Right Sector

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Right Sector
Правий сектор
Leader Andriy Tarasenko[1]
Slogan God! Ukraine! Freedom![2]
Founded November 2013
Registered 22 May 2014
Merger of Tryzub
Former constituents:
Social-National Assembly (left in 2014)
White Hammer (expelled in 2014)
C14 (left in 2014)
Headquarters Kiev, Ukraine
Paramilitary Volunteered Ukrainian Corps (unofficial)
Membership 10,000
Ideology Ukrainian nationalism[3]
Religious conservatism[4]
Political position Far-right
Colors           Red, Black
Verkhovna Rada
1 / 450
Regions (2015)[6]
2 / 158,399
Politics of Ukraine
Political parties
1In addition, former party spokesman Boryslav Bereza won a seat as an independent.[7]

Right Sector (Ukrainian: Правий сектор, Pravyi Sektor) is a far-right Ukrainian nationalist political party that originated in November 2013 as a paramilitary confederation at the Euromaidan revolt in Kiev, where its street fighters fought against riot police.[8][9] The coalition became a political party on 22 March 2014, at which time it claimed to have perhaps 10,000 members.[10][11]

Founding groups included Trident (Tryzub), led by Dmytro Yarosh and Andriy Tarasenko; and the Ukrainian National Assembly–Ukrainian National Self-Defense (UNA–UNSO), a political/paramilitary organization.[12][13][14] Other founding groups included the Social-National Assembly and its Patriot of Ukraine paramilitary wing, White Hammer, and Carpathian Sich. White Hammer was expelled in March 2014,[15] and in the following months Patriot left the organization along with many UNA-UNSO members.[16]

In June 2014 one of the groups was assigned by the Interior Ministry to surveil Mariupol after it captured the city from pro-Russian activists. [17][18]

Right Sector's political ideology has been described as extreme nationalist,[19][20] ultranationalist,[21][22] neofascist,[23] right-wing,[24] or far right.[25][26][27][28] Right Sector was the second-most mentioned political group in Russian media during the first half of 2014; Russian state TV depicted it as neo-Nazi.[29][30] The Associated Press found no evidence that the group had committed hate crimes.[22] In the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Yarosh as a Right Sector candidate won a parliament seat by winning a single-member district with 29.8% of the votes.[31] Right Sector spokesperson Boryslav Bereza as an independent candidate also won a seat and district with 29.4% of the votes.[7]

Since 5 April 2015 Yarosh has acted as an advisor to the Ukrainian Armed Forces,[32] and on 11 November he formally stepped down as the group's leader.[33] On 27 December he announced that he and his team would be withdrawing from the group entirely, declaring that Right Sector had fulfilled its purpose 'as a revolutionary structure' and was no longer needed. He stated he and his faction were against pseudo-revolutionary activity that threatens the state, fringe radicalism, and were against violent revolts against the current government. In a statement issued by Right Sector in response to Yarosh's departure, Right Sector stated the schism was due to continuing a 'revolutionary path'.[34][35] The departure of Yarosh resulted in at least 20% of Right Sector members leaving with him.[36] In February 2016 Yarosh started a new organisation called Governmental Initiative of Yarosh.[37] Since 19 March Andriy Tarasenko is the new chairman of Right Sector.[1]


The organization's name in Ukrainian is Правий сектор, which can be transliterated as Pravyy sektor and translated as Right Sector. (General-audience publications often transliterate it as Pravy Sektor or Pravyi Sektor.) The name is derived from the group's effort to protect the right side of the Euromaidan protestors at one point during the protests.[38]



Dmytro Yarosh, Tryzub's leader and the former leader of Right Sector.

Right Sector formed in late November 2013 as a confederation of streetfighting soccer fans and right-wing nationalist groups: Patriot of Ukraine (Andriy Belitsky), the Social-National Assembly, Trident (Dmytro Yarosh), UNA–UNSO (Yuriy Shukhevych), White Hammer, and Carpathian Sich.[12][13][39][40][41] The BBC reports that Right Sector's Kiev organization is primarily formed by Russian-speaking soccer fans who share nationalist views.[42][43][44]

The organization views itself within the tradition of Ukrainian partisans, such as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, which fought in the Second World War against the Soviet Union, both for and against the Axis as well as carried out ethnic cleansing.[42][45] Yarosh, Right Sector's leader, has trained armed nationalists in military exercises since the collapse of the Soviet Union.[46] Co-founder Andriy Tarasenko told LIGA news agency in January 2014 that most participants were "ordinary citizens not related to any organizations".[12][47]

Right Sector claims to have received donations from the Ukrainian diaspora.[11]

Entry into Euromaidan

Three helmeted protestors throwing pavement bricks at riot-police line under concealment of smoke from burning tires
Protesters throwing bricks at riot police, using tire smoke for cover from sniper fire, Kiev, 18 February 2014

Right Sector became one of the main actors in the January 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots, a part of the Euromaidan protests, in their later and more violent stages.[13][48] On 19 January 2014 the organization encouraged its members to bring bottles to the protests in order to produce Molotov cocktails and bombs.[12] The Yanukovich government classified it as an extremist movement and threatened its members with imprisonment.[49]

Right Sector has been described as the most organized and most effective of the Euromaidan forces when it came to confronting police.[50] Right Sector claims that it was the main organizer of violent resistance against armed attacks by the state at Euromaidan.[40] Yarosh stated that the group had amassed a sizable arsenal of weapons;[9] these include guns taken from police stations in Western Ukraine.[51]

On 4 March 2014, the organization called on readers of its Vkontakte social-media page to "correct th[e] misunderstanding" that had been created in English and Russian Wikipedia that Right Sector is fascist and neo-Nazi.[52]

According to political science professor Olexiy Haran, Right Sector's role in Ukrainian politics was "extremely exaggerated" by Ukrainians associated with Yanukovich.[29]

Aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution

twenty masked activists posing with a Ukrainian flag and a Right Sector banner showing trident as ship anchor at a Euromaidan event in Odessa
Activists in Odessa holding Right Sector banner with ship-anchor design, 9 February 2014

Yarosh was proposed as a deputy to the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine[53] but was not appointed. He was then offered the position of deputy head of the National Security Council but rejected it as being beneath him.[54]

In February 2014, Yarosh and the Israeli ambassador to Ukraine agreed to establish a "hotline" to prevent provocations and coordinate actions when issues arise.[55][56] The group assists in the protection of Jewish sites in Odessa.[57]

Russia has cited attacks by Right Sector on Russian speakers and Jews as the main reason it sent troops into Crimea.[22]

On 7 March 2014, Tarasenko told Interfax-Ukraine that the "informal movement" would be transforming itself into a political party at a congress on 15 March.[58][need quotation to verify]

On 11 March 2014, Russian Duma opposition leader Valery Rashkin called on Russian special services to "liquidate" Yarosh and Right Sector's leader for West Ukraine, UNA–UNSO member Oleksandr Muzychko.[59] He said that Muzychko had fought for Chechen separatists against Russian troops and been charged with banditry. Muzychko (who was given the nom de guerre "Sachko Bilyi") had also become known for the farcical Right Sector video, "Sachko Communicates with a Prosecutor", in which he yells at a local prosecutor, snatches his tie and threatens to drag him to Independence Square with a rope.[13]

Muzychko was shot to death in Rivne, Ukraine, on 24 March 2014. A witness told a local news service that a dozen men took Muzychko out of a cafe, handcuffed him, and beat him and two bodyguards. Others said that they later heard two shots fired near the cafe.[60] Ukraine's Interior Ministry stated that he was shot after opening fire on police and Sokil special forces. He was captured alive and arrested but died from his wounds before paramedics arrived.[61] Police said he was being detained on suspicion of organized crime links, hooliganism and threatening public officials.[62][63][64]

A line of five Patriot of Ukraine members (some with bats) providing security at a meeting organized by Right Sector activists, at the Euromaidan’s main stage
Patriot of Ukraine members standing guard at a Right Sector event, Euromaidan, Kiev, 13 April 2014

Right Sector representatives held Interior Minister Arsen Avakov accountable for his death and vowed to avenge him.[65] On 27 March 2014, Right Sector supporters demanded Avakov's resignation and tried to storm the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian parliament).[66] The next day, the European Union's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, Catherine Ashton, stated, "I strongly condemn the pressure by activists of the Right Sector who have surrounded the building of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Such an intimidation of the parliament is against the democratic principles and rule of law."[67]

A few days later the group released an app that allows its members to organize tactics at events without being identified.[68]

On 31 March 2014, a drunken Right Sector activist started shooting near a restaurant in central Kiev. Three people were wounded, including the deputy head of the Kiev City State Administration.[69]

2014 pro-Russian conflict and 2014 Ukrainian election results

On 24 April 2014 Right Sector announced that it was moving its headquarters from Kiev to Dnipropetrovsk in order to monitor the situation in eastern Ukraine[70] and that it had begun to form a special battalion 'Donbass' for its paramilitary operations in the War in Donbass.[71]

On 22 April 2014 pro-Russian insurgents in Slovyansk detained American journalist Simon Ostrovsky for several days on suspicion of spying for the group.[72]

Right Sector was officially registered as a political party by the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice on 22 May 2014.[73] A regional chief told the Wall Street Journal that it was less interested in running for office than in getting politicians to keep their promises.[74]

In the 25 May 2014 presidential race Yarosh received 127,000 votes, 0.7% of the total cast.[75][76][77][need quotation to verify] In a mid-May 2014 poll by Sociological group "RATING" the party itself scored 1.7%.[78]

On 13 June 2014 a prosecutor's office in Kiev was stormed by people who claimed to be Right Sector activists. Yarosh denied his organization's involvement and claimed that he could not have given orders to picket "the man who helped Euromaidan".[79][need quotation to verify]

On 15 October 2014 around 125 masked men with Right Sector insignia blocked the company Zaporizhstal; Right Sector denied involvement in this blockade and labelled it as an attempt to discredit the organization.[80]

In the 26 October 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Yarosh as a Right Sector candidate won a parliament seat by winning single-member district number 39 located in Vasylkivka Raion with 29.76% of the votes.[31] The party had competed in 35 districts.[81] Yarosh did not join a faction in the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament).[82] In the same election, Boryslav Bereza, Right Sector's chief of information, also won a seat as an independent candidate by winning a district in Kiev with 29.44% of the votes.[7] Bereza also did not join a faction.[83]

Right Sector did not take part in the October 2015 Ukrainian local elections.[84]

2015 clash with Ukraine's special security service

On July 10, 2015, Ukrainian government forces clashed with Right Sector forces in the city of Mukacheve, located in Western Ukraine. Two people were killed. According to President Poroshenko's parliamentary faction leader Yuriy Lutsenko, these events "result[ed from] the conflict of interests between illegal armed groups and a mafia overtly cooperating with law enforcers." [85] Some local leaders indicated the conflict ensued when Right Sector forces attempted to clamp down on the lucrative illegal cigarette smuggling trade to Western Europe, in which local law enforcement have been complicit. Immediate fallout from the events included the sacking of the leadership of the local Zakarpatya district customs service. Ukrainian MP Mykhailo Lanyo, fingered in the smuggling ring, reportedly fled Ukraine.[86] Right Sector leader Yarosh called for calm, and denied that Right Sector troops were being withdrawn from eastern Ukraine.[87][88][89][90]

After Yarosh departure

Yarosh resigned as Right Sector leader on 11 November 2015.[33] Late December 2015 he announced that he was forming a new political party that would start in February 2016.[91] In February 2016 he started a new organisation called Governmental Initiative of Yarosh.[37] The departure of Yarosh resulted in at least 20% of Right Sector members leaving with him.[36]

At a party congress of 19 March 2016 Andriy Tarasenko was elected chairman of Right Sector.[1] Before Euromaidan he and Yarosh were the leading figures of Trident (Tryzub).[14]

Tarasenko vowed in March 2016 that Right Sector would take part in all elections in Ukraine.[1]

Paramilitary operations

Yarosh (right) meets Donbas Battalion commander Semen Semenchenko, 12 July 2014

Right Sector seized military weaponry from an Interior Ministry arsenal in western Ukraine, near Lviv, towards the end of the Maidan revolt. Right Sector delivered some weapons to Ukrainian authorities in the aftermath of the revolution, and kept others.[92]

Following the collapse of the Yanukovych government, with police having been forced to abandon the streets of Kiev, gangs of young men, including members of Right Sector, roamed them armed mostly with baseball bats and guns.[50]

According to Yarosh, Right Sector has recruited retired officers of the interior ministry and the security agencies. He told Newsweek that "as in any army" it has specialists who are trained to use S-300 antiaircraft missiles.[11]

Ukrainian Volunteer Corps

Fighters of the Ukrainian Volunteer Corps (DUK)

Right Sector has its own volunteer battalion that is fighting in the War in Donbass.[93] It was formed late April 2014.[71] On 19 July 2014 Right Sector said it was ready to contribute 5,000 people to fight, if the military provided suitable combat equipment.[94]

Right Sector lost twelve fighters when ambushed outside Donetsk in August 2014. Yarosh, the group's leader, vowed his group would avenge the deaths.[95] On 17 August 2014 Right Sector accused the Interior Ministry of harbouring counterrevolutionary forces seeking to destroy the Ukrainian volunteer movement.[96] It said that Deputy Interior Minister Vladimir Yevdokimov's followers among the police had illegally searched or detained dozens of Right Sector volunteers and confiscated weapons they had taken in combat.[97] Interior Minister Arsen Avakov replied, saying that he had already submitted a request to President Poroshenko that Yevdokimov be dismissed.[98]

Right Sector's military unit includes about fifty citizens of Russia and Belarus.[99] Members come from all parts of Ukraine and Russia ; other former Soviet republics; and Western countries.

In December 2015, group leader Dmytro Yarosh announced that the 5th and 8th battalions, and the medical battalion, would be incorporated into the Armed Forces of Ukraine following his departure from Right Sector.[35] The UVC, if possible, would become part of the National Guard of Ukraine and will in the near future report to the Ministry of Internal Affairs or would be merged as part of the Ukrainian Ground Forces.


Description by the party

The party's ideology is based on the Ukrainian national idea and bears all the trademarks of a Nazi ideology. [2] The party believes that idea of a nation is more broad than the concept of people as ethnos, yet nothing even close to the cosmopolitan concept of "political nation".[2] Nation is a conscious and effective unity of people united around the idea of freedom that is based on ethno-social and spiritually cultural factors.[2]

March in Kiev on anniversary of the birthday of Stepan Bandera, 1 January 2015

Ukrainian nationalism is

  • An ideology of national freedom, freedom of people and person[2]
  • An idea and cause in the name of Ukraine[2]
  • An ideology of defense, preservation, and state assertion of the Ukrainian nation[2]
  • A philosophy of national existence[2]

The main component of Right Sector's natiocentric outlook is natio-existential Shevchenko Thought,[2] based on protection, development, and revival of the nation based on national imperative or absolute order.[2]

According to its literature, an idealistic worldview is intrinsic to Ukrainian nationalism.[2]

Descriptions in scholarly work

Scholars Andreas Umland and Anton Shekhovstov have written that Right Sector formed as a loose collection of small groups, outside parliament, that were ultraconservative and included a neo-Nazi fringe.[40] According to researcher Alina Polyakova, one of Right Sector's constituent groups, Tryzub, is composed of radical, right-wing nationalists. She writes that the Patriots of Ukraine, another constituent group, has organized attacks against foreigners or international students, and is connected to neo-fascist ideology and symbolism; scholar Volodymyr Ishchenko describes the group as neo-Nazi.[100] Polyakova describes the ideology of the UNA-UNSO as nationalist, and sometimes including aspects of anarchism.[citation needed]

Shekhovstov has written that Patriot of Ukraine and Social National Assembly, which are racist and engage in real or symbolic violence against minorities, also oppose alcohol and drug use.[101] (Also) according to Shekhovtsov "The main peculiarity of the Ukrainian far right is that its main enemy is not immigrants or national minorities, as often happens with the EU-based far right, but the Kremlin".[102]

Descriptions in the press

Right Sector has been described by BBC News as a "Ukrainian nationalist group"[21] and an "umbrella organization of far-right groups".[103] Time has described it as a "radical right-wing group ... a coalition of militant ultra-nationalists",[25] with an ideology that "borders on fascism".[9] The New York Times has described it as a "nationalist group" and a "coalition of once-fringe Ukrainian nationalist groups".[20]

The Guardian has identified it as a "nationalist Ukrainian group";[104] Reuters as a "far-right nationalist group";[105] Agence France Presse as a "far-right" group;[28] and the Wall Street Journal as an "umbrella group for far-right activists and ultranationalists".[106]

Die Welt, the New York Times, and Le Monde Diplomatique have described some of Right Sector's constituent groups as radical right-wing, neofascist, or neo-Nazi, but also that is distanced itself from antisemism.[23][39][42]

Writing for Foreign Policy, Hannah Kozlowska stated that Russian propaganda tried to demonize the Ukraine government and build a case for the annexation of Crimea by depicting Right Sector as a powerful neo-Nazi force bent on taking over the government. During the first half of 2014, Right Sector was the second-most mentioned political group in online Russian mass media.[29]

The Associated Press has called it a "radical ultranationalist group ... demonized by Russian state propaganda as fascists".[22] The AP reported that it had found no evidence of hate crimes by the group.[22]

The Russian News & Information Agency has portrayed Right Sector as a "radical far right opposition group" and said that "Russian state media have tried to cast the demonstrations as a predominantly Fascism-inspired movement".[26]

The RT (formerly Russia Today) TV News network has portrayed it as a "Ukrainian radical neo-fascist" group.[70]

Other Ukrainians and political parties

In an interview, Yarosh stated that Right Sector and Svoboda "have a lot of common positions when it comes to ideological questions," but that Right Sector "absolutely do[es]n't accept certain racist things they [Svoboda members] share."[107] Tarasenko cited Stepan Bandera, stating: "We are enemies to those saying that there [is] no Ukraine, or Ukrainians, or … Ukrainian language."[108]

According to journalist Oleg Shynkarenko, Yarosh has indicated that Right Sector opposes homosexuality and has also implied that the right of the nation trumps human rights.[13] The New York Times has written that "Right Sector, a coalition of ultranationalist and in some cases neo-Nazi organizations," has attempted to distance itself from anti-Semitism, citing Yarosh's pledge to fight racism in Ukraine.[39] According to Spiegel Online, Dmytro Yarosh has stated that anti-semitism is not a part of Right Sector's ideology.

Tarasenko has stated that the group has no "phobias", that it respects every other nation, and that it supports the nation state model.[108]

Some Ukrainians in southern and eastern Ukraine view Right Sector negatively and accuse its members of carrying out a war against the regions on behalf of the government in Kiev.[109] The group took part in demonstrations in support of Israel in the city of Dnipropetrovsk on 28 July 2014, saying, "We, like Israel, learn unity; learn to love and defend their country, at war with the most heinous and vile enemy - terrorism."[110]

Attitude towards Europe

Right Sector's website says that its members distrust the "imperial ambitions" of both Russia and the West.[111] Yarosh told Spiegel Online that anti-Christian organizations are in active operation in the EU and that the European Commission (rather than the member nation) has control of lifestyles such as gay marriage.[112] He does not see Europe or NATO as a potential partner and believes that they are part of a coalition against Ukraine.[112]

Domestic policy

Right Sector has the position that the population should keep and bear arms, as in Switzerland.[108] Yarosh told the New York Times that the organization's lawyers were drafting a bill modeled on Swiss notions of firearms possession.[92]

Moral issues

According to historian and political scientist Andreas Umland Right Sector is ultra-Christian conservative and radical nationalist.[4]

On 2 June 2015 the party sent an open letter to Kiev Mayor Vitali Klitschko asking him to cancel a pride parade to be held two days later citing "danger of provocations".[113] The letter also quoted Major Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church Sviatoslav Shevchuk stating "Ukraine rejects the false values as gender ideology".[114] The letter also claimed Europeans still have an ambiguous attitude about "LGBT" stating "in Poland abortion is banned in general, not to mention same-sex marriages".[114] In a Facebook post Right Sector leader Yarosh claimed the gay pride parade “spit on the graves of those who died and defended Ukraine”; and he promised that the group’s members will “put aside other business in order to prevent those who hate family, morality, and human nature, from executing their plans. We have other things to do, but we’ll have to deal with this evil too,” he wrote.[115] Right Sector spokesman Artem Skoropadskyi stated about the pride parade “gay propaganda is destructive and doing harm to our Christian nation, we can’t allow that”.[115] The pride parade was held; during the march five policemen were injured in scuffles after unidentified people attacked the rally with smoke bombs and stones.[116] Right Sector denounced the violence; Skoropadskyi stated about it "We can’t beat weak persons like gays – that’s a disgrace!”.[4]

Component groups

Academic and media sources have described some of Right Sector's constituent groups as nationalist,[19][117] ultranationalist,[39][118] neofascist,[42] neo-Nazi,[39][100] right-wing,[42] far right,[101][119] ultraconservative,[40] or paramilitary. A plurality or majority of Right Sector's members belong to street fighting soccer-fan clubs[43][44][120] or have no specific affiliation.


Sich (Carpathian Sich, Карпатська Січ) is a Cossack battalion from Transcarpathia. Its name derives from the Ukrainian Cossack term for a command and administrative center.[107][121]

Tryzub (Trident)

Tryzub is a far-right[9] Ukrainian paramilitary organization founded in 1993 by the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (former Bandera faction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists).[122] Its full name is the Stepan Bandera All-Ukrainian Organization ″Tryzub″. It states that its main goal is to create a Ukrainian united independent state.[citation needed] According to Tryzub, its enemies in achieving this goal are ″imperialism and chauvinism, fascism and communism, cosmopolitanism and pseudo-nationalism, totalitarianism and anarchy, any evil that seeks to parasitize on the sweat and blood of Ukrainians″.[123]

Ukrainian National Assembly – Ukrainian National Self-Defense

UNA-UNSO members in Kiev, January 26, 2014
Volunteer Ukrainian Corps (DUK), a paramilitary wing of the Right Sector, among the Donetsk airport defenders

The Ukrainian National Assembly – Ukrainian National Self-Defense (UNA–UNSO) is a Ukrainian political organization perceived as far-right in Ukraine and abroad.[124][125][needs update] The faction supplied a volunteer battalion that in 1993 participated in the War in Abkhazia, which was depicted in a documentary film "Shadows of War" by Georgiy Gongadze. While the Ukrainian National Assembly (UNA) acted as the organization's legal political party - wing, on 22 May 2014 it merged into Right Sector.[73] The UNA-UNSO continues to operate independently.

Legal status

After the start of Ukraine's hostilities towards Russia, many volunteers formed their own groups as territorial defense battalions. However, these battalions were legal parts of various Ukrainian security agencies, most of them serving under the Ministry of Defense or the Ministry of Interior. Their volunteers were required to follow orders of the commanders appointed to these agencies. In May 2014 the group became registered as a social organization under Ukrainian law.[126][127]

The status of the Volunteer Ukrainian Corps is not official.


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    (Ukrainian) "Right Sector" elected new chairman, Ukrayinska Pravda (19 March 2016)
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  20. 20.0 20.1 Higgins, Andrew (12 April 2014). "Mystery surrounds death of fiery Ukrainian activist". New York Times. p. A4. Mr. Muzychko — a militant activist in the nationalist group Right Sector — died fleeing the reach of a Ukrainian government he had helped bring to power.… Mr. Muzychko’s … former comrades in Right Sector, a coalition of once-fringe Ukrainian nationalist groups, believe….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Ukraine unrest: Russian outrage at fatal Sloviansk shooting". BBC News. 20 April 2014. At least three people were reported killed in a gun attack on a checkpoint manned by pro-Russian activists…. The Russian foreign ministry said … Right Sector was behind the attack.… Ukraine’s National Security Council … said there were indications that it was ‘an argument between local criminal groups’.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Danilova, Maria (March 14, 2014). "After Ukraine protest, radical group eyes power". Associated Press. The radical ultranationalist group … [has been] demonized by Russian state propaganda as fascists and accused of staging attacks against Russian speakers and Jews.… The AP and other international news organizations have found no evidence of hate crimes.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. 23.0 23.1 Dreyfus, Emmanuel (2 March 2014). "Ukraine Beyond Politics". Le Monde Diplomatique. Retrieved 6 March 2014. Pravy Sektor defines itself as “neither xenophobic nor anti-Semitic, as Kremlin propaganda claims” and above all as “nationalist, defending the values of white, Christian Europe against the loss of the nation and deregionalisation”. Like Svoboda, it rejects multiculturalism… Svoboda’s success over the past few years and the presence of neo-fascist groups such as Pravy Sektor in Independence Square are signs of a crisis in Ukrainian society. It is first and foremost a crisis of identity: in 22 years of independence, Ukraine has not managed to develop an unbiased historical narrative presenting a positive view of all its regions and citizens: even today, the Ukrainians are seen as liberators in Galicia but as fascists in Donbass.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "How did Odessa's fire happen?". BBC News. 4 May 2014. Hardline fans – known as ‘ultras’ – of both sides agreed to hold a joint march to support a united Ukraine.… Some were veteran supporters of Kiev’s Maidan protest movement – the Maidan Self Defence Forces – and/or part of the right-wing Pravy Sektor (Rights Sector).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 Shuster, Simon (6 March 2014). "Putin says Ukraine's revolutionaries are anti-Semites. Is he right?". Time. The uprising … involved a radical right-wing group called Pravy Sektor, a coalition of militant ultra-nationalists…. Their leader … has been offered senior posts in Ukraine’s security services….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Ukrainian nationalist targeted over alleged Chechnya atrocities". Moscow. RIA Novosti [Russian News & Information Agency]. 7 March 2014. Muzychko is a coordinator for Pravy Sektor, the radical far right opposition group…. Russian state media has tried to cast the demonstrations as a predominantly Fascism-inspired movement.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Whalen, Jeanne (25 March 2014). "Prominent Ukraine nationalist killed during police operation". Wall Street Journal. Russia’s state-controlled media outlets have focused particular attention on Mr. Muzychko and one other activist from a far-right group called Pravy Sektor.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. 28.0 28.1 "Ukraine paramilitary group forms political party". Agence France Presse. 22 March 2014. A Ukrainian far-right paramilitary group … said Saturday it had formed a political party.… The Pravy Sektor party will absorb other already registered Ukrainian nationalist formations including UNA-UNSO and Trizub (Trident).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Kozlowska, Hanna (2 June 2014). "The Fascists are coming, the Fascists are coming!". Foreign Policy. D.C. Experts agree that the group owes its popularity to Russian propaganda … painting [it] as a powerful neo-Nazi force determined to take over Ukraine. According to a survey by an online database of Russian media sources, Right Sector was the second-most mentioned political group in Russian mass media in 2014….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Ukraine conflict: Turning up the TV heat". BBC News. 10 August 2014. More emotive is the use of the words ‘fascist’ and ‘Nazi’ in many Russian TV reports … in several contexts, [which include] portraying the far-right Right Sector as Ukraine’s real driving political force….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 31.0 31.1 (Ukrainian) Candidates and winner for the seat in constituency 39 in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election, RBK Ukraine
    Data on vote counting at percincts within single-mandate districts Extraordinary parliamentary election on 26.10.2014, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
  32. "Defense Ministry: Yarosh to be Armed Forces Commander in Chief's advisor". Interfax-Ukraine. April 6, 2015. Ukrainian General Staff Chief Viktor Muzhenko has agreed to appoint Dmytro Yarosh, the leader of Right Sector, as an advisor to the Ukrainian Armed Forces Commander in Chief, the Ukrainian Defense Ministry said on April 5 evening.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. 33.0 33.1 Yarosh quits as Right Sector leader, Interfax Ukraine (11 November 2015)
    Right Sector chief Yarosh resigns, cedes leadership role of group, Kyiv Post (11 November 2015)
  34. http://pravyysektor.info/news/news/1390/zvernennya-do-pobratimiv.html
  35. 35.0 35.1 http://ps-zahid.info/news/yarosh-oholoshuje-pro-zasnuvannya-novoho-ruhu-ta-vyhodyt-z-nvr-ps/
  36. 36.0 36.1 http://www.kyivpost.com/article/content/ukraine-politics/yarosh-launches-a-new-movement-leaves-right-sector-408646.html?utm_content=bufferdafe4&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer
  37. 37.0 37.1 https://www.stratfor.com/analysis/ukraines-political-volatility-extends-beyond-kiev
  38. Pastushenko, Andriy (April 10, 2014). Про початок Майдану і Правого Сектору (video) (Speech). Press conference (in українська). Maidan Press Center, Kiev. It began to rain, and you understand that the police were then panicking at even a single move toward setting up tents. The girls tried to unwrap the usual oilcloth, and the police immediately tore it... Volodya Stretovych, speaking from the podium, then shouted through the microphone: 'Nationalist-guys, hold the right sector, that protects the right side!' Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 39.4 Higgins, Andrew (9 April 2014). "Among Ukraine's Jews, the Bigger Worry Is Putin, Not Pogroms". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2014. Even Right Sector, a coalition of ultranationalist and in some cases neo-Nazi organizations, has made an effort to distance itself from anti-Semitism.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Andreas Umland; Anton Shekhovtsov (July 2014). "Ukraine's Radical Right". Journal of Democracy. 25 (3): 59–60. doi:10.1353/jod.2014.0051. Retrieved 21 July 2014. Along with Svoboda, the other far-right movement that was a prominent presence on the Maidan was the more diverse, less studied, and now notorious fringe organization that calls itself Pravy Sektor (Right Sector)…. That alliance came into being in late November 2013 as a loose collection of extraparliamentary minigroups from an ultraconservative and neo-Nazi fringe. They had names such as the Stepan Bandera All-Ukrainian Organization “Trident” (a moniker meant to combine the memory of a controversial nationalist leader who died in 1959 with the three-pronged heraldic symbol of Ukraine), the Ukrainian National Assembly, the Social-National Assembly, and White Hammer. Their purpose in banding together was to fight democratically elected government of Victor Yanukovitch by force.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Krasnolutska, Daryna; Verbyany, Volodymyr (11 February 2014). "Ukraine radicals steer violence as nationalist zeal grows". Bloomberg.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 42.4 "The radical Ukrainian group Right Sector". Die Welt. 22 February 2014. Right Sector (Pravy Sektor) is an informal association of right-wing and neo-fascist factions.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "welt0222" defined multiple times with different content
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Profile: Ukraine's 'Right Sector' movement". BBC News. 21 January 2014. The backbone of the organisation in Kiev is formed by Russian-speaking football fans sharing nationalist views.… Unlike other protesters …, most of the Right Sector activists do not support the idea of joining the EU, which they consider to be an ‘oppressor of European nations’.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. 44.0 44.1 G.C. (22 January 2014). "Ukraine: A new and dark chapter". Economist. It was not long after that that young men associated with the Right Sector (Pravyy Sektor), a motley confederation of football hooligans and nationalist groups involved in the pro-European protests, took matters into their own hands.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. Baranova, Maria (3 March 2014). "No one has done more for Ukrainian nationalism than Vladimir Putin". New Republic.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Klußmann, Uwe (3 March 2014). "Conflict with Russia". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 6 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Right Sector: Who are they and what is sought?" (in Russian). Kiev: LIGA BusinessInform. LIGA News. 20 January 2014. But most participants – ordinary citizens, not related to any organizations.… In eastern Ukraine, we have tried to organize the union in Kharkov, but there with [their own?] Maidan is not all good.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Radicals a wild card in Ukraine’s protests, The Washington Post (2 February 2014)
  49. Theise, Eugen (11 November 2014). "Radical 'Pravy Sektor' group shifts Kyiv protests to the right". Deutsche Welle. Only a few trusted individuals know [that the men] belong to ‘Right Sector’…. Since the government classified their movement as extremist, they could face a jail term of up to 15 years.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. 50.0 50.1 Gatehouse, Gabriel (1 March 2014). Ukraine: Far-right armed with bats patrol Kiev (Webcast). BBC. At a news conference in Russia, [former President Yanukovych] called his usurpers ‘young, neo-fascist thugs’.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Ishchenko, Volodymyr (28 February 2014). "Ukraine has not experienced a genuine revolution, merely a change of elites". Guardian. The new government cannot control the infamous Right Sector. Its members are now popular heroes…. They have guns captured from police departments in the western regions….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Sabina Zawadzki; Mark Hosenball; Stephen Gray (7 March 2014). "In Ukraine, nationalists gain influence - and scrutiny". Reuters. Retrieved 17 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Olearchyk, Roman (26 February 2014). "Arseniy Yatseniuk poised to become Ukraine prime minister". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 February 2014. In a bid to appease protesters demanding an end to government corruption, Mr Yatseniuk’s cabinet will have civic activists to oversee it.… Victoria Siumar, a civil society activist, and Dmytro Yarosh, head of Right Sector, a militant protest group, were proposed as [Yatseniuk’s] deputies.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Shuster, Simon (1 March 2014). "Many Ukrainians want Russia to invade". Time. Shkiryak, a revolutionary lawmaker involved in the negotiations over Yarosh’s role in the government, says the right-wing militant … was offered the role of deputy head of the National Security Council, but rejected it as beneath him.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "'Right Sector' assured the ambassador of Israel, rejecting anti-Semitism". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 27 February 2014. Leaders of the ‘Right Sector’ assured the Israeli ambassador Reuven El Din that its ideology rejects all manifestations of chauvinism and xenophobia.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "Meeting of Reuven Din El with Dmytro Yarosh". Embassy of Israel in Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Israeli Diplomatic Network. 27 February 2014. The parties agreed to establish a ‘hot line’ to prevent provocations and for coordination on issues that arise.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "Right Sector has offered protection for Odessa Jews". Ukrainian Pravda (in Ukrainian). 10 April 2014. The chief rabbi of Odessa … said that … they, along with a representative of the Right Sector, will paint over the insulting inscriptions.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "'Right Sector' is becoming a party and Yarosh is going for the presidency". Українська правда. Kiev. March 7, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Russian deputy calls on special services to 'liquidate' Yarosh and White [Muzychko]". Lenta.ru. 11 March 2014. Russia’s Investigative Committee … brought a case of banditry against Muzychko in connection with the Chechen separatists.… Muzychko is a prominent member of the nationalist association UNA–UNSO….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Petrulya, Stephen (25 March 2014). "Version No. 2–Sasha White Shot" (in Ukrainian). Rivne, Ukraine. News Rivne. A resident of the town … said that around twelve unknown men entered the Karas cafe…. They brought out all customers, including Muzychko. They put handcuffs on him and beat him and two bodyguards. After a time people heard two gunshots….CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "Ukraine far-right leader Muzychko dies 'in police raid'". BBC News. 25 March 2014. Muzychko fired at police as he was trying to flee…. Police then returned fire and captured him and three others … [Deputy Interior Minister] Yevdokimov said. ‘He was still alive as they were arresting him….’<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Pemble, Adam; Leonard, Peter (25 March 2014). "Busloads of Ukrainian troops leave Crimea". Associated Press. Russian state television … has regularly aired lurid reports on Muzychko’s antics as part of what media analysts say is a sustained effort to undermine the government…<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  69. "'The Khreshchatyk shooter was drunk; he has been detained' – Avakov". Ukrainian Pravda. Kiev. 31 March 2014. One pulled out a gun; the second, a chemical-spray canister and splashed his face, then began firing….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  71. 71.0 71.1 Yarosh assembles 'Donbas' special battalion, Kyiv Post (April 24, 2014)
    Ukraine's extremists forming battalion in Donetsk region, ITAR-TASS (April 24, 2014)
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  93. "Donbas battalion loses 4 in Ilovaisk assault". Kiev. Ukrinform. 11 August 2014. The anti-terrorist operation (ATO) forces … began to storm pro-Russian militants entrenched in Ilovaisk…. The assault began with the participation of the volunteer battalions Donbas, Azov, Shakhtarsk, and the Right Sector, … in conjunction with the ATO forces.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  105. Balmforth, Richard (1 April 2014). "Ukraine orders disarming of armed groups after shooting". Reuters. Police shut down the Kiev base of a far-right nationalist group…<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Whalen, Jeanne (10 April 2014). "Protesters still hang out around Kiev 'Maidan,' hanging on to weapons too". Wall Street Journal. They belong to many different factions, the most radical of which is Pravy Sektor, or Right Sector, an umbrella group for far-right activists and ultranationalists.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. 107.0 107.1 Nayyem, Mustafa; Kovalenko, Oksana (4 February 2014). "[Right Sector leader Dmitry Jarosz: When 80% of the country does not support the government, there cannot be a civil war]". Ukrayinska Pravda. ‘The Right Sector also includes Trident, UNA-UNSO and Carpathian Sich from Transcarpathia.’<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. 108.0 108.1 108.2 Azar, Ilya (10 March 2014). "Мы — не вооруженные силы": Интервью с одним из лидеров украинского "Правого сектора". Lenta.ru (in русский). Moscow. Nationalists from the fighting movement Right Sector … are depicted as neo-Nazis by Russian state TV channels.… The head of the Kiev branch explained to Lenta.ru … how it intends to deal with the Russian army in case of military invasion.… ‘We believe that people should be armed. As in Switzerland.…’ Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. Sengupta, Kim (8 May 2014). "Ukraine crisis: The Odessa file - how a cultural melting pot boiled over into sectarian strife; The vacuum left by last week's deadly fire has been filled with fear, tension and recrimination. Kim Sengupta reports from the city". The Independent. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. Nikitin, Andrei (28 July 2014). У Дніпропетровську "Правий сектор" і єврейська громада мітингували на підтримку Ізраїлю. Sehodnya.ua (in українська). Kiev. Activists from the Jewish community and Right Sector Dnipro … gathered to support Israel in fighting terrorism.… ‘We, like Israel, learn unity … in a war with … terrorism.’ Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. Petro, Nicolai (March 3, 2014). "Threat of Military Confrontation Grows in Ukraine". The Nation. N.Y.C. Its members are critical of party politics and skeptical of the ‘imperial ambitions’ of both Moscow and the West.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. 112.0 112.1 Bidder, Benjamin; Klußmann, Uwe (16 April 2014). "Practice for a Russian invasion: Ukrainian civilians take up arms". Spiegel Online. [The EC’s power] is, he says, ‘a variety of totalitarianism’.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> The authors note that Yarosh studied linguistics. See generally Webster’s Third, s.v. “totalitarianism” (“1. Centralized control by an autocratic … hierarchy regarded as infallible.”).
  113. (Ukrainian) Klitschko asked not to carry out "March of Equality" in Kiev, Ukrayinska Pravda (4 June 2015)
  114. 114.0 114.1 A letter to the mayor of Kyiv to hold so-called "March of Equality", Right Sector official website (2 June 2015)
  115. 115.0 115.1 Right Sector threatens Kyiv gay pride march, Kyiv Post (6 June 2015)
  116. Ukraine police hurt at Kiev gay pride rally, BBC News (6 June 2015)
  117. Higgins, Andrew; Kramer, Andrew (21 February 2014). "Converts join with militants in Kiev clash". New York Times. p. A1. Svoboda has at times clashed with … Right Sector, a coalition of a half-dozen hard-line nationalist groups that were once on the fringe, such as Patriots of Ukraine, Trident and White Hammer.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. G.C. (15 February 2014). "Ukraine's protestors: Maidan on my mind". Economist. London. Some of [the Maidan] Samooborona’s [Self-Defense’s] more fearsome units … belong to the Pravyy Sektor, which formed in November as a coalition of ultra-nationalist groups. It has an estimated 500–700 members….<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. Katchanovski, Ivan (20 July 2014). "What do citizens of Ukraine actually think about secession?". WashingtonPost.com. D.C. In trying to solve the conflict in Donbas, the Ukrainian government continues to rely on … special police battalions formed with the involvement of far-right parties and organizations, such as the Right Sector and the Social National Assembly.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  120. Way, Lucan (July 2014). "Civil Society and Democratization". Journal of Democracy. 25 (3). It was only after the start of the protests that various small parties and factions of the far right joined to form Right Sector, which came to the fore in the second half of January, when protests turned violent… Democracy is most directly undermined by the numerous associations promoting violence that emerged during the protests. Such associations include the Right Sector’s paramilitary formations and the “heavenly hundreds” that arose to fight the police and the pro-Russian titushki or vigilante groups created to harass protesters. Also problematic are the “ultras,” groups of hardcore soccer fans that began providing protection for anti-Yanukovych protesters in January. By promoting vigilante violence outside state control, such groups directly threaten democratic development. They facilitate state breakdown and bloody patterns of aggression and retribution, making civil war much more likely.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  121. "FOI 315-14. Digest of information: 'White Hammer' organisation, Ukraine" (PDF). WhatDoTheyKnow. London: UK Citizens Online Democracy. 22 April 2014. The Right Sector is said to be composed of ‘Trident’, ‘UNA-UNSO’, ‘Sich’ (Carpathian cossacks), ‘White Hammer’, ‘Patriot of Ukraine’ and other … far-right groups.… 11 members of ‘White Hammer’ … have recently been arrested in connection with their involvement in the murder of three traffic policemen … in early March.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. Likhachev, Viacheslav (September–October 2013). "Right-Wing Extremism on the Rise in Ukraine". Russian Politics and Law. 51 (5). doi:10.2753/RUP1061-1940510503. ISSN 1558-0962. Other notable ultraright groups in Ukraine include the Trident named in honor of Stepan Bandera (based on the Congress of Ukrainian Na- tionalists)...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  123. Декларація наших принципів (in українська). Тризуб. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  124. Singh, Anita Inder (2001), Democracy, Ethnic Diversity, and Security in Post-Communist Europe, Greenwood, p. 114<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  125. Dymerskaya-Tsigelman, Liudmila; Finberg, Leonid (1999), "Antisemitism of the Ukrainian Radical Nationalists: Ideology and Policy", Analysis of Current Trends in Antisemitism, Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (14)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  126. "Ukraine Right Sector threatens Poroshenko with Yanukovich's fate". RT.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. ""Right sector" is registered as a social organization and not as a political party". ipress.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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