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Estonian Parliament
XIII Riigikogu
Coat of arms or logo
President of the Riigikogu
Eiki NestorSDE
Since 20 March 2014
Seats 101 (list)
Political groups
Government (59):
     RE (30)
     SDE (15)
     IRL (14)
Opposition (42)
     KE (27)
     EV (8)
     EKRE (7)
Party-list proportional representation
Modified D'Hondt method
Last election
1 March 2015
Next election
Meeting place
Toompea Castle, Tallinn
Coat of arms of Estonia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
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The Riigikogu (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈriːgikogu]; from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. All important state-related questions pass through the Riigikogu. In addition to approving legislation, the Riigikogu appoints high officials, including the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and elects (either alone or, if necessary, together with representatives of local government within a broader electoral college) the President. The Riigikogu also ratifies significant foreign treaties that impose military and proprietary obligations, bring about changes in law, etc.; approves the budget presented by the government as law and monitors the executive power.


Early elections

April 23, 1919, the opening session of the Estonian Constituent Assembly is the birthday of the Estonian Parliament.[1] The first elections to the Riigikogu took place in 1920. From 1920 to 1938, there were five more elections to the Riigikogu, but several were on the basis of different constitutions. In 1920–1923 there was a closed list, while from 1926 to 1934 there was an optional open list choice. The basis of election was until 1932 proportional representation. The elections were on a regional basis, without any threshold in the first two elections, but from 1926 a moderate threshold (2%) was used.


From 1938–1940 the National Assembly was divided into two chambers: The Chamber of Deputies (Riigivolikogu) and the National Council (Riiginõukogu).

It was replaced by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (August 25, 1940–1990) and the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia (May 8, 1990 – October 5, 1992).

Toompea castle

Since 1922, the sessions of the Riigikogu have taken place in the Toompea castle, where a new building in an unusual Expressionist style was erected in the former courtyard of the medieval castle in 1920–1922. During the subsequent periods of Soviet occupation (1940–41), German occupation (1941–44) and the second Soviet occupation (1944–1991) the Riigikogu was disbanded. The castle and the building of the Riigikogu were used by the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR during the second Soviet occupation.

Independence from the Soviet Union

In September 1992, a year after Estonia had regained its independence from the Soviet Union, elections to the Riigikogu took place according to the Constitution of Estonia adopted in the summer of the same year. According to the 1992 constitution, the Riigikogu has 101 members. The present Riigikogu was elected on March 1, 2015. The main differences between this system and a pure political representation, or proportional representation, system are the established 5% national threshold, and the use of a modified d'Hondt formula (the divisor is raised to the power 0.9). This modification makes for more disproportionality than does the usual form of the formula.

Latest election

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Estonian Reform Party 158,897 27.7 30 –3
Estonian Centre Party 142,457 24.8 27 +1
Social Democratic Party 87,168 15.2 15 –4
Pro Patria and Res Publica Union 78,679 13.7 14 –9
Free Party 49,882 8.7 8 New
Conservative People's Party 46,763 8.1 7 +7
Estonian Greens 5,191 0.9 0 0
Party of People's Unity 2,290 0.4 0 New
Estonian Independence Party 1,045 0.2 0 0
Estonian United Left Party 763 0.1 0 New
Independents 886 0.2 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 3,755
Total 577,914 100 101 0
Registered voters/turnout 899,793 64.2
Source: VVK

Current seat allocation

Parliament building in Toompea Castle: the seat of the Parliament.

Speakers of the Riigikogu


Name Period
Otto Strandman January 4, 1921–November 18, 1921
Juhan Kukk November 18, 1921–November 20, 1922
Konstantin Päts November 20, 1922–June 7, 1923
Jaan Tõnisson June 7, 1923–May 27, 1925
August Rei June 9, 1925–June 20, 1926
Karl Einbund June 20, 1926-July 19, 1932
Jaan Tõnisson July 19, 1932–May 18, 1933
Karl Einbund May 18, 1933–August 29, 1934
Rudolf Penno September 28, 1934–December 31, 1937

Speakers of the Riigivolikogu (lower chamber)

Name Period
Jüri Uluots April 21, 1938–October 12, 1939
Otto Pukk October 17, 1939–July 5, 1940
Arnold Veimer July 21, 1940–August 25, 1940

Speaker of the Riiginõukogu (upper chamber)

Name Period
Mihkel Pung April 21, 1938–July 5, 1940

Chairman of the Supreme Council (1990–1992)

Name Period
Arnold Rüütel March 29, 1990–October 5, 1992

Speaker of the Supreme Council (1990–1992)

Name Period
Ülo Nugis March 29, 1990–October 5, 1992

Since 1992

Name Period
Ülo Nugis October 21, 1992–March 21, 1995
Toomas Savi March 21, 1995–March 31, 2003
Ene Ergma March 31, 2003–March 23, 2006
Toomas Varek March 23, 2006–April 2, 2007
Ene Ergma April 2, 2007-March 20, 2014
Eiki Nestor March 20, 2014-present

External links

See also