Tilquiapan Zapotec

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Tilquiapan Zapotec
San Miguel Tilquiápam
Region Oaxaca in Mexico
Native speakers
5,000 (2007)[1]
Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 zts
Glottolog tilq1235[2]

Tilquiapan Zapotec (Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiápam) is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.

Santa Inés Yatzechi Zapotec is close enough to be considered a dialect, and Ocotlán Zapotec is also close. They were measured at 87% and 59% intelligibility, respectively, in recorded text testing.[3]



Vowel phonemes of Tilquiapan Zapotec[4]
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid ɘ o
Open a

Each vowel can also be glottalized, a phenomenon manifested as either creaky voice throughout the vowel or, more commonly, as a sequence of a vowel and a glottal stop optionally followed by an echo of the vowel.[5]


Consonant phonemes of Tilquiapan Zapotec[6]
Bilabial Dental/
Palatal Velar
plain labialized
Nasal m n
Plosive b d tːʃ ɡ kːʷ ɡʷ
Fricative z ʃː ʒ
Approximant central j
lateral l͡d l

As with other Zapotec languages, the primary distinction between consonant pairs like /t/ and /d/ is not of voicing but between fortis and lenis (measured in length[7]), respectively, with voicing being a phonetic correlate.[6] There are two exceptions to this in Tilquiapan:

  • The contrast between fortis /nː/ and lenis /n/
  • The contrast between fortis /ld/ and lenis /l/

Neither is voiceless, but /nˑ/ is pronounced a little longer and /ld/ replaces /l/ in certain causative verbs in ways similar to other fortis/lenis consonantal changes (e.g. [blaˀa] 'get loose' vs. [bldaˀa] 'let loose').[6]


  1. Tilquiapan Zapotec at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tilquiapan Zapotec". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Egland, Cruz Ramos & Bartholomew (1978)
  4. Merrill (2008), p. 109
  5. Merrill (2008), p. 110
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Merrill (2008), p. 108
  7. See Nellis & Hollenbach (1980)


  • Egland, Steven; Cruz Ramos, Saúl; Bartholomew, Doris (1978), La inteligibilidad interdialectal en México: resultados de algunos sondeos (in Spanish), México: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, ISBN 9683100031 Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Nellis, Donald G.; Hollenbach, Barbara E. (1980), "Fortis versus lenis in Cajonos Zapotec phonology", International Journal of American Linguistics, 46: 92–105, doi:10.1086/465639<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>