Richard T. Ely
|Richard T. Ely|
Ely as he appeared in 1903
April 13, 1854|
Ripley, New York, US
|Died||October 4, 1943
Old Lyme, Connecticut, US
Richard Theodore Ely (13 April 1854 – 4 October 1943) was an American economist, author, and leader of the Progressive movement who called for more government intervention in order to reform what they perceived as the injustices of capitalism, especially regarding factory conditions, compulsory education, child labor, and labor unions.
Ely is best remembered as a founder and the first Secretary of the American Economic Association, as a founder and secretary of the Christian Social Union, and as the author of a series of widely read books on the organized labor movement, socialism, and other social questions.
Richard Theodore Ely was born on April 13, 1854, in Ripley, New York, the eldest of three children of Ezra Sterling and Harriet Gardner (Mason) Ely. Soon after Ely's birth, his father moved the family to a 90-acre farm near Fredonia, New York, where Ely would spend the next 16 years. The elder Ely was a self-taught engineer and lacked the skills and knowledge to farm successfully, relying too heavily on popular, sometimes erroneous, information he obtained from farm magazines.
Although harsh weather and fluctuating market prices provided further hardship to the family, Ely credited his early farm life with instilling in him many valuable qualities. From a young age he had numerous responsibilities in maintaining the farm, including carrying wood, churning butter, picking up rocks out of the fields, and milking the cows. His parents were Presbyterian but Ely transferred his affiliation to the Episcopal Church when in college.
Education and career
Ely attended Columbia University in New York City, from which he received a bachelor's degree in 1876 and a master's degree in 1879. He received a Doctor of Philosophy degree in economics from the University of Heidelberg in that same year, where he had studied with Karl Knies, who belonged to the historical school of economics, and Johann Kaspar Bluntschli. He later received a Doctorate of Laws from Hobart College, receiving the degree in 1892.
In 1885, Ely was a founder of the American Economic Association, serving until 1892 as the group's Secretary. He later served a term as President of the organization, holding that position from 1899 to 1901. The AEA Distinguished Lecture series was formerly known as the Richard T. Ely Lecture; it was renamed in 2020. Ely also founded Lambda Alpha International in 1930. Its purposes included the encouragement of the study of land economics in universities; the promotion of a closer affiliation between its members and the professional world of land economics; and the furtherance of the highest ideals of scholarship and honesty in business and the universities. Richard T. Ely is known as the "Father of Land Economics".
In April 1891, Ely was a founder and the first Secretary of the Christian Social Union, a membership organization advocating the application of Christian principles to the social problems of the world.
From 1892 until 1925, he was professor of Political Economy and director of the School of Economics, Political Science, and History at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. In 1894 an unsuccessful attempt was made by Oliver Elwin Wells, Superintendent of Public Instruction of Wisconsin and ex officio member of the University's Board of Regents to expel Ely from his chair at Wisconsin for purportedly teaching socialistic doctrines. This effort failed, with the Wisconsin state Board of Regents issuing a ringing proclamation in favor of academic freedom, acknowledging the necessity for freely "sifting and winnowing" among competing claims of truth.
Although regarded as a radical by his detractors on the political right, Ely was in fact opposed to socialism. "I condemn alike," he declared, "that individualism that would allow the state no room for industrial activity, and that socialism which would absorb in the state the functions of the individual." He argued that socialism was not needed, and "the alternative of socialism is our complex socio-economic order, which is based, in the main, upon private property." He warned that the proper "balance between private and public enterprise" is "menaced by socialism, on the one hand, and by plutocracy, on the other."
Ely's critique of socialism made him a political target of the socialists themselves. In his 1910 book, Ten Blind Leaders of the Blind, Arthur Morrow Lewis acknowledged that Ely was a "fair opponent" who had "done much to obtain a hearing for [socialism] among the unreasonable", but charged he was merely one of those "bourgeois intellectuals" who were "not sufficiently intellectual to grasp the nature of our position."
Ely was a product of the German historical school with an emphasis on evolution to new forms, and never accepted the marginalist revolution that was transforming economic theory in Britain and the U.S. He was strongly influenced by Herbert Spencer and strongly favored competition over monopoly or state ownership, with regulation to "secure its benefits" and "mitigate its evils". What was needed was "to raise its moral and ethical level." However, whereas Spencer believed that free competition was best served by deregulation and a smaller state, Ely believed that more regulation and a more interventionist state was the policy to follow. Also on social Darwinism, Spencer believed that the state should not get involved in supporting one ethnic group over another — whereas Ely believed that the state should support white "Nordic" people against people of other races (in line with the opinions of his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin, Edward Alsworth Ross and Charles R. Van Hise).
Ely favored eugenics, arguing the "unfit" should be kept from reproducing. Ely argued that blacks were "for the most part grownup children, and should be treated as such." Ely was an advocate for redlining (which entails racial segregation and discrimination in real estate), and has been considered influential in the institutionalization of redlining practices in the United States.
Ely did support labor unions and opposed child labor, as did many leaders of the Progressive Movement, and also some conservatives such as Mark Hanna. Ely was close to the Social Gospel movement, emphasizing that the Gospel of Christ applied to society as a whole, not merely to individuals; he worked hard to convince churches to advocate on behalf of workers. Ely strongly influenced his friend Walter Rauschenbusch, a leading spokesman for the Social Gospel.
During World War I, Ely worked to build popular support for the American war effort, taking part in the activities of the League to Enforce Peace. He headed the committee of arrangements for a "Win the War Convention" held in Madison from November 8–10, 1918. Ely's political activities during World War I included his campaign against Senator Robert M. La Follette. Although La Follette was a Progressive in politics, he did not support the war, and so Ely regarded him as unfit for office. Ely tried to have him removed from the United States Senate and end his influence in Wisconsin politics.
Ely edited Macmillan's Citizen's Library of Economics, Politics, and Sociology and its Social Science Textbook Series and Crowell's Library of Economics and Politics, and was a frequent contributor to periodical literature, both scientific and popular.
Death and legacy
The American Economic Association instituted the annual "Richard T. Ely Lecture" in 1960 in his memory, which, unlike the Association's other honors is also open to non-American economists. It was renamed the AEA Distinguished Lecture series in 2020.
The television series Profiles in Courage did an episode in 1964 titled "Richard T. Ely" about the "sifting and winnowing" incident. Ely was played by Dan O'Herlihy; Wells by Edward Asner; and Ely's attorney, former Congressman Burr Jones, by Leonard Nimoy.
- French and German Socialism in Modern Times. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1883.
- The Past and Present of Political Economy. (contributor) Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, 1884.
- Recent American Socialism. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, 1885.
- The Labor Movement in America. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1886.
- Taxation in American States and Cities. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1888.
- Problems of Today: A Discussion of Protective Tariffs, Taxation, and Monopolies. (1888). Revised and enlarged edition. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1890.
- An Introduction to Political Economy. New York: Chautauqua Press, 1889.
- Social Aspects of Christianity, and Other Essays. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889.
- The Universities and the Churches: An Address Delivered at the 31st University Convocation, State Chamber, Albany, New York, July 5, 1893. Albany: State University of New York, 1893.
- Outlines of Economics. New York: Flood and Vincent, 1893.
- Socialism: An Examination of Its Nature, Its Strength and Its Weakness. (1894) New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1895. —Reissued as The Strength and Weakness of Socialism.
- The Social Law of Service. New York: Eaton and Mains, 1896.
- Monopolies and Trusts. New York: Macmillan, 1900.
- The Coming City. New York: Thomas Y, Crowell & Co., 1902.
- Studies in the Evolution of Industrial Society. New York: Macmillan, 1903.
- Elementary Principles of Economics: Together with a Short Sketch of Economic History. With G.R. Wicker. New York: Macmillan, 1904.
- Property and Contract in their Relation to the Distribution of Wealth. In two volumes. New York: Macmillan, 1914. Volume 1 | Volume 2.
- "Private Colonization of Land," offprint from American Economic Review. Madison, WI: Office of the Secretary of the American Association of Agricultural Legislation, Sept. 1918.
- Elements of Land Economics. With Edward Ward Morehouse. New York: Macmillan, 1924.
- Hard Times: The Way In and the Way Out: With a Special Consideration of the "Seen and the Unseen." New York: Macmillan, 1932.
- The Great Change: Work and Wealth in the New Age. With Frank Bohn. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1935.
- Ground Under Our Feet: An Autobiography. New York: Macmillan, 1938.
- Land Economics. With G.S. Wehrwein. New York: Macmillan, 1941.
- Sterling, Edward Boker (15 February 2019). "The Sterling genealogy". Grafton Press – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The National Cyclopedia of American Biography ... V.1-". J. T. White. 15 February 1899 – via Google Books.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Francis X. Gannon, Biographical Dictionary of the Left: Volume IV. Boston: Western Islands, 1973; pg. 355.
- Ely, Richard T. (1938). Ground Under Our Feet. New York: Macmillan. p. 43.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Gannon, Biographical Dictionary of the Left: Volume IV, pg. 356.
- AEA Distinguished Lecture Series.
- Gannon, Biographical Dictionary of the Left: Volume IV. Boston: Western Islands, 1973; pg. 359.
- "Sifting and Winnowing," www.library.wisc.edu
- See, for example, the editorializing comments in his biography published by the John Birch Society in 1973: Francis X. Gannon, "Richard T. Ely" in Biographical Dictionary of the Left: Volume IV, pg. 357 and passim.
- Quoted in Sidney Fine, "Richard T. Ely, Forerunner of Progressivism, 1880–1901", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, vol. 37, no. 4 (March 1951), pg. 611.
- Ely, Studies in the Evolution of Industrial Society, pp. 464, 468, 237.
- Arthur M. Lewis, Ten Blind Leaders of the Blind. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1912; pp. 65, 78.
- Ely, Studies in the Evolution of Industrial Society, p. 97.
- Alex Tabarrok (2016-12-08). "Richard T. Ely, Alt-Right Founder of the American Economic Association". Marginal Revolution. Retrieved 2020-06-04.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Winling, LaDale C; Michney, Todd M (2021-06-01). "The Roots of Redlining: Academic, Governmental, and Professional Networks in the Making of the New Deal Lending Regime". Journal of American History. 108 (1): 42–69. doi:10.1093/jahist/jaab066. ISSN 0021-8723.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ely to A.M. Simons in Milwaukee, November 12, 1918. Simons Papers, box 2, folder 2.
- Gannon, A Biographical Dictionary of the Left: Volume 4, pg. 361.
- AEA Distinguished Lecture Series.
- "Ely House Historical Marker". www.hmdb.org.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Profiles in Courage (tv series): "Richard T. Ely": Full Cast & Crew IMDb.com
- Ramage, B.J., ‘Dr. Ely on Social Reform’, The Sewanee Review 3 (1894), pp. 105-110.
- Sidney Fine, "Richard T. Ely, Forerunner of Progressivism, 1880–1901," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. vol. 37, no. 4 (March 1951). in JSTOR
- Robert J. Gough, "Richard T. Ely and the Development of the Wisconsin Cutover", Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 75, no. 1 (Autumn 1991), pp. 2–38.
- Arthur M. Lewis, Ten Blind Leaders of the Blind. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1910. See "Chapter 4: Richard T. Ely," pp. 65–82.
- Benjamin G. Rader, "Richard T. Ely: Lay Spokesman for the Social Gospel," Journal of American History, vol. 53, no. 1 (June 1966). in JSTOR
- Theron F. Schlabach, "An Aristocrat on Trial: The Case of Richard T. Ely", Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 47, no. 2 (Winter 1963–64), pp. 140–159.
- "Richard T. Ely's Social Creed," Literary Digest, vol. 10, no. 1, whole no. 237 (Nov. 3, 1894), pp. 5–6.
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