Steve Fuller (sociologist)

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Steve Fuller
Born Steve William Fuller
(1959-07-12) July 12, 1959 (age 63)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Residence Coventry, England
Occupation Academic philosopher and sociologist
Title Professor of sociology at University of Warwick, England
Website Home page

Steve William Fuller (born 12 July 1959) is an American philosopher-sociologist in the field of science and technology studies. He has published in the areas of social epistemology, academic freedom, and the contentious subjects of intelligent design and transhumanism, for which he has received both praise and derogation at the hands of prominent critics.


Fuller attended Regis High School in Manhattan.[2] Admitted as a John Jay Scholar to Columbia University, he majored in History and Sociology and graduated summa cum laude in 1979. Awarded a Kellett Fellowship, he studied at Clare College, Cambridge, and received an M.Phil. in History and Philosophy of Science in 1981. He earned his Ph.D. in the same subject from the University of Pittsburgh in 1985, where he was an Andrew Mellon Pre-Doctoral Fellow. Fuller's doctoral dissertation, "Bounded Rationality in Law and Science", explored the implications of the views of Herbert A. Simon for political theory and philosophy of science.

Fuller held assistant and associate professorships at the University of Colorado at Boulder, Virginia Tech and the University of Pittsburgh. In 1994, he was appointed to the chair in sociology and social policy at the University of Durham, England. He moved in 1999 to the University of Warwick, England. In July 2007 Fuller was awarded a D. Litt. by Warwick in recognition of "published work or papers which demonstrate a high standard of important original work forming a major contribution to a subject".[3] In 2008, Fuller served as President of the Sociology section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. In that capacity, he staged a play, "Lincoln and Darwin—Live for One Night Only!", at the BA's annual Festival of Science in Liverpool.[4] The play was later produced as a podcast in Australia.[5]

Fuller has been a visiting professor in Denmark, Germany, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden (where he held a Fulbright Professorship in 1995 at Gothenburg University), and the United States (UCLA).[6]

In 2010 Fuller became a Senior Fellow at the Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity at the University of North Texas. In 2011, the University of Warwick appointed him to the Auguste Comte Chair in Social Epistemology.[7] In 2011, Fuller was appointed a Fellow of the UK Academy of Social Sciences.[8] In 2012, he was appointed to an Honorary Professorship at Dalian University of Technology, China.[9] In 2012, he was made a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in Division I (Humanities).[10]


Fuller is most closely associated with social epistemology as an interdisciplinary research program. Social epistemology is a normative discipline that addresses philosophical problems of knowledge using the tools of history and the social sciences. Fuller founded the first journal (1987) and wrote the first book (1988) devoted to this topic. The most obvious feature of Fuller's approach, already present in his 1988 book, is that he rejects out of hand the Cartesian problem of scepticism.

Along with 21 books, Fuller has written 65 book chapters, 155 academic articles and many minor pieces. He has given many distinguished lectures and plenary addresses, and has presented to academic and non-academic audiences throughout the world, including over 100 media interviews. His works have been translated into fifteen languages. 23 academic symposia have been published on his work. He moved to the United Kingdom in 1994, the year he organized a conference in Durham on "Science's Social Standing".[6]

Since moving to the UK, Fuller has increasingly oriented himself towards public intellectual expression, including television, radio and internet, which he interprets as a natural outgrowth of his version of social epistemology. Two of his books have been recognised in this regard. Kuhn vs. Popper was Book of the Month for February 2005 in the US mass circulation magazine, Popular Science.[11] However, Rupert Read wrote: "I did not have to read far into this book in order to conclude that it is worthless. ... In sum: this book offers only a cartoon opposition of a fake 'Popper' to a fake 'Kuhn.'"[12] Fuller responded, coining the word "Kuhnenstein" (Kuhn + Wittgenstein) to capture Read's view of Kuhn, which Fuller calls a "figment of Read's -- and other's -- fertile imagination."[13] The Intellectual was selected as a Book of the Year in 2005 by the UK liberal-left magazine, New Statesman. He periodically contributes a column to the Project Syndicate, associated with George Soros' Open Society project, which appears in several languages in newspapers across the world.[14] In 2006 he also taught a course on the epistemology of journalism at an international summer school at the University of Lund, Sweden.[15]

Academic freedom

Fuller believes (modeled on what he takes to be the German model) that academic freedom refers to a freedom reserved for academics, not a special case of freedom of speech.[16] This includes the right to "cause reasoned offence", if within the terms of reason and evidence appropriate to the academic profession.[17] He believes it important for academics to be able to express intellectual opinions for further debate which can result in progress. He also argues that students are equally entitled to academic freedom.[18]

Intelligent design

Fuller has made many statements about his support for intelligent design (ID) and authored two books on the subject. In 2005, in the case of Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, he testified on behalf of a local school system in the United States that required the teaching of intelligent design. The decision of the U.S. District Court held that intelligent design was a form of creationism and that its inclusion in the curriculum violated the U.S. Constitution's prohibition on the establishment of religion. The decision repeatedly cited Fuller's testimony to undermine the school system's position. Some of Fuller's critics within the Science and Technology Studies community described his participation in the trial as "naive" and suggested that the field needs further development before it can constructively engage the legal community on the nature of science.[19][20]

Fuller has said that he does not support intelligent design "but feels that it should have a 'fair run for its money'".[21] In his book Dissent over Descent, he says he sees religion in general as a motivating influence in scientific pursuits and believes that the difference between science and religion is more institutional than intellectual.[22][23] Critics have called his views on science postmodernist, though others characterise them as more closely related to social constructionism.[24][25]

On 21 February 2007, Fuller debated Lewis Wolpert at Royal Holloway, University of London on whether evolution and intelligent design should be accorded equal status as scientific theories. Fuller supported the proposition. Fuller endorsed a work in support of Intelligent Design, the Discovery Institute's textbook Explore Evolution: The Arguments For and Against Neo-Darwinism (2007).[26]

Appearing in the 2008 film Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed, Fuller told an interviewer:[27]

If you take seriously that evolution has to do with the transition of life forms, and that life and death are just natural processes, then one gets to be liberal about abortion and euthanasia. All of those kinds of ideas seem to me follow very naturally from a Darwinian perspective - a deprivileging of human beings, basically. And I think people who want to endorse Darwinism have to take this kind of viewpoint very seriously.

Fuller openly acknowledges that while some people simply do not like or accept either 'design in nature' or that human beings were created "in the image and likeness of God" (imago Dei), many people do and that it has been a consistent fixture in the progress, development and motivation for doing modern science. [28]


Much of his work focuses on questions around technological enhancements and how they can improve the capacities of human beings.[29] Fuller argues that the pursuit for enhancements is based on a need ″to create some distance between ourselves and the other animals.″ [30] For Fuller, transhumanism offers humanity the prospect "to re-engineer the human body to enable us to live longer so as to work and play harder." [31]

Principal works

Science Vs Religion?

In 2007, Fuller wrote Science Vs Religion?: Intelligent Design and the Problem of Evolution. In addition to introductory and conclusionary chapters, it has chapters on the history of the relationship between religion and science, the thesis that modern science has its basis in an attempt by humanity to transcend itself and reach God, how Fuller believes complexity distinguishes ID from "other versions of creationism", legal issues, and the future of "Darwinism".[32]

Professor of mathematics at Rutgers University, Norman Levitt in a review described it as "a truly miserable piece of work, crammed with errors scientific, historical, and even theological".[33] Levitt took issue with the following points:[33]

  • Fuller's acceptance at face value of William Dembski's claims on complexity and randomness, and his failure to come to grips with the wealth of results that this field has generated and with the trenchant criticism of Dembski's claims (or even to describe these claims accurately);
  • Fuller's disparagement of evolutionary biology, without doing "serious analysis of the working methods and logical structure of biology itself" on which to base it;
  • Fuller's misrepresentation of Isaac Newton's religious beliefs in order to make a point that is in fact antithetical to Newton's views;

Levitt infers that Fuller's views arise from an "animosity to science as such and to its cognitive authority [that] still pervades academic life outside the dominion of the science faculty".[34] Fuller later responded to these points, accusing Levitt of axe-grinding and questioning his understanding of the book, which Fuller claimed was less a defense of contemporary intelligent design theory than a demonstration of its rootedness in the history of science. Fuller also claims that Levitt misquotes one of the three passages Levitt cites from the book, making it mean the opposite of the original.[35] Levitt subsequently responded at length to Fuller, concluding that "Fuller's misreading of the politics that generated and sustains the ID movement is so complete as to constitute a peculiar pathology all its own."[36] Fuller has long been highly critical of the views of science of his opponents in the Science Wars, including Levitt, dating back at least to 1994.[37][38]

Sahotra Sarkar, a philosophy professor[39] and integrative biologist[40] at the University of Texas at Austin also criticised Fuller's book for presenting an "analysis of the intellectual disputes over contemporary ID creationism [that] is almost vacuous".[41] Sarkar further states that the book has an idiosyncratic interpretation of the history of philosophy, including of Kant, and of logical positivism; having a limited grasp of the history of science, including making claims about Newton, Cuvier, Agassiz, Lamarck, Mendel, Pearson and Galton that are not supported by their writings; failure to engage the "debate over naturalism that ID creationism has generated" with "remarks on supernaturalism [that show] him to be equally non-cognizant of the work of ... Philip Johnson"; and other scientific errors.[41]

Dissent Over Descent

In 2008 Fuller's book on the intelligent design controversy, Dissent Over Descent: Intelligent Design's Challenge to Darwinism was published. Steven Poole of The Guardian wrote: "book is an epoch-hopping parade of straw men, incompetent reasoning and outright gibberish, as when evolution is argued to share with astrology a commitment to "action at a distance", except that the distance is in time rather than space. It's intellectual quackery like this that gives philosophy of science a bad name."[42] Michael Ruse, Philosopher of Science at Florida State University wrote in the journal Science that Fuller's book "is completely wrong and is backed by no sound scholarship whatsoever. In at least one case, Fuller makes his case by an egregious misreading—of something I wrote about the role of genetic drift in Sewall Wright's shifting balance theory. For the record, Charles Darwin set out to provide a cause, what he called—following his mentors like William Whewell (who in turn referred back to Newton)—a true cause or vera causa. Darwin felt, and historians and philosophers of science as well as practicing evolutionary biologists still feel, that he succeeded…"[43] In a "book of the week" review by retired Divinity Professor Keith Ward in the Times Higher Education Supplement, the book was praised for providing often overlooked information and provocative interpretations, but was criticised for a number of inaccuracies and misrepresentations.[44]

A. C. Grayling, in New Humanist, wrote that the book contains a "mark of ignorance and historical short-sightedness on Fuller's part".[45] In response, Fuller wrote an online response saying "if Grayling's grasp of the history of science went beyond head-banging standards, he would realise that our current level of scientific achievement would never have been reached, and more importantly that we would not be striving to achieve more, had chance-based explanations dominated over the design-based ones in our thinking about reality."[46] To which Grayling wrote: "Steve Fuller complains, as do all authors whose books are panned, that I did not read his book properly (or at all)."[47] He continued, "I'll take on Fuller any day regarding the history and theology of the various versions of Christianity with which humanity has been burdened. […] The same applies to the history of science."[47]

Selected bibliography


  • Fuller, Steve (2002) [1988]. Social epistemology (2nd ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253215154.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve; Woolgar, Steve; de Mey, Marc; Shinn, Terry (1989). The cognitive turn: sociological and psychological perspectives on science. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. ISBN 9789401578257.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (1993) [1989]. Philosophy of science and its discontents (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 9780898620207.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve; Collier, James H. (2004) [1993]. Philosophy, rhetoric, and the end of knowledge a new beginning for science and technology studies (2nd ed.). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 9780805847680.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (1997). Science. Concepts in Social Sciences. Milton Keynes, UK / Minneapolis US: Open University Press / University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780335198481.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2000). The governance of science: ideology and the future of the open society. Issues in society. Buckingham Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 9780335202348.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2000). Thomas Kuhn: a philosophical history for our times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226268965.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2002). Knowledge management foundations. Hartland Four Corners, Vermont Boston: KMCI Press Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 9780750673655.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2004). Kuhn vs. Popper: the struggle for the soul of science. Thriplow, UK / New York, US: Icon Books / Columbia University Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> ISBN 9780231134286
  • Fuller, Steve (2005). The intellectual. Thriplow, UK: Icon Books. ISBN 9781840467215.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2006). The philosophy of science and technology studies. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415941051.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2006). The new sociological imagination. London Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. ISBN 9780761947578.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2007). The knowledge book key concepts in philosophy, science, and culture. Stocksfield England / Canada: Acumen / McGill-Queens University Press. ISBN 9781844650989.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2007). New frontiers in science and technology. Cambridge, UK Malden, Massachusetts: Polity. ISBN 9780745636948.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2007). Science vs. religion?: intelligent design and the problem of evolution. Cambridge: Polity. ISBN 9780745641225.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2008). Dissent over descent: intelligent design's challenge to Darwinism. Thriplow, Cambridgeshire: Icon. ISBN 9781840468045.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2009). The sociology of intellectual life: the career of the mind in and around the academy. Los Angeles London: SAGE. ISBN 9781412928380.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2010). Science. The art of living. Durham U.K: Acumen. ISBN 9781844652044.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2011). Humanity 2.0: what it means to be human past, present and future. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230233430.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2013). Preparing for life in humanity 2.0. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137277060.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve; Lipinska, Veronika (2014). The proactionary imperative: a foundation for transhumanism. Basingstoke, UK New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137433091.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (2015). Knowledge: the philosophical quest in history. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781844658183.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Chapters in books

  • Fuller, Steve (1992), "Social epistemology and the research agenda of science studies", in Pickering, Andrew (ed.), Science as practice and culture, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 390–428, ISBN 9780226668017.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuller, Steve (1996), "Does science put an end to history, or history to science? Or, why being pro-science is harder than you think", in Ross, Andrew (ed.), Science wars, Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, pp. 29–60, ISBN 9780822318712.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Journal articles


  1. Fuller, Steve; Lipinska, Veronika (2014). The Proactionary Imperative: A Foundation for Transhumanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Fuller, Steve (2007). Science vs. Religion? Intelligent Design and the Problem of Evolution. Polity Press. p. 9. Retrieved 4 August 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Higher Doctorates for Warwick People, University of Warwick
  4. "On stage, On the Origin ... author endures a dramatic trial of faith". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Lincoln and Darwin for one night only". Sci Phi Journal. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 "curriculum vitae". Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Professor Steve Fuller appointed to Auguste Comte Chair in Social Epistemology". 26 June 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Academy of Social Sciences appoints three Warwick Academicians". 26 June 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. (in Chinese)
  10. [1]
  11. Mone, Gregory (13 July 1965). "(Not Quite a) Rumble in the Theoretical Jungle | Popular Science". Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Read, Rupert (September 2005). "Book review: How and how not to write on a "legendary" philosopher". Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Sage. 35 (1): 369–387. doi:10.1177/0048393105279925.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Fuller, Steve (December 2005). "Kuhnenstein: or, the importance of being read". Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Sage. 35 (4): 480–498. doi:10.1177/0048393105280868.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Project Syndicate
  15. The Epistemology of Journalism Course Description, University of Lund
  16. Fuller, Steve; Haworth, Alan (2007). "Academic freedom". The Philosophers' Magazine. Sage. 38 (2): 72–77. doi:10.5840/tpm20073864. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Debating the "statement of academic freedom" made by Academics for Academic Freedom (AFAF).
  17. Jackson, Nick (5 July 2007). "Against the grain: It is an academic's right to cause 'reasoned' offence". The Independent. London. Retrieved 24 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "A clear and present danger". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Lynch, Michael (December 2006). "From Ruse to Farce". Social Studies of Science. Sage. 36 (6): 819–826. doi:10.1177/0306312706067897.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Pdf.
  20. Edmond, Gary; Mercer, David (December 2006). "Anti-social epistemologies". Social Studies of Science. Sage. 36 (6): 843–853. doi:10.1177/0306312706067900.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Pdf.
  21. Corbyn, Zoe (1 February 2006). "Steve Fuller: Designer trouble". London: The Guardian.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Fuller, Steve (2007). Dissent Over Descent. Icon. pp. 8–9. ISBN 9781840468045.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Schools for the Enlightenment or epiphany?: Steve Fuller, The Times Higher Education Supplement, 25 December 2005
  24. Brief for Amicus Curiae, Scipolicy Journal of Science and Health Policy, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District
  25. Steve Fuller and The Hidden Agenda of Social Constructivism, Norman Levitt, Talk Reason
  26. Endorsements, Explore Evolution website
  27. Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed (2008 film). Rocky Mountain Pictures. Directed by Nathan Frankowski.
  28. Fuller, Steve (14 July 2012). "Why some people like the idea of design in nature and others don't". University of Cambridge,. Retrieved 19 April 2015.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Holmes, Kevin (29 September 2011). "Talking to the future humans - Steve Fuller". Vice Media. Retrieved 15 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Fuller, Steve (2011). Humanity 2.0. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 242. ISBN 9780230233423.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Review of Science Vs Religion?, Sahotra Sarkar, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, 7 August 2008
  33. 33.0 33.1 Levitt, Norman (19 December 2007). "Norman Levitt Deconstructs Steve Fuller's Postmodernist Critique of Evolution". Skeptic (U.S. magazine). Retrieved 10 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. The Painful Elaboration of the Fatuous, Norman Levitt, eSkeptic, Skeptic magazine
  35. Steve Fuller Responds to Norman Levitt's Review of Science v. Religion E-Skeptic, 16 January 2008
  36. Norman Levitt Responds to Steve Fuller E-Skeptic, 23 January 2008
  37. "In Snow's shoes". THES. 11 November 1994. Retrieved 1 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Can Science Studies be Spoken in a Civil Tongue?, S Fuller, Social Studies of Science, 1994
  39. Sahotra Sarkar, Department of Philosophy, University of Texas
  40. Faculty, Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas
  41. 41.0 41.1 Levitt, Norman (7 August 2008). "Science v. Religion? Intelligent Design and the Problem of Evolution". Philosophical Reviews. Retrieved 10 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Poole, Steven (12 July 2008). "Trivial pursuits Steve Fuller's Dissent Over Descent: Intelligent Design's Challenge to Darwinism". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Ruse, Michael (3 October 2008). "A Challenge Standing on Shaky Clay" (PDF). Science (journal). Retrieved 10 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. The book of the week: Dissent over Descent, Times Higher Education Supplement, 24 July 2008
  45. Grayling, A.C. (Volume 123 Issue 5 September/October 2008). "Origin of the specious". New Humanist. Retrieved 10 October 2008. Check date values in: |date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Fuller, Steve (Web exclusive September/October 2008). "Against the faith". New Humanist. Retrieved 10 October 2008. Check date values in: |date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. 47.0 47.1 Grayling, A.C. (Web exclusive September/October 2008). "Bolus of nonsense". New Humanist. Retrieved 10 October 2008. Check date values in: |date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

External links