Robert Robinson (chemist)

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Robert Robinson
OM PRS FRSE
Robert Robinson organic chemist.jpg
48th President of the Royal Society
In office
1945–1950
Preceded by Sir Henry Hallett Dale
Succeeded by Edgar Adrian
Personal details
Born (1886-09-13)13 September 1886
Derbyshire, England
Died 8 February 1975(1975-02-08) (aged 88)
Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire, England
Citizenship United Kingdom
Nationality English
Scientific career
Fields Organic chemistry[1]
Institutions University of Sydney
University of Liverpool
British Dyestuffs Corporation
University of Manchester
University College London
University of Oxford
Alma mater University of Manchester
Doctoral advisor William Henry Perkin, Jr.
Doctoral students Sir Edward Abraham[2]
Arthur John Birch
William Sage Rapson
John Cornforth
Rita Harradence
K. Venkataraman[3]
Known for Development of Organic synthesis[1]
Notable awards Davy Medal (1930)
Royal Medal (1932)
Copley Medal (1942)
Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1947)
Franklin Medal (1947)
Albert Medal (1947)
Faraday Lectureship Prize (1947)
Spouse Gertrude Maud Robinson

Sir Robert Robinson OM PRS FRSE[4] (13 September 1886 – 8 February 1975) was a British organic chemist[1] and Nobel laureate recognised in 1947 for his research on plant dyestuffs (anthocyanins) and alkaloids. In 1947, he also received the Medal of Freedom with Silver Palm.

Biography

Early life

He was born at Rufford House Farm, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire[5] the son of James Bradbury Robinson, a maker of surgical dressings, and his wife, Jane Davenport.[6]

Robinson went to school at the Chesterfield Grammar School and the private Fulneck School. He then studied chemistry at the University of Manchester, graduating BSc in 1905. In 1907 he was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851[7] to continue his research at the University of Manchester.

He was appointed as the first Professor of Pure and Applied Organic Chemistry in the School of Chemistry at the University of Sydney in 1912.[8] He was briefly at St Andrews University (1920–22) and then was offered the Chair of Organic Chemistry at Manchester University. In 1928 he moved from there to be a professor at University College London where he stayed only two years. He was the Waynflete Professor of Chemistry at Oxford University from 1930 and a Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Robinson Close, in the Science Area at Oxford, is named after him,[9] as is the Robert Robinson Laboratory at the University of Liverpool, the Sir Robert Robinson Laboratory of Organic Chemistry at the University of Manchester[10] and the Robinson and Cornforth Laboratories at the University of Sydney.

Robinson was a strong amateur chess player. He represented Oxford University in a friendly match with a team from Bletchley Park in December 1944;[11] in which he lost his game to pioneering computer scientist I. J. Good.[12] He was president of the British Chess Federation from 1950 to 1953,[13] and with Raymond Edwards he co-authored the book The Art and Science of Chess (Batsford, 1972).[14]

Research

His synthesis of tropinone (a precursor for atropine & benztropine) in 1917 was not only a big step in alkaloid chemistry but also showed that tandem reactions in a one-pot synthesis are capable of forming bicyclic molecules.[15] [16]

He invented the symbol for benzene having a circle in the middle whilst working at St Andrews University in 1923.[17] He is known for inventing the use of the curly arrow to represent electron movement,[18] and he is also known for discovering the molecular structures of morphine and penicillin.[19][20] Robinson annulation has had application in the total synthesis of steroids.

Alongside Edward Charles Dodds, Robinson had also been involved in the orig synthesis of diethylstilboestrol.[21]

In 1957 Robinson founded the journal Tetrahedron with fifty other editors for Pergamon Press.

Publications

  • The Structural Relationship of Natural Products (1955)

Family

He married twice. In 1912 he married Gertrude Maud Walsh. Following her death in 1954, in 1957 he married a widow, Mrs Stern Sylvia Hillstrom (née Hershey).[22]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Saltzman, M. D. (1987). "The development of Sir Robert Robinson's contributions to theoretical organic chemistry". Natural Product Reports. 4: 53. doi:10.1039/NP9870400053.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Some substituted peptides and Experiments with lysozyme". University of Oxford. Retrieved 3 June 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Anand, Nitya (22 May 2018). "Krishnaswami Venkataraman (1901–1981)" (PDF). Indian National Science Academy. Retrieved 22 May 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Todd, L.; Cornforth, J. W. (1976). "Robert Robinson. 13 September 1886 – 8 February 1975". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 22: 414–527. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1976.0018. JSTOR 769748. S2CID 73166960.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Former RSE Fellows 1783–2002" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0-902-198-84-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 1851 Royal Commission Archives
  8. "Nobel Laureates - Chemistry - The University of Sydney". Archived from the original on 28 November 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Science Area". www.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 12 June 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. In Burlington Street and opened in 1950: Charlton, H. B. (1951) Portrait of a University. Manchester University Press; plan facing p. 172; since demolished.
  11. Nicholas Metropolis (ed.), History of Computing in the Twentieth Century; chapter Pioneering Work on Computers at Bletchley (I. J. Good), p38
  12. British Chess magazine, February 1945, p36
  13. Nobel Prize bio
  14. Chemical and Engineering news
  15. Robinson, R. (1917). "LXIII. A Synthesis of Tropinone". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 111: 762–768. doi:10.1039/CT9171100762.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Birch, A. J. (1993). "Investigating a Scientific Legend: The Tropinone Synthesis of Sir Robert Robinson, F.R.S". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 47 (2): 277–296. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1993.0034. JSTOR 531792. S2CID 143267467.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Armit, James Wilson; Robinson, Robert (1925). "Polynuclear heterocyclic aromatic types. Part II. Some anhydronium bases". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 127: 1604–1618. doi:10.1039/ct9252701604.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Kermack, William Ogilvy; Robinson, Robert (1922). "An explanation of the property of induced polarity of atoms and an interpretation of the theory of partial valencies on an electronic basis". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 121: 427–440. doi:10.1039/CT9222100427.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Gulland, J.M.; Robinson, R. (1925). "Constitution of codeine and thebaine". Memoirs and Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 69: 79–86.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Abraham, E. P. (1987). "Sir Robert Robinson and the early history of penicillin". Natural Product Reports. 4 (1): 41–46. doi:10.1039/np9870400041. PMID 3302773.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Dodds, E. C. (2008). "Synthetic œstrogens in treatment". The Irish Journal of Medical Science. 25 (7): 305–314. doi:10.1007/BF02950685. ISSN 0021-1265. S2CID 58062466.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0-902-198-84-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

  • Symbol question.svg[[Category:Nobel Prize in {{{1}}} winners]] including the Nobel Lecture on December 12, 1947 Some Polycyclic Natural Products
  • ABC Online Forum
  • "The iconic curly arrow" (PDF). Chemistry World. April 2010. p. 54.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by
Henry Hallett Dale
President of the Royal Society
1945–1950
Succeeded by
Edgar Adrian

Template:1947 Nobel Prize winners