The Battle of Gettysburg
was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg
, Pennsylvania, by Union
forces during the American Civil War
. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point
. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade
's Army of the Potomac
defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee
's Army of Northern Virginia
, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North. After his success at Chancellorsville
in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley
to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign
. Elements of the two armies initially collided at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army and destroy it. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. John Buford
, and soon reinforced with two corps
of Union infantry
. However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the defenders retreating through the streets of town to the hills just to the south.
was an American archaeologist
, and Mayanist
scholar who made significant contributions toward the study of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization
in the early twentieth century.
Morley is particularly noted for the extensive excavations of the Maya site of Chichen Itza that he directed on behalf of the Carnegie Institution. He also published several large compilations and treatises on Maya hieroglyphic writing, and wrote popular accounts on the Maya for a general audience.
To his contemporaries, he was one of the leading Mesoamerican archaeologists of his day. Although more recent developments in the field have resulted in a re-evaluation of his theories and works, his publications, particularly on calendric inscriptions, are still cited.
Morley also conducted espionage in Mexico on behalf of the United States during World War I, but the scope of those activities only came to light well after his death. His archaeological field work in Mexico and Central America provided suitable cover for investigating German activities and anti-American activity. His espionage was undertaken at the behest of the United States' Office of Naval Intelligence.