Solid Earth

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Solid Earth refers to "the Earth beneath our feet" or terra firma, the planet's solid surface and its interior.[1]:v[2]:1 It contrasts with the Earth's fluid envelopes, the atmosphere and hydrosphere (but includes the ocean basin), as well as the biosphere and interactions with the sun. It includes the liquid core.[citation needed] Solid-earth science refers to the corresponding methods of study, a subset of Earth sciences, predominantly geophysics and geology, excluding aeronomy, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, hydrology, and ecology.

See also


  1. National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on Solid Earth Problems (1964). Solid-earth Geophysics: Survey and Outlook. National Academies.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Council, National Research (1993). Solid-earth sciences and society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 9780309047395.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

  • Fowler, C.M.R. (2006). The solid earth : an introduction to global geophysics (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521893077.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>