Stavangersk

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Stavangersk
Region Stavanger
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Stavangersk, Stavanger dialect or Stavanger Norwegian (Norwegian: Stavangersk, Stavanger-dialekt (Bokmål) or Stavangerdialekt (Nynorsk)) is a dialect of Norwegian used in Stavanger.

It is close to Nynorsk, yet the official written language of the Stavanger municipality is Bokmål.

Phonology

Consonants

  • /n, t, d, l/ are alveolar [n, t, d, l].[1]
  • As in Bergen and Oslo, younger speakers of the Stavanger dialect tend to merge /ç/ with /ʃ/.[2]
  • /r/ is realized as a voiced uvular continuant, either a fricative [ʁ] or an approximant [ʁ̞]. It can be voiceless [χ] before a voiceless consonant or a pause.[3]

Vowels

  • Long ⟨o⟩ (phonetically []) and long ⟨u⟩ (phonetically [ʉː]) can be strongly diphthongized to, respectively, [əu] and [əʉ].[4]
  • Short ⟨o⟩ is near-close central [ʊ̈].[4]
  • Short ⟨u⟩ and long ⟨å⟩ are close-mid advanced back [, o̟ː].[4]
  • Short ⟨å⟩ is open-mid central [ɞ].[5]
  • Long ⟨a⟩ is back [ɑː].[5]
  • Short ⟨a⟩ has the quality of the cardinal vowel [a], which is the most anterior realization of this vowel in Norway.[5]
  • The diphthong ⟨ai⟩ has a front starting point [æi].[6]
Diphthong phonemes of
Stavangersk[7]
Starting point Ending point
Front Central
unrounded rounded rounded
Mid ei øy øʉ

Tonemes

Phonetic realization

Phonetically, the tonemes of the Stavanger dialect are the same as those of Central Standard Swedish; accent 1 is falling, whereas accent 2 is double falling.[8][9]

References

  1. Vanvik (1979), pp. 30–31, 34 and 36.
  2. Kristoffersen (2000), p. 23.
  3. Vanvik (1979), p. 38.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Vanvik (1979), p. 18.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  6. Vanvik (1979), p. 22.
  7. Ims (2010), p. 15.
  8. Kristoffersen (2000), p. 238.
  9. Ophaug (2014), p. 59.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Berntsen, Mandius; Larsen, Amund B. (1925), Stavanger Bymål, Oslo: Aschehoug<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Rasch, Jacob (1957), Norsk ordsamling - Stavanger 1698, Universitetsforlaget, ISBN 9788200180098<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Svedsen, Martin (1931), Syntaksen i Stavanger bymål, Oslo: Aschehoug<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Westerlund, Selmer Ernst (1927), Den musikalske aksent i Stavangermålet, Oslo: Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links