Ten spiritual realms

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The ten spiritual realms[1] are part of the belief of some forms of Buddhism that there are ten conditions of life which sentient beings are subject to, and which they experience from moment to moment.[2]

The ten spiritual realms are part of Buddhist cosmology and consist of four higher realms[2] and six lower realms.[2]

Six realms of desire

The six lower realms are Hell, Hunger, Animality, Arrogance, Humanity and Rapture.[3] These six lower worlds arise automatically from within people’s lives in response to external surroundings. Three of the four remaining worlds are: Learning, Realization and Bodhisattva. These worlds are developed through seeking, discovering and aspiring. The tenth world, Buddhahood, is a condition of pure, indestructible knowledge.


Hell is a condition of total claustrophobic aggression,[4] in which one perceives no freedom of action and has very little life-force (physical or mental energy). One feels totally trapped by one's circumstances, the being is dominated by anger, hatred and frustrated rage and, in extreme cases, the urge to destroy oneself and everything else. It is a very difficult realm to escape from, since the condition tends to be self-perpetuating, with intense suffering and aggression feeding each other (one's sojourn in Hell is described as being measured in kalpas).[5] Paradoxically, although this state is characterized by claustrophobia, there is an obsession with filling up any space which may present itself, since the space itself is perceived as being threatening. The desire not to fall into this condition is a powerful incentive for people to make efforts to rise above this state in daily life.

This condition is comparable to the Buddhist world of Naraka.


Hunger is a condition characterized by possessiveness and insatiable desires which govern one's actions, for food, power, wealth, fame, pleasure and so on.[4] In this state one is tormented by relentless craving and the inability, even when the desire is achieved, to enjoy its fruition. This realm is characterized by a total lack of willpower and the disregard of all things except the fulfillment of desires.

This condition is comparable to the Buddhist world of the Pretas (Hungry Ghosts).[4]


Animality is a condition in which one is governed by instinct,[4] in which one has no sense of morality and lives only for the present moment. In this state one won't hesitate to prey on weaker beings for personal gain, and will try to attract the attentions of stronger beings in order to side with them. This realm is characterized by the total lack of good judgment and reason.

This condition is comparable to the Buddhist world of Animals.

Arrogance (or anger)

Arrogance is the condition in which one is dominated by the selfish ego, competitiveness, paranoid jealousy and the need to be superior in all things, being they mundane or spiritual. Though potentially virtuous, the experiencer is a slave to his/her delusions, considering ones ego and beliefs as more important than - and superior to - others. This realm is characterized by viewing other beings as potential threats. Still, the rest of the experience in this realm is generally quite pleasant as compared to the human realm.

This condition is comparable to the Buddhist world of the Asuras or 'half-gods'.[4]

Humanity (or passionate idealism)

Humanity is the state in which the discriminating awareness and the thinking mind are most highly developed.[4] It is characterized by ambitious passion for abstract ideals and role models, and is unique among the lower realms in providing both the potential means and the motivation to transcend suffering. It is also characterized by shortness of life, in comparison to the Deva and Asura realms, and by being extremely rare in occurrence, without refuge in the Dharma.

This condition is comparable to the Buddhist world of Humans.

Heaven (or rapture)

Heaven is the condition of pleasure, when one's desires are fulfilled and one experiences short-lived but intense feelings of joy. Unlike the true happiness of Buddhahood, however, this state is temporary and, like Humanity, easily disrupted by even a slight change of circumstances. One will inevitably descend to a lower realm once the joy dies away. This realm is characterized by not feeling negative emotions and being less vulnerable to external influences than the lower realms.

This condition is comparable to the Buddhist world of the Devas or 'gods'.[4]

The majority of sentient beings spend most of their time moving between these six conditions of life, from Hell to Rapture, governed by their reactions to external influences and therefore highly vulnerable to all of the six lower realms, the experiencer's emotional state is totally controlled by externals. Indeed, his/her entire identity is based on externals.

Four higher (noble) realms

In traditional Mahayana Buddhist cosmology, the four higher realms are four of the ten spiritual realms.

The four higher worlds are characterized by the belief that humans need to make an effort to reveal themselves from within their lives.


Learning is a condition in which one seeks some skill, lasting truth or self-improvement through the teachings of others. To access this realm, the experiencer must first develop the desire to gain wisdom and insight into the true nature of all things, free from delusion. This realm is characterized by the seeking of truth and wisdom through external sources, e.g. other people and pre-recorded information (usually texts).

This condition is comparable to the state of the Śrāvakabuddha.

Realization (or absorption)

Realization is a state in which one discovers a partial truth through one's own observations, efforts and concentration. Usually to access this realm the experiencer must first have decided external sources are inferior to internal sources, e.g. his/her own mind. This realm is characterized by the seeking of truth and wisdom through direct internal perception.

This condition is comparable to the state of the Pratyekabuddha.

The two above realms are collectively known as 'the two vehicles'. Even though these realms are based upon the desire to increase wisdom and insight, ego is still present, as these desires are primarily self-oriented.


Bodhisattvahood is a condition in which one not only aspires for personal enlightenment but also devotes oneself to relieving the sufferings of others through compassionate and truly altruistic actions, e.g. helping others. This realm is characterized by the feeling that happiness achieved through the benefit of others is superior to happiness achieved through the benefit of only the self.

This condition is that of a Bodhisattva.


Buddhahood is the highest of the Ten Worlds, a condition of pure, indestructible happiness which is not dependent on one's circumstances. The experiencer is totally free from all delusion, suffering and anger. It is a condition of perfect and absolute freedom, characterized by boundless wisdom, courage, compassion and life force. This realm is difficult to describe and is generally only obtained through the direct internal perception of the realm of realization. This realm is characterized by not being shifted into lower realms due to external sources, and the non-reliance on external sources for happiness. This realm is manifested outwardly through the actions of the realm of bodhisattvahood.

In the Lotus Sutra, the Buddha declares that all living beings can become a Buddha. The Buddha also inculcates the aspiration of attaining Buddhahood in his disciples. The aspiration toward Buddhahood is the key to eventually arrive at the shore of Supreme Perfect Enlightenment, i.e. Buddhahood.

In Mahaparinirvana Sutra, the Buddha explains the state of Buddhahood that is characterized by four qualities - True Self, Eternity, Purity, Happiness. All sentient beings have the Buddha-Nature within them, and hence all living beings are capable of attaining Buddhahood.

This condition is that of a fully enlightened Buddha.


  1. Junjirō Takakusu: The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy, Motilal Barnasidass, Dehli 1998, pp. 143-145. ISBN 81-208-1592-0 (Ten realms in Tiantai/Tendai)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Buddhism's Ten Spiritual Realms in Simple Terms
  3. Six Realms of Existence
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Buddhism in a Nutshell
  5. Hells


Causton, Richard: "Buddha in Daily Life, An Introduction to the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin", Random House 2011. ISBN 1446489191 (Chapter: "The Ten Worlds", pp. 35–95)

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