Semantic reasoner

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A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms. The notion of a semantic reasoner generalizes that of an inference engine, by providing a richer set of mechanisms to work with. The inference rules are commonly specified by means of an ontology language, and often a description language. Many reasoners use first-order predicate logic to perform reasoning; inference commonly proceeds by forward chaining and backward chaining. There are also examples of probabilistic reasoners, including Pei Wang's non-axiomatic reasoning system,[1] and probabilistic logic networks.[2]

List of semantic reasoners

Existing semantic reasoners and related software:

Commercial software

  • Bossam (software), an RETE-based rule engine with native supports for reasoning over OWL ontologies, SWRL rules, and RuleML rules.
  • Ergo from Coherent Knowledge Systems, a Rulelog rule engine

Free to use (Closed Source)

  • Cyc inference engine, a forward and backward chaining inference engine with numerous specialized modules for high-order logic. ([1] ResearchCyc) ([2] OpenCyc)
  • KAON2 is an infrastructure for managing OWL-DL, SWRL, and F-Logic ontologies.
  • Internet Business Logic (software)—A reasoner designed for end-user app authors. Automatically generates and runs complex networked SQL queries. Explains the results in English at the end-user level.

Free software (open source)

  • Cwm, a forward-chaining reasoner used for querying, checking, transforming and filtering information. Its core language is RDF, extended to include rules, and it uses RDF/XML or N3 serializations as required. (CWM, W3C software license)
  • Drools, a forward-chaining inference-based rules engine which uses an enhanced implementation of the Rete algorithm. (Drools, Apache license 2.0)
  • Flora-2, an object-oriented, rule-based knowledge-representation and reasoning system. (Flora-2, Apache 2.0)
  • Jena (framework), an open-source semantic-web framework for Java which includes a number of different semantic-reasoning modules. (Apache Jena, Apache License 2.0)
  • Prova, a semantic-web rule engine which supports data integration via SPARQL queries and type systems (RDFS, OWL ontologies as type system). (Prova, GNU GPL v2, commercial option available)
  • dot15926 Editor—Ontology management framework initially designed for engineering ontology standard ISO 15926. Allows Python rule scripting and pattern-based data analysis. Supports extensions.
  • Apache Marmotta includes a rule-based reasoner in its KiWi triple store.

See also


  1. Wang, Pei. "Grounded on Experience Semantics for intelligence, Tech report 96". CRCC. Retrieved 13 April 2015. External link in |website= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Goertzel, Ben; Iklé, Matthew; Goertzel, Izabela Freire; Heljakka, Ari (2008). Probabilistic Logic Networks: A Comprehensive Framework for Uncertain Inference. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 42. ISBN 9780387768724.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links