Transtheoretical model

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

The transtheoretical model of behavior change assesses an individual's readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or processes of change to guide the individual through the stages of change to Action and Maintenance.

The transtheoretical model is also known by the abbreviation "TTM"[1] and by the term "stages of change."[2][3] A popular book, Changing for Good,[4] and articles in the news media[5][6][7][8][9] have discussed the model. It is "arguably the dominant model of health behaviour change, having received unprecedented research attention, yet it has simultaneously attracted criticism."[10]

History and core constructs of the model

James O. Prochaska of the University of Rhode Island and colleagues developed the transtheoretical model beginning in 1977.[11] It is based on analysis and use of different theories of psychotherapy, hence the name "transtheoretical."

Prochaska and colleagues refined the model on the basis of research that they published in peer-reviewed journals and books.[12]

TTM research development process

1980s [13]
  • Invention of the Stages of Change and the dynamic change processes and principles related to each stage

[14] [15][16] [17][18]

  • Developed first computer-tailored intervention based on the transtheoretical model (TTM)
  • Demonstrated tailored interventions for smoking cessation effective even when more than 80% were not ready to quit
  • TTM applied to a variety of behaviors beyond smoking cessation
  • Demonstrated that TTM-based interventions for simultaneous multiple behavior change are effective
  • TTM applied to a wide variety of new behavior change challenges
  • Implemented innovative strategies to ensure greater impact on multiple behaviors with fewer demands on patients and providers
  • Designed a more cost-effective delivery for coaching and online programs
  • Serving entire populations with inclusive proactive and home-based care
  • Expanding focus from health promotion to well-being

Stages of change

In the transtheoretical model, change is a "process involving progress through a series of stages:"[19][20]

  • Precontemplation (Not Ready)-"People are not intending to take action in the foreseeable future, and can be unaware that their behaviour is problematic"
  • Contemplation (Getting Ready)-"People are beginning to recognize that their behaviour is problematic, and start to look at the pros and cons of their continued actions"
  • Preparation (Ready)-"People are intending to take action in the immediate future, and may begin taking small steps toward behaviour change"[nb 1]
  • Action – "People have made specific overt modifications in modifying their problem behaviour or in acquiring new healthy behaviours"
  • Maintenance – "People have been able to sustain action for at least six months and are working to prevent relapse"
  • Termination – "Individuals have zero temptation and they are sure they will not return to their old unhealthy habit as a way of coping"[nb 2]

Relapse/Recycling:In addition, the researchers conceptualized "relapse" (recycling) which is not a stage in itself but rather the "return from Action or Maintenance to an earlier stage."[19][nb 3]

Each Stage details

Stages of change
Stage Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Relapse
Standard time further 6 month further 6 month further 6 month near 1 month least 6 month any time

Stage 1: Precontemplation (Subconsciousness) [4][21][22] [19][23] [19][24]

The model consists of four "core constructs": "stages of change," "processes of change," "decisional balance," and "self-efficacy."

People at this stage do not intend to start the healthy behavior in the near future (within 6 months), and may be unaware of the need to change. People here learn more about healthy behavior: they are encouraged to think about the pros of changing their behavior and to feel emotions about the effects of their negative behavior on others.

Precontemplators typically underestimate the pros of changing, overestimate the cons, and often are not aware of making such mistakes.

One of the most effective steps that others can help with at this stage is to encourage them to become more mindful of their decision making and more conscious of the multiple benefits of changing an unhealthy behavior.

Stage 2: Contemplation (consciousness)
At this stage, participants are intending to start the healthy behavior within the next 6 months. While they are usually now more aware of the pros of changing, their cons are about equal to their Pros. This ambivalence about changing can cause them to keep putting off taking action.

People here learn about the kind of person they could be if they changed their behavior and learn more from people who behave in healthy ways.

Others can influence and help effectively at this stage by encouraging them to work at reducing the cons of changing their behavior.

Stage 3: Preparation (pre action)
People at this stage are ready to start taking action within the next 30 days. They take small steps that they believe can help them make the healthy behavior a part of their lives. For example, they tell their friends and family that they want to change their behavior.

People in this stage should be encouraged to seek support from friends they trust, tell people about their plan to change the way they act, and think about how they would feel if they behaved in a healthier way. Their number one concern is: when they act, will they fail? They learn that the better prepared they are, the more likely they are to keep progressing.

Stage 4: Action(current 'action)'
People at this stage have changed their behavior within the last 6 months and need to work hard to keep moving ahead. These participants need to learn how to strengthen their commitments to change and to fight urges to slip back.

People in this stage progress by being taught techniques for keeping up their commitments such as substituting activities related to the unhealthy behavior with positive ones, rewarding themselves for taking steps toward changing, and avoiding people and situations that tempt them to behave in unhealthy ways.

Stage 5: Maintenance(monitoring)
People at this stage changed their behavior more than 6 months ago. It is important for people in this stage to be aware of situations that may tempt them to slip back into doing the unhealthy behavior—particularly stressful situations.

It is recommended that people in this stage seek support from and talk with people whom they trust, spend time with people who behave in healthy ways, and remember to engage in healthy activities to cope with stress instead of relying on unhealthy behavior.

Stage 6: Relapse (resuming)[25][26][27][28] The relapse stage in the TTM model specifically applies to individuals who successfully quit smoking or using drugs or alcohol, only to resume these unhealthy behaviors in the Maintenance stage. Individuals who attempt to quit highly addictive behaviors such as drug, alcohol, and tobacco use are at particularly high risk of a relapse. Achieving a long-term behavior change often requires ongoing support from family members, a health coach, a physician, or another motivational source. Supportive literature and other resources can also be helpful to avoid a relapse from happening.

Processes of change

The 10 processes of change are "covert and overt activities that people use to progress through the stages."[19]

To progress through the early stages, people apply cognitive, affective, and evaluative processes. As people move toward Action and Maintenance, they rely more on commitments, conditioning, contingencies, environmental controls, and support.[29]

Prochaska and colleagues state that their research related to the transtheoretical model shows that interventions to change behavior are more effective if they are "stage-matched," that is, "matched to each individual's stage of change."[19][nb 4]

Processes of Change 3.JPG

In general, for people to progress they need:

  1. A growing awareness that the advantages (the "pros") of changing outweigh the disadvantages (the "cons")—the TTM calls this decisional balance
  2. Confidence that they can make and maintain changes in situations that tempt them to return to their old, unhealthy behavior—the TTM calls this self-efficacy
  3. Strategies that can help them make and maintain change—the TTM calls these processes of change. The ten processes include:
    1. Consciousness-Raising—increasing awareness via information, education, and personal feedback about the healthy behavior.
    2. Dramatic Relief—feeling fear, anxiety, or worry because of the unhealthy behavior, or feeling inspiration and hope when they hear about how people are able to change to healthy behaviors
    3. Self-Reevaluation—realizing that the healthy behavior is an important part of who they are and want to be
    4. Environmental Reevaluation—realizing how their unhealthy behavior affects others and how they could have more positive effects by changing
    5. Social Liberation—realizing that society is more supportive of the healthy behavior
    6. Self-Liberation—believing in one’s ability to change and making commitments and recommitments to act on that belief
    7. Helping Relationships—finding people who are supportive of their change
    8. Counter-Conditioning—substituting unhealthy ways of acting and thinking for healthy ways
    9. Reinforcement Management—increasing the rewards that come from positive behavior and reducing those that come from negative behavior
    10. Stimulus Control—using reminders and cues that encourage healthy behavior as substitutes for those that encourage the unhealthy behavior.

Decisional balance

This core construct "reflects the individual's relative weighing of the pros and cons of changing."[19][nb 5] Decision making was conceptualized by Janis and Mann as a "decisional balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses."[30] Decisional balance measures, the pros and the cons, have become critical constructs in the transtheoretical model. The pros and cons combine to form a decisional "balance sheet" of comparative potential gains and losses. The balance between the pros and cons varies depending on which stage of change the individual is in.

Sound decision making requires the consideration of the potential benefits (pros) and costs (cons) associated with a behavior's consequences. TTM research has found the following relationships between the pros, cons, and the stage of change across 48 behaviors and over 100 populations studied.

  • The cons of changing outweigh the pros in the Precontemplation stage.
  • The pros surpass the cons in the middle stages.
  • The pros outweigh the cons in the Action stage.[31]


This core construct is "the situation-specific confidence people have that they can cope with high-risk situations without relapsing to their unhealthy or high risk-habit."[19][nb 6] Self-efficacy[32] conceptualizes a person's perceived ability to perform on a task as a mediator of performance on future tasks. A change in the level of self-efficacy can predict a lasting change in behavior if there are adequate incentives and skills. The transtheoretical model employs an overall confidence score to assess an individual's self-efficacy. Situational temptations assess how tempted people are to engage in a problem behavior in a certain situation.

Outcomes of TTM programs

The outcomes of the TTM computerized tailored interventions administered to participants in pre-Action stages are outlined below.

Stress management

A national sample of pre-Action adults was provided a stress management intervention. At the 18-month follow-up, a significantly larger proportion of the treatment group (62%) was effectively managing their stress when compared to the control group. The intervention also produced statistically significant reductions in stress and depression and an increase in the use of stress management techniques when compared to the control group.[33] Two additional clinical trials of TTM programs by Prochaska et al. and Jordan et al. also found significantly larger proportions of treatment groups effectively managing stress when compared to control groups.[1][34]

Adherence to antihypertensive medication

Over 1,000 members of a New England group practice who were prescribed antihypertensive medication participated in an adherence to antihypertensive medication intervention. The vast majority (73%) of the intervention group who were previously pre-Action were adhering to their prescribed medication regimen at the 12-month follow-up when compared to the control group.[35]

Adherence to lipid-lowering drugs

Members of a large New England health plan and various employer groups who were prescribed a cholesterol lowering medication participated in an adherence to lipid-lowering drugs intervention. More than half of the intervention group (56%) who were previously pre-Action were adhering to their prescribed medication regimen at the 18-month follow-up. Additionally, only 15% of those in the intervention group who were already in Action or Maintenance relapsed into poor medication adherence compared to 45% of the controls. Further, participants who were at risk for physical activity and unhealthy diet were given only stage-based guidance. The treatment group doubled the control group in the percentage in Action or Maintenance at 18 months for physical activity (43%) and diet (25%).[36]

Depression prevention

Participants were 350 primary care patients experiencing at least mild depression but not involved in treatment or planning to seek treatment for depression in the next 30 days. Patients receiving the TTM intervention experienced significantly greater symptom reduction during the 9-month follow-up period. The intervention’s largest effects were observed among patients with moderate or severe depression, and who were in the Precontemplation or Contemplation stage of change at baseline. For example, among patients in the Precontemplation or Contemplation stage, rates of reliable and clinically significant improvement in depression were 40% for treatment and 9% for control. Among patients with mild depression, or who were in the Action or Maintenance stage at baseline, the intervention helped prevent disease progression to Major Depression during the follow-up period.[37]

Weight management

Twelve-hundred-and-seventy-seven overweight or moderately obese adults (BMI 25-39.9) were recruited nationally, primarily from large employers. Those randomly assigned to the treatment group received a stage-matched multiple behavior change guide and a series of tailored, individualized interventions for three health behaviors that are crucial to effective weight management: healthy eating (i.e., reducing calorie and dietary fat intake), moderate exercise, and managing emotional distress without eating. Up to three tailored reports (one per behavior) were delivered based on assessments conducted at four time points: baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. All participants were followed up at 6, 12, and 24 months. Multiple Imputation was used to estimate missing data. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were then used to examine differences between the treatment and comparison groups. At 24 months, those who were in a pre-Action stage for healthy eating at baseline and received treatment were significantly more likely to have reached Action or Maintenance than the comparison group (47.5% vs. 34.3%). The intervention also impacted a related, but untreated behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. Over 48% of those in the treatment group in a pre-Action stage at baseline progressed to Action or Maintenance for eating at least 5 servings a day of fruit and vegetables as opposed to 39% of the comparison group. Individuals in the treatment group who were in a pre-Action stage for exercise at baseline were also significantly more likely to reach Action or Maintenance (44.9% vs. 38.1%). The treatment also had a significant effect on managing emotional distress without eating, with 49.7% of those in a pre-Action stage at baseline moving to Action or Maintenance versus 30.3% of the comparison group. The groups differed on weight lost at 24 months among those in a pre-action stage for healthy eating and exercise at baseline. Among those in a pre-Action stage for both healthy eating and exercise at baseline, 30% of those randomized to the treatment group lost 5% or more of their body weight vs.18.6% in the comparison group. Coaction of behavior change occurred and was much more pronounced in the treatment group with the treatment group losing significantly more than the comparison group. This study demonstrates the ability of TTM-based tailored feedback to improve healthy eating, exercise, managing emotional distress, and weight on a population basis. The treatment produced the highest population impact to date on multiple health risk behaviors.[38]

Smoking cessation

Multiple studies have found individualized interventions tailored on the 14 TTM variables for smoking cessation to effectively recruit and retain pre-Action participants and produce long-term abstinence rates within the range of 22% – 26%. These interventions have also consistently outperformed alternative interventions including best-in-class action-oriented self-help programs,[39] non-interactive manual-based programs, and other common interventions.[40][41] Furthermore, these interventions continued to move pre-Action participants to abstinence even after the program ended.[40][41][42] For a summary of smoking cessation clinical outcomes, see Velicer, Redding, Sun, & Prochaska, 2007 and Jordan, Evers, Spira, King & Lid, 2013.[34][43]

Example for TTM apply on Smoke control

In the treating of Smoke Control, TTM focus on each stage monitor and tried to sustained it to next stage.[44][45][46][47]

Stage Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Contemplation Relapse
Standard time further 6 month further 6 month further 6 month near 1 month least 6 month any time
Action & Intervention don't want to quit smoke don't want to quit smoke have will to quit take action to quit sustained back to smoke
relate source Book, newspaper, friend Book, newspaper, friend doctor, nurse, friend... doctor, nurse, friend... friend, family cold turkey

In each stage the patient will have multiple source influence it behavior in include friend,book,doctor advice, will decision how the smoke control result. Each stage have to monitor and trying to sustaining. TTM help treatment process to which stage, so the doctor,nurse could made the decision

TTM criticisms

Among the criticisms of the model are the following:

  • Little experimental evidence exists to suggest that application of the model is actually associated with changes in health-related behaviors.
    • In a systematic review, published in 2003, of 23 randomized controlled trials, the authors determined that "stage based interventions are no more effective than non-stage based interventions or no intervention in changing smoking behaviour."[48]
    • A second systematic review from 2003 asserted that "no strong conclusions" can be drawn about the effectiveness of interventions based on the transtheoretical model for the prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.[49]
    • A 2005 systematic review of 37 randomized controlled trials claimed that "there was limited evidence for the effectiveness of stage-based interventions as a basis for behavior change."[50] Additional research suggests that the effectiveness of interventions can be increased if they are tailored on all core constructs of the TTM in addition to stage of change.[51]
    • According to a randomized controlled trial published in 2006, a stage-matched intervention for smoking cessation in pregnancy was more effective than a non-stage-matched intervention, but this finding could have resulted from the "greater intensity" of the stage-matched intervention.[52]
    • A randomized controlled trial published in 2009 found "no evidence" that a smoking cessation intervention based on the transtheoretical model was more effective than a control intervention that was not tailored for stage of change.[53]
    • A 2009 review stated that "existing data are insufficient for drawing conclusions on the benefits of the transtheoretical model" as related to dietary interventions for people with diabetes.[54]
    • A 2010 systematic review of smoking cessation studies under the auspices of the Cochrane Collaboration found that "stage-based self-help interventions (expert systems and/or tailored materials) and individual counselling were neither more nor less effective than their non-stage-based equivalents."[55]
    • A 2011 Cochrane Systematic Review found that there is little evidence to suggest that using the Transtheoretical Model Stages of Change (TTM SOC) method is effective in helping obese and overweight people lose weight.[56]
  • In a 2009 paper, the TTM model was considered to be useful but not more than the 4 domains of physical activity in order to promote this type of behaviors. [57]
  • "Arbitrary dividing lines" are drawn between the stages.[58] A continuous version of the model (Noel, 1999) has been proposed, where each process is first increasingly used, and then decreases in importance, as smokers make progress along some latent dimension. In this alternative view, the very notion of stage is no more necessary [59]
  • The model makes predictions that are "incorrect or worse than competing theories."[58]
  • The model "assumes that individuals typically make coherent and stable plans," when in fact they do not.[58]
  • The algorithms and questionnaires that researchers have used to assign people to stages of change have not been standardized, compared empirically, or validated.[60][61]
  • The designs of many studies supporting the model have been cross-sectional, but longitudinal study data would allow for stronger causal inferences.[60]
  • In a 2002 review, the model's stages were characterized as "not mutually exclusive"; furthermore, there was "scant evidence of sequential movement through discrete stages."[62] While research suggests that movement through the stages of change is not always linear, a study conducted in 1996 demonstrated that the probability of forward stage movement is greater than the probability of backward stage movement.[63]

See also


The following notes summarize major differences between the well-known 1983,[17] 1992,[16] and 1997[19] versions of the model. Other published versions may contain other differences. For example, Prochaska, Prochaska, and Levesque (2001)[23] do not mention the Termination stage, Self-efficacy, or Temptation.
  1. In the 1983 version of the model, the Preparation stage is absent.
  2. In the 1983 version of the model, the Termination stage is absent. In the 1992 version of the model, Prochaska et al. showed Termination as the end of their "Spiral Model of the Stages of Change," not as a separate stage.
  3. In the 1983 version of the model, Relapse is considered one of the five stages of change.
  4. In the 1983 version of the model, the processes of change were said to be emphasized in only the Contemplation, Action, and Maintenance stages.
  5. In the 1983 version of the model, "decisional balance" is absent. In the 1992 version of the model, Prochaska et al. mention "decisional balance" but in only one sentence under the "key transtheoretical concept" of "processes of change."
  6. In the 1983 version of the model, "self-efficacy" is absent. In the 1992 version of the model, Prochaska et al. mention "self-efficacy" but in only one sentence under the "key transtheoretical concept" of "stages of change."

Prochaska, J. O., & Norcross, J. C. (2002). Stages of change. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work (303-313). New York: Oxford University Press.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Prochaska, JO; Butterworth, S; Redding, CA; Burden, V; Perrin, N; Leo, M; Flaherty-Robb, M; Prochaska, JM. Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRI's with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Prev Med 2008 Mar;46(3):226–31. Accessed 2009 Mar 21.
  2. Greene, GW; Rossi, SR; Rossi, JS; Velicer, WF; Fava, JL; Prochaska, JO. Dietary applications of the stages of change model. J Am Diet Assoc 1999 Jun;99(6):673–8. Accessed 2009 Mar 21.
  3. Pro-Change Behavior Systems. About us. Transtheoretical model. 2008 Mar. Accessed 2009 Mar 21.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Prochaska, JO; Norcross, JC; DiClemente, CC. Changing for good: the revolutionary program that explains the six stages of change and teaches you how to free yourself from bad habits. New York: W. Morrow; 1994. ISBN 0-688-11263-3.
  5. Goleman, Daniel. New addiction approach gets results. New York Times 1993 Sep 1. Accessed 2009 Mar 19.
  6. Miller, Kay. Revolving resolutions - Year after new year, we vow to lose weight, stop smoking, find love or a better job -- only to fail. A few simple strategies could set us straight. Star Tribune: Newspaper of the Twin Cities 2001 Dec 29.
  7. Stettner, Morey. A methodical way to change bad behavior. Investor's Business Daily 2005 Dec 19.
  8. Understanding change: expect a few bumps. Washington Post 2007 Jan 2. Accessed 2009 Mar 19.
  9. Carbine, Michael E. Health plans use a variety of strategies to identify and ensure compliance among diabetics. AIS's Health Business Daily 2009 Mar 6. Accessed 2009 Mar 19.
  10. Armitage, CJ. Is there utility in the transtheoretical model? Br J Health Psychol 2009;14(Pt 2):195–210. Epub 2008 Oct 14. Accessed 2009 Mar 17.
  11. Prochaska, JO.; DiClemente, CC. The transtheoretical approach. In: Norcross, JC; Goldfried, MR. (eds.) Handbook of psychotherapy integration. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. p. 147–171. ISBN 0-19-516579-9.
  12. Prochaska, JO. & Norcross, JC Systems of psychotherapy: a transtheoretical analysis. 7th edition Brooks & Cole, CA 2010.
  13. Pro-Change Behavior Systems. TTM Research. 2014 Jan. Accessed 2014 Jan 22.
  14. Prochaska, JO; DiClemente, CC. Toward a comprehensive model of change. In: Miller, WR; Heather, N. (eds.) Treating addictive behaviors: processes of change. New York: Plenum Press; 1986. p. 3–27. ISBN 0-306-42248-4. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  15. Prochaska, JO; DiClemente, CC. Stages of change in the modification of problem behaviors. Prog Behav Modif 1992;28:183–218. PMID 1620663.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Prochaska, JO; DiClemente, CC; Norcross, JC. In search of how people change. Applications to addictive behaviors. Am Psychol 1992 Sep;47(9):1102–14. Accessed 2009 Mar 16.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Prochaska, JO; DiClemente, CC. Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. J Consult Clin Psychol 1983 Jun;51(3):390–5. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  18. DiClemente, CC; Prochaska, JO; Fairhurst, SK; Velicer, WF; Velasquez, MM; Rossi, JS. The process of smoking cessation: an analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991 Apr;59(2):295–304. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 Prochaska, JO; Velicer, WF. The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. Am J Health Promot 1997 Sep–Oct;12(1):38–48. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  20. Prochaska, JO; Velicer, WF. The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. Am J Health Promot 1997 Sep–Oct;12(1):38–48. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  21. Prochaska, JO; Velicer, WF; Rossi, JS; Goldstein, MG; Marcus, BH; et al. Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychol 1994 Jan;13(1):39–46. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  22. Prochaska, JO; Velicer, WF; DiClemente, CC; Fava, J. Measuring processes of change: applications to the cessation of smoking. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988 Aug;56(4):520–8. PMID 3198809.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Prochaska, JM; Prochaska, JO; Levesque, DA. A transtheoretical approach to changing organizations. Adm Policy Ment Health 2001 Mar;28(4):247–61. Accessed 2009 Mar 20.
  24. McConnaughy, EA; Prochaska, JO; Velicer, WF. Stages of change in psychotherapy - measurement and sample profiles. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 1983;20(3):368–375.
  25. DiClemente, CC; Prochaska, JO; Gibertini, M. Self-efficacy and the stages of self-change of smoking. Cognit Ther Res 1985;9(2):181–200. Accessed 2009 Mar 22.
  26. Velicer, WF; DiClemente, CC; Prochaska, JO; Brandenburg, N. Decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking status. J Pers Soc Psychol 1985 May;48(5):1279–89. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  27. Velicer, WF; Prochaska, JO; Rossi, JS; Snow, MG. Assessing outcome in smoking cessation studies. Psychol Bull 1992 Jan;111(1):23–41. PMID 1539088.
  28. Prochaska, JO; DiClemente, CC; Velicer, WF; Rossi, JS. Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychol 1993 Sep;12(5):399–405. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  29. Prochaska, JO; Redding, CA; Evers, KE. The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change. In: Glanz, K; Rimer, BK; Viswanath, K. (eds.) Health Behavior and Health Education. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2008. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7879-9614-7.
  30. Janis, I.L. & Mann, L. (1977) Decision making: a psychological analysis of conflict, choice and commitment. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-916160-6
  31. Hall, K.L. & Rossi, J. S. (2008) Meta-analysis Examination of the sting and weak principals across 48 behaviors. Preventative Medicine, 46, 266-274.
  32. Bandura, A. (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unified theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215
  33. Evers, K. E., Prochaska, J. O., Johnson, J. L., Mauriello, L. M., Padula, J. A., & Prochaska, J. M. (2006). A randomized clinical trial of a population- and transtheoretical model-based stress-management intervention. Health Psychol., 25, 521-529.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Jordan, P.J., Evers, K.E., Spira, J.L., King, L.A., & Lid, V. (2013). Computerized, tailored interventions improve outcomes and reduce barriers to care. Poster presented at the 17th Annual International meeting and Exposition of the American Telemedicine Association in Austin, TX, May 5–7, 2013.
  35. Johnson, S. S., Driskell, M. M., Johnson, J. L., Prochaska, J. M., Zwick, W., & Prochaska, J. O. (2006b). Efficacy of a transtheoretical model-based expert system for antihypertensive adherence. Disease Management, 9, 291-301.
  36. Johnson, S. S., Driskell, M. M., Johnson, J. L., Dyment, S. J., Prochaska, J. O., Prochaska, J. M. et al. (2006a). Transtheoretical model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management, 9, 102-114.
  37. Levesque, D. A., Van Marter, D. F., Schneider, R. J., Bauer, M. R., Goldberg, D. N., Prochaska, J. O., & Prochaska, J.M. (in press). Randomized trial of a computer-tailored intervention for patients with depression. American Journal of Health Promotion.
  38. Johnson, S. S., Paiva, A. L., Cummins, C. O., Johnson, J. L., Dyment, S. J., Wright, J. A., Prochaska, J. O., Prochaska, J. M., & Sherman, K. (2008). Transtheoretical model-based multiple behavior intervention for weight management: Effectiveness on a population basis. Preventive Medicine, 46, 238-246.
  39. Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., Velicer, W. F., & Rossi, J. S. (1993). Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 12, 399-405.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Fava, J. L., Ruggiero, L., Laforge, R. G., Rossi, J. S. et al. (2001a). Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage-matched expert system intervention for smokers in a managed care setting. Preventive Medicine, 32, 23-32.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Fava, J. L., Rossi, J. S., & Tsoh, J. Y. (2001b). Evaluating a population-based recruitment approach and a stage-based expert system intervention for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 583-602.
  42. Velicer, W.F., Fava, J.L., Prochaska, J.0., Abrams, D.B., Emmons, K.M., & Pierce, J. (1995) Distribution of smokers by stage in three representative samples. Preventive Medicine, 24, 401-411.
  43. Velicer, W. F., Redding, C. A., Sun, X., & Prochaska, J. O. (2007). Demographic variables, smoking variables, and outcome across five studies. Health Psychology, 26, 278-287.
  44. DiClemente, CC; Prochaska, JO; Gibertini, M. Self-efficacy and the stages of self-change of smoking. Cognit Ther Res 1985;9(2):181–200. Accessed 2009 Mar 22.
  45. Velicer, WF; DiClemente, CC; Prochaska, JO; Brandenburg, N. Decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking status. J Pers Soc Psychol 1985 May;48(5):1279–89. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  46. Velicer, WF; Prochaska, JO; Rossi, JS; Snow, MG. Assessing outcome in smoking cessation studies. Psychol Bull 1992 Jan;111(1):23–41. PMID 1539088.
  47. Prochaska, JO; DiClemente, CC; Velicer, WF; Rossi, JS. Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self-help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychol 1993 Sep;12(5):399–405. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  48. Riemsma, RP; Pattenden, J; Bridle, C; Sowden, AJ; Mather, L; Watt, IS; Walker, A. Systematic review of the effectiveness of stage based interventions to promote smoking cessation. BMJ 2003 May 31;326(7400):1175–7. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  49. Horowitz, SM. Applying the transtheoretical model to pregnancy and STD prevention: a review of the literature. Am J Health Promot 2003 May–Jun;17(5):304–28. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  50. Bridle, C; Riemsma, RP; Pattenden, J; Sowden, AJ; Mather, L; Watt, IS; Walker, A. Systematic review of the effectiveness of health behavior interventions based on the transtheoretical model. Psychol Health 2005;20:283–301. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  51. Prochaska JO. Moving beyond the transtheoretical model. Addiction 2006 Jun;101(6):768-74
  52. Aveyard, P; Lawrence, T; Cheng, KK; Griffin, C; Croghan, E; Johnson, C. A randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation for pregnant women to test the effect of a transtheoretical model-based intervention on movement in stage and interaction with baseline stage. Br J Health Psychol 2006 May;11(Pt 2):263–78. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  53. Aveyard, P; Massey, L; Parsons, A; Manaseki, S; Griffin, C. The effect of transtheoretical model based interventions on smoking cessation. Soc Sci Med 2009 Feb;68(3):397–403. Accessed 2009 Mar 18.
  54. Salmela, S; Poskiparta, M; Kasila, K; Vähäsarja, K; Vanhala, M. Transtheoretical model-based dietary interventions in primary care: a review of the evidence in diabetes. Health Educ Res 2009 Apr;24(2):237–52. Accessed 2009 Mar 19.
  55. Cahill, K; Lancaster, T; Green, N. Stage-based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Nov 10;11:CD004492. PMID 21069681. Accessed 2011 Feb 15.
  56. Tuah, N; Amiel, C; Qureshi, S; Car, J; Kaur, B; Majeed, A. Transtheoretical model for dietary and physical exercise modification in weight loss management for overweight and obese adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Oct 5;10:CD008066.pub2. PMID 21975777. Accessed 2011 Dec 7.
  57. Sallis, J. Physical Activity and Food Environments: Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic. Milbank Q. 2009 Mar; 87(1): 123–154. Accessed 2010 Mar 30.
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 West, R. Time for a change: putting the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model to rest. Addiction 2005 Aug;100(8):1036–9. Accessed 2009 Mar 19.
  59. Noel, Y. Recovering unimodal latent patterns of change by unfolding analysis: Application to smoking cessation Psychological Methods, 1999, Vol 4(2), 173-191.
  60. 60.0 60.1 Sutton, S. Back to the drawing board? A review of applications of the transtheoretical model to substance use. Addiction 2001 Jan;96(1):175–86. Accessed 2009 Mar 19.
  61. Adams, J; White, M. Why don't stage-based activity promotion interventions work? Health Educ Res 2005 Apr;20(2):237–43. Accessed 2009 Mar 22.
  62. Littell, JH; Girvin, H. Stages of change. A critique. Behav Modif 2002 Apr;26(2):223–73. Accessed 2009 Mar 19.
  63. Martin, R., Velicer, WF, Fava, JL. Latent transition analysis to the stages of change for smoking cessation. Addictive Behaviors 1996, 21(1):67-80

Further reading

  • Patterson, D. A. & Nochajski, T.H. (2010) Using the Stages of change model to help clients through the 12-steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 10(2), 224-227.
  • Patterson, D. A., & Buckingham, S. L. (2010) Does motivational interviewing stages of change increase treatment retention among persons who are alcohol and other drug dependant and HIV-infected? Journal of HIV/AIDS and Social Services, 9(1), 45-57.
  • Prochaska, J.O., Wright, J. A., & Velicer, W.F. (2008). Evaluating Theories of Health Behavior Change: A hierarchy of Criteria Applied to the Transtheoretical Model. Applied Psychology, 57(4), 561-588. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00345.x
  • Prochaska, JO; DiClemente, CC. The transtheoretical approach: crossing traditional boundaries of therapy. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin; 1984. ISBN 0-87094-438-X.
  • Miller, WR; Heather, N. (eds.). Treating addictive behaviors. 2nd ed. New York: Plenum Press; 1998. ISBN 0-306-45852-7.
  • Connors, GJ; Donovan, DM; DiClemente, CC. Substance abuse treatment and the stages of change: selecting and planning interventions. New York: Guilford Press; 2001. ISBN 1-57230-657-2.
  • Velasquez, MM. Group treatment for substance abuse: a stages-of-change therapy manual. New York: Guilford Press; 2001. ISBN 1-57230-625-4.
  • Burbank, PM; Riebe, D. Promoting exercise and behavior change in older adults: interventions with the transtheoretical model. New York: Springer; 2002. ISBN 0-8261-1502-0.
  • DiClemente, CC. Addiction and change: how addictions develop and addicted people recover. New York: Guilford Press; 2003. ISBN 1-57230-057-4.
  • Prochaska, JO; Norcross, JC. Systems of psychotherapy: a transtheoretical analysis. 6th ed. Australia: Thomson/Brooks/Cole; 2007. ISBN 978-0-495-00777-7.
  • Glanz, K; Rimer, BK; Viswanath, K. (eds.) Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice, 4th ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2008. ISBN 978-0-7879-9614-7.

External links