Toropets

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Toropets (English)
Торопец (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
250px
View of Toropets
Map of Russia - Tver Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tver Oblast in Russia
Toropets is located in Tver Oblast
Toropets
Toropets
Location of Toropets in Tver Oblast
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Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of December 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administrative district Toropetsky District[2]
Urban settlement Toropets[2]
Administrative center of Toropetsky District,[3] Toropets Urban Settlement[2]
Municipal status (as of March 2013)
Municipal district Toropetsky Municipal District[4]
Urban settlement Toropets Urban Settlement[4]
Administrative center of Toropetsky Municipal District,[5] Toropets Urban Settlement[4]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 13,015 inhabitants[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
First mentioned 1074[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 172840, 172842, 172899
[[:commons:Category:{{#property:Commons category}}|Toropets]] on Wikimedia Commons

Toropets (Russian: Торо́пец) is a town and the administrative center of Toropetsky District in Tver Oblast, Russia, located where the Toropa River enters Lake Solomennoye. Population: 13,015 (2010 Census);[6] 14,600 (2002 Census);[9] 17,510 (1989 Census).[10]

History

Historical affiliations

Principality of Smolensk 1074–1167
Principality of Toropets 1167–ca. 1362
Grand Duchy of Lithuania ca. 1362–1386
Poland-Lithuania 1386–1503
Grand Duchy of Moscow 1503–1547
File:Flag of Oryol (variant).svg Tsardom of Russia 1547–1721
 Russian Empire 1721–1917
Russia Russian Republic 1917
Soviet Russia 1917–1922
 Soviet Union 1922–1991
 Russian Federation 1991–present

In 1074, when the town was first mentioned in chronicles, Toropets belonged to the Princes of Smolensk.[11] By 1167, it was large enough to have its own princes. The most famous of its rulers was Mstislav the Bold, whose grandson Alexander Nevsky wed Alexandra of Polotsk in Toropets in 1239.[12][13]

In the mid-14th century the town passed to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which had to surrender it to Ivan III following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. In the early 17th century, Toropets was ransacked by the Polish army. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Toropets was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. Toropets was included into Velikiye Luki Province.[14] In 1772, as a result of the First Partition of Poland, Inflanty Voivodeship and eastern Belarus were transferred to Russia. In order to accommodate these areas, Pskov Governorate was created, and Velikiye Luki was transferred to Pskov Governorate. The town of Opochka was made the administrative center of the governorate. Pskov Governorate has proven to be too big to be administered properly, and in 1776, the decree of the empress, Catherine the Great, was issued. It divided the governorate into Pskov and Polotsk Governorates. Pskov was made the administrative center of Pskov Governorate, and Toropets remained in Pskov Governorate. In 1777, Pskov Governorate was transformed into Pskov Viceroyalty, which was administered from Novgorod by Jacob Sievers. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished, and on 31 December 1796 the emperor Paul I issued a decree restoring Pskov Governorate.[15] Toropets was the center of Toropetsky Uyezd of Pskov Governorate.

The Soviet authority in Toropets was established on October 30 (November 12), 1917. On August 1, 1927 Pskov Governorate was abolished, and Leningrad Oblast was established. Toropetsky Uyezd was abolished as well, and Toropetsky District, with the administrative center in Toropets, was established. It belonged to Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On June 17, 1929, the district was transferred to Western Oblast. On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Toropetsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[16][17] The town was occupied by the Wehrmacht during WWII, from August 29, 1941 until January 21, 1942, when it was retaken during the Toropets–Kholm Offensive. On August 22, 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Velikiye Luki Oblast. On October 2, 1957, Velikiye Luki Oblast was abolished, and Toropetssky District was transferred back to Kalinin Oblast. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.[17]

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Toropets serves as the administrative center of Toropetsky District.[3] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Toropetsky District as Toropets Urban Settlement.[2] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban settlement status and is a part of Toropetsky Municipal District.[4]

Economy

Industry

There are enterprises of chemical, metallurgical, textile, and food industries in Toropets.[18]

Transportation

The railway connecting Bologoye with Velikiye Luki passes through Toropets. There is infrequent passenger traffic.

The M9 highway connecting Moscow with Riga also crosses the southern part of Toropetsky District. Toropets has access to it via a paved road. The same road continues to the north to Kholm and further to Staraya Russa.

Culture and recreation

File:The Watchtower is a symbol of the city.jpg
The Watchtower is a symbol of Toropets
File:Korsunsko-Bogoroditsky cathedral in Toropets, Russia.jpg
Church of the Theotokos of Korsun, built between 1795 and 1804

Toropets contains 66 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 30 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments include plenty of buildings in the historical center of Toropets.[19] The oldest brick churches in the town are dedicated to St. Nicholas (1666–1669), to Our Lady of Kazan (1698–1765), and to John the Baptist (1704).

There are a number of museums in Toropets, which include the Toropets District Museum, the Museum of the History of Photography, the house-museum of Patriarch Tikhon (Tikhon, in the future the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, lived here as a child for ten years).

Notable people

The town is where Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow spent his childhood (between 1869 and 1878) and attended school .

References

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 Law #34-ZO
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Law #34-ZO stipulates that the borders of the settlements (administrative-territorial divisions) are identical to the borders of the urban and rural settlements (municipal divisions), and that the borders of the administrative districts are identical to the borders of the municipal districts. Law #50-ZO, which describes the borders and the composition of the municipal formations in Toropetsky Municipal District, lists the town of Toropets as a part and the administrative center of Toropets Urban Settlement of that district.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 255», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 255, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Law #50-ZO
  5. Law #4-ZO
  6. 6.0 6.1 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1". Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  9. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Торопецкий район" (in Russian). Литературная карта Тверского края. Retrieved February 8, 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Краткая историческая справка" (in Russian). Toropetsky District Administration. Retrieved January 14, 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Янин, В.Л. (1998). "Новгород и Литва: Пограничные ситуации XIII-XV веков" (in Russian). Moscow: Moscow State University. Retrieved February 9, 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Снытко, О.В.; et al. (2009). С.Д. Трифонов, Т.Б. Чуйкова, Л.В. Федина, А.Э. Дубоносова (ed.). Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727–1995 гг. Справочник (PDF) (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. p. 16. Retrieved February 4, 2012.CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Псковская губерния" (in Russian). Руниверс. Retrieved January 15, 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Воробьёв, М. В. (1993). Г. В. Туфанова (ed.). Административно-территориальное деление Смоленской области (in Russian). Государственный архив Смоленской области. pp. 118–133.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1 Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved December 5, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Промышленность Торопецкого района" (in Russian). Toropetsky District Administration. Retrieved January 13, 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved January 14, 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Sources

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №66-ЗО от 1 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 18 Закона Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #66-ZO of October 1, 2014 On Amending Article 18 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №50-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Торопецкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №20-ОЗ от 28 марта 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований Торопецкого района Тверской области и внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Торопецкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #50-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Which the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Toropetsky District" Comprises and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #20-OZ of March 28, 2013 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of Toropetsky District of Tver Oblast and on Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Which the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Toropetsky District" Comprises and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Template:RussiaAdmMunRef/tve/munlist0

Further reading

External links