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Region Trondheim
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Trondheimsk, Trondheim dialect or Trondheim Norwegian is a dialect of Norwegian used in Trondheim. It is a variety of Trøndersk.



  • /l/ is dental [].[1]
    • After short vowels, it is realized as an approximant, either palatal [ʎ] or palatalized dental [l̪ʲ].[2]
    • When it occurs after a short vowel before a voiceless stop (particularly /t/),[1] it is realized as a voiceless dental lateral consonant, described variously as an approximant [l̪̊][1] and a fricative [ɬ̪].[2]
  • /r/ tends to be realized as a voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ]. It is devoiced to [ʂ] before /p/ and /k/.[2]


  • /iː/ and /yː/ can be diphthongized to, respectively, [ie] and [ye].[3]
  • /uː/ is diphthongized to [ue].[4]
  • /eː, øː/ and /ɔː/ are diphthongized to, respectively, [eæ], [øæ] and [ɔ̝æ].[5]
  • The schwa [ə] does not exist in the Trondheim dialect.[6]
  • /æ, æː/ have the most open realization in all of Norway, i.e. open front [a, ].[7]
  • /ɑ, ɑː/ are fully back [ɑ, ɑː].[8]
  • /ɑi/ has a back starting point [ɑi].[9]


Phonetic realization

The tonemes of the Trondheim dialect are the same as those of the Oslo dialect; accent 1 is low-rising, whereas accent 2 is falling-rising.[10]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Vanvik (1979), p. 36.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Kristoffersen (2000), p. 79.
  3. Vanvik (1979), pp. 14 and 19.
  4. Vanvik (1979), p. 18.
  5. Vanvik (1979), pp. 14, 17 and 20.
  6. Vanvik (1979), p. 21.
  7. Vanvik (1979), p. 15.
  8. Vanvik (1979), p. 16.
  9. Vanvik (1979), p. 23.
  10. Ophaug (2014), p. 59.


  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Ophaug, Wencke (2014), EXFAC Fonetikk og fonologi (PDF)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>