construction technology, medical technology and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.
The Astrophysics Data System
is an online NASA
database of over 7,000,000 astronomy
papers from both peer reviewed
and non-peer reviewed sources. Abstracts
are available free online for almost all articles, and full scanned articles are available in GIF
format for older articles. New articles have links to electronic versions hosted at the journal's webpage, but these are typically available only by subscription (which most astronomy research facilities have). It is managed by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
. ADS is an extremely powerful research tool, and has had a significant impact on the efficiency of astronomical research since it was launched in 1992. Literature searches which previously would have taken days or weeks can now be carried out in seconds via the sophisticated ADS search engine, which is custom-built for astronomical needs. Studies have found that the benefit to astronomy of the ADS is equivalent to several hundred million US dollars
annually, and the system is estimated to have tripled the readership of astronomical journals
. Use of ADS is almost universal among astronomers worldwide, and therefore ADS usage statistics can be used to analyze global trends in astronomical research.
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I. M. Pei
(born 1917) is a Chinese American
architect, often called a master of modern architecture
. Born in Guangzhou
, in 1935 he moved to the United States. While enrolled at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
, he became unhappy with the school's focus on Beaux-Arts architecture
, and spent his free time researching the emerging architects, especially Le Corbusier
. After graduating, he joined the Harvard Graduate School of Design
and formed a friendship with the Bauhaus
architects Walter Gropius
and Marcel Breuer
. Pei spent ten years working with New York real estate magnate William Zeckendorf
before establishing his own independent design firm that eventually became Pei Cobb Freed & Partners
. Among the early projects on which Pei took the lead were the L'Enfant Plaza Hotel
in Washington, DC, and the Green Building
at MIT. His first major recognition came with the National Center for Atmospheric Research
in Colorado; his new stature led to his selection as chief architect for the John F. Kennedy Library
in Massachusetts. He went on to design Dallas City Hall
and the East Building of the National Gallery of Art
. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid
for the Louvre
museum in Paris. Pei has won a wide variety of prizes and awards in the field of architecture, including the 1983 Pritzker Prize
, sometimes called the Nobel Prize
- Parent project
- Related projects