Robert Ludvigovich Bartini

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Robert Ludvigovich Bartini (or Roberto Oros di Bartini) (14 May 1897 – 6 December 1974) was an Italian aircraft designer and scientist. Active mostly in the Soviet Union, he was called Barone Rosso because of his noble descent.[1]


Bartini was born in Fiume, Austria-Hungary (now Rijeka, Croatia).[2] He was the son of an unmarried 17-year-old girl. When the natural father of the child, a married man, refused to recognize the baby as his son, the young mother drowned herself. Her aunts and tutors, impoverished aristocrats originally from the city of Miskolc, North-East of Budapest, granted custody of the child to a peasant family.[3]

Besides his family education, he graduated from gymnasium in 1915, was drafted and sent to officers' reserve school located in Besztercebánya (Banská Bystrica in present-day Slovakia). Upon graduation in 1916, Bartini was sent to the Russian-Austrian-Hungarian front where he was captured in June 1916. He attended flying school in 1921 and Politecnico di Milano in 1922. Bartini became a member of the Italian Communist Party in 1921.

After the Fascist takeover in Italy in 1923, he was transferred undercover to the USSR as an aviation engineer. Along with his transfer, he took along all the latest Italian design and avant-garde technology he was able to gather. He occupied several engineering and command positions in the Soviet Air Force and Red Army. He became the head of the department of amphibious experimental aircraft design in 1928. He was the head of the design department of NII GVF (Russian: Zavod Opytno Konstrooktorskoye Naoochno-Issledovatel'skiy Institoot Grazhdanskovo Vozdooshnovo Flota — "Factory for Special Construction at the Scientific Test Institute for the Civil Air Fleet"), general designer (chief designer), since 1930.

He was imprisoned from 1938 to 1946. He continued his work on new aircraft designs as a prisoner in TsKB 29 NKVD and in OKB-86 on the territory of Dimitrov Aircraft Factory and Beriev Aircraft Company in Taganrog (1946–1952), then in the Russian Siberian Aeronautical Research Institute (SibNIA), Novosibirsk. R.L.Bartini was rehabilitated in 1956.

He also published papers concerning aviation construction materials and technology, aerodynamics, dynamics of flight, and even theoretical physics.[4][5][6]

He died in Moscow, Russia in 1974.

Aircraft designer

List of Bartini's aircraft designs

This table of Bartini's designs incorporates information extracted from the Russian language wikipedia article on Bartini.

Name Description
A-55 Bomber - medium-range flying boat (draft) (1955)
A-57 Revolutionary 'boat bomber', jet-powered flying boat strategic bomber, range of 14,000 km, 1957 (the project)
AL-40 nuclear engine hydroplane. none built. SibNIA, 1960s.
DAR Stainless steel flying boat (long range Arctic reconnaissance)
Be-1 light amphibious (experienced - for the study of ground effect) (1961)
E-57 (draft) seaplane bomber, carrier cruise missile K-10 nuclear bomb. Crew - 2 people. By design, the plane was identical to the A-57. Tailless. Range - 7000 km
Er-2 (AKA DB-240) military version by V.G. Ermolaev, based on long-range bomber Stal-7 (series 428). First flown June 1940.
Er-2 2xAM-35 April 1942.
Er-2 2xACh-30B ~300 were built. 3x1000kg bombs. Max speed 446 km/h. Range 5000 km
MTB-2 Marine heavy bomber (project) (1930)
MVA-62 (Draft) amphibious aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing. (1962)
P-57 (F-57) supersonic bomber, development of the project A-57 (project)
R 53.6K All the aerodynamic surfaces were "calculatable" and have up to 4-th derivative function value. 1940s.
R-AL (1961) long-range reconnaissance nuclear power plant, development of the (project) A-57
Stal-6 Experimental fighter (prototype)- established Soviet speed record 1933
Stal-7 Twin engined stainless steel 12-seater passenger aircraft (prototype) 1935
Stal-8 Fighter, based on steel-6 (the project) (1934)
T-107 Passenger plane (draft) (1945)
T-108 light transport aircraft (the project) (1945)
T-117 Two engined Transporter - Lack of engines, prototype scrapped before finished (1948)
T-200 heavy military transport and amphibious aircraft (draft) (1947)
T-203 supersonic plane with ogival wing (the project) (1952)
T-210 version of the T-200 (draft)
T-500 heavy transport 'ekranolёt' (draft)
VVA-14-1/M-62 Ground effect and vertical take-off aircraft. Designed for the anti-submarine role. Bartini-Beriev 1972. Variant with pontoons designated 14M1P.

Notes to the table:

The term 'ekranolёt' (lit. 'screen effect') refers to a hybrid ground effect vehicle also capable of flight at more normal altitudes (cf ekranoplan);

The appearance in the table of '(project)' or '(the project)' would seem to be a mis-rendering for 'projected' (as opposed to 'draft' or 'production') to indicate a prefeasibility study.

Partial remnants of the VVA-14, a ground effect in aircraft, in Monino airfield, Moscow.[1]


Sergey Pavlovich Korolev named Bartini as his teacher. At various times and to different degrees, Bartini has been connected with Korolev, Sergey Ilyushin, Oleg Antonov, Vladimir Myasishchev, Alexander Yakovlev and many others. In the literature on aerodynamics there is a term (definition) "Bartini's Effect".

Engineering creativity

The method developed by Bartini has received the name " And - And " from the principle of the connection of mutually exclusive requirements, or "Both that..., And another "...


  1. 1.0 1.1 Ciampaglia 2009, p. 28.
  2. Chutko (1978)
  3. Ciampaglia 2009, pp. 11-12.
  4. Ciampaglia (2009)
  5. Oros di Bartini (1965)
  6. Oros di Bartini (1966)
  1. Chutko, I. (1978) Red aircraft. Moscow: Political Literature. (russ. И. Чутко "Красные самолёты". М. Изд. полит. литературы, 1978)
  2. Ciampaglia, Giuseppe. La vita e gli aerei di Roberto Bartini. (In Italian) Roma, IBN Istituto Bibliografico Napoleone, 2009. ISBN 88-7565-076-4.
  3. Roberto Oros di Bartini. Some relations between physical constants. In: Doklady Acad. Nauk USSR, 1965, v.163, No.4, p. 861-864 (In English, Russian); Originally: Доклады Академии наук, 1965, т.163, №4, c.861-864.).
  4. Roberto Oros di Bartini. Some relations between physical constants. In the collection: Problems of the Theory of Gravitation and Elementary Particles, Atomizdat, 1966, p. 249-266, in Russian only (сборник Проблемы теории гравитации и элементарных частиц, М., Атомиздат, 1966, с.249-266).
  5. Roberto Oros di Bartini. Relations Between Physical Constants. In: Progress in Physics, 2005., v.3, p. 34-40, (in English).
  6. Kuznetsov O.L., Bolshakov B.E. (2000) Kuznetsov P.G. and the problem of sustainable development of the humanity in the system nature-society-man. /russ. О. Л. Кузнецов, Б. Е. Большаков. П. Г. Кузнецов и проблема устойчивого развития Человечества в системе природа—общество—человек. 2000)
  7. Avdeev Ju. (2008) Prescient Genius, Red Star. (russ. Ю. Авдеев, (2008), Гений предвидения, "Красная звезда".) Retrieved 22-Oct-2010 from
  8. Aleinikov, A.G. (2007). The Conservation of Extencia: A New Law of Conservation. The Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 49-65.
  9. Aleinikov, A.G. & Smarsh D.A. (2007). Volumetric Conservation of Power: Volupower. Allied Academies International Fall Conference, Reno, NV.

Further reading

  • Bartini information in Russian Retrieved 14-Feb-2005.
    • 1989. The collection " the Bridge through time ". (russ. сборник "Мост через время")

External links