Semyon Ariyevich Kosberg (Семен Ариевич Косберг in Russian) (October 1(14), 1903, Slutsk - January 3, 1965, Voronezh) was a Jewish Soviet engineer, expert in the field of aircraft and rocket engines, Doctor of Technical Sciences (1959), Hero of Socialist Labor (1961).
In 1931, Semyon Kosberg graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute. He then worked in some of the biggest planning organizations of the Soviet aircraft industry. In 1941, Kosberg was appointed chief designer of an aircraft design bureau, later known as OKB-154, which he ran until his death. He is known for his contributions to the creation of aircraft engines, mounted on the Lavochkin La-5, Lavochkin La-7, and other mass wartime aircraft. In 1946-1965, Kosberg supervised the development of a series of liquid fuel rocket engines, which would be mounted on the final stages of carrier rockets and put into orbit piloted spacecraft, satellites, and interplanetary automatic space stations.