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Tyva Republic
Республика Тыва (Russian)
Тыва Республика (Tyvan)
—  Republic  —


Coat of arms
Anthem: Men – Tyva Men
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Siberian[1]
Economic region East Siberian[2]
Established October 13, 1944
Capital Kyzyl
Government (as of August 2010)
 • Chairman of the Government[4] Sholban Kara-ool[3]
 • Legislature Great Khural[5]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 • Total 170,500 km2 (65,800 sq mi)
Area rank 21st
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 • Total 307,930
 • Rank 77th
 • Density[8] 1.81/km2 (4.7/sq mi)
 • Urban 53.1%
 • Rural 46.9%
Time zone(s) KRAT (UTC+07:00)[9]
ISO 3166-2 RU-TY
License plates 17
Official languages Russian;[10] Tyvan[11]
Official website
Hindiktig-hol lake, Tuva

The Tyva Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, tr. Respublika Tyva; IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva]; Tuvan: Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika, [təˈvɑ risˈpublikɑ]), Tyva or Tuva (Tuvan: Тыва, Russian: Тува́), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state [12]). It lies in the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders with the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia in Russia and with Mongolia to the south. Its capital is the city of Kyzyl. Population: 307,930 (2010 Census).[7]

From 1921 until 1944, Tuva constituted a sovereign, independent nation, under the name of Tannu Tuva, officially, the Tuvan People's Republic, or the People's Republic of Tannu Tuva. The independence of Tannu Tuva, however, was recognized only by its neighbours: the Soviet Union and Mongolia.[13]

Forests, mountains, and steppe make up a large part of the geography of Tuva.

A majority of the people are Tyvans, but Russian is also spoken extensively. Tuva is governed by the Great Khural which elects a chairman for a four-year term. The current chairman is Sholban Kara-ool.


Map of the Tuva Republic

The Xiongnu Empire (209 BC–93 CE) governed the territory of modern Tyva. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses. Proposals by scholars include Mongolic and Turkic. Tatar Mongols lived in Tyva and they moved to Lake Hulun.[14] The Oirat Mongols lived in eastern Tyva and they moved to the south.[15]

The territory of Tyva has been ruled by the Mongolic Xianbei state (93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), Mongol Empire (1206–1368), Northern Yuan (1368–1691), Khotgoid Khanate and Zunghar Khanate (1634–1758).[15] The historic region of Tannu Uriankhai, of which Tyva is a part, was controlled by the Mongols from 1207 to 1758, when it was brought under Manchu rule (Qing Dynasty until 1911).

During the 1911 revolution in China, tsarist Russia formed a separatist movement among the Tyvans. Tsar Nicholas II ordered Russian troops into Tyva in 1912, as Russian settlers were allegedly being attacked[citation needed]. Tyva became nominally independent as the Urjanchai Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Kray under Tsar Nicholas II on 17 April 1914. This move was apparently requested by a number of prominent Tyvans, including the High Lama, although it is possible they were actually acting under the coercion of Russian soldiers[citation needed]. A Tyvan capital was established, called Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск; literally, "(Town) of the White Tsar"). Meanwhile, in 1911, Mongolia became independent, though under Russian protection.

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 which ended the imperial autocracy, most of Tyva was occupied from 5 July 1918 to 15 July 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak's "White" Russian troops. Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named governor of the territory. In the autumn of 1918 the southwestern part was occupied by Chinese troops and the southern part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav.[citation needed] From July 1919 to February 1920 the communist Red Army controlled Tyva, but from 19 February 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China (governor was Yan Shichao [traditional, Wade–Giles transliteration: Yan Shi-ch'ao]).

On August 14, 1921 the Bolsheviks established a Tuvan People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl, meaning "red". Tyva was de jure an independent state between the World Wars. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Buddhism as the state religion. This unsettled the Kremlin, which orchestrated a coup carried out in 1929 by five young Tyvan graduates of Moscow's Communist University of the Toilers of the East. In 1930 the pro-Soviet region discarded the state's Mongol script in favor of a Latin alphabet designed for Tyva by Russian linguists, and in 1943 Cyrillic script replaced the Latin. Under the leadership of Party Secretary Salchak Toka, ethnic Russians were granted full citizenship rights and Buddhist and Mongol influences on the Tuvan state and society were systematically reduced.[16]

Tyva voluntarily became a part of The Soviet Union in 1944, with the approval of Tyva's Little Khural (parliament). The exact circumstances surrounding Tannu-Tuva's incorporation into the USSR in 1944 remain obscure. Salchak Toka, the leader of Tyvan communists, was given the title of First Secretary of the Tyvan Communist Party, and became the de facto ruler of Tyva until his death in 1973. Tyva was made the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast and then became the Tuva ASSR on October 10, 1961.

Russian President Vladimir Putin in Tyva

In February 1990, the Tuvan Democratic Movement was founded by Kaadyr-ool Bicheldei, a philologist at Kyzyl University. The party aimed to provide jobs and housing (both were in short supply), and also to improve the status of Tyvan language and culture. Later on in the year there was a wave of attacks against Tyva's sizeable Russian community, including sniper attacks on trucks and attacks on outlying settlements with 168 murdered.[17] Russian troops eventually were called in. Many Russians moved out of the republic during this period. To this day, Tyva remains remote and difficult to access.[18]

Tyva was a signatory to the March 31, 1992 treaty that created the Russian Federation. A new constitution for the republic was drawn up on October 22, 1993. This created a 32-member parliament (Supreme Khural) and a Grand Khural, which is responsible for foreign policy and any possible changes to the constitution, and ensures that Tyvan law is given precedence. The constitution also allowed for a referendum if Tyva ever sought independence. This constitution was passed by 53.9% (or 62.2%, according to source) of Tyvans in a referendum on December 12, 1993.[19] At the same time, the official name was changed from Tuva (Тува) to Tyva (Тыва).


File:Center of Asia.JPG The republic is situated in the far south of Siberia. Its capital city of Kyzyl is located near the geographic "center of Asia". The eastern part of the republic is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland.

Biosphere reserve


There are over 8,000 rivers in the republic. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River, the fifth longest river in the world. Most of the republic's rivers are Yenisei tributaries. There are also numerous mineral springs in the area.

Major rivers include:


There are numerous lakes on the republic's territory, many of which are glacial and salt lakes. Major lakes include:


Little Yenisey in Tyva

The area of the republic is a mountain basin, ca. 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the republic's territory. Mount Mongun-Tayga 'Silver Mountain' (3,970 m) is the highest point in the republic and is named from its glacier.

Natural resources

Major natural mineral resources of Tyva include coal, iron ore, gold, and cobalt. Asbestos was formerly important. Wildlife is varied: wolves and bears, snow leopards, ground squirrels, flying foxes, eagles, and fish – some very large.


  • Average January temperature: −32 °C (−26 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 150 millimeters (5.9 in) (plains) to 1,000 millimeters (39 in) (mountains)
  • Much of the territory is affected by permafrost

Administrative divisions

The Tyva Republic is administratively divided into seventeen districts and two cities under republic jurisdiction (urban okrugs) (Kyzyl and Ak-Dovurak). The districts are further subdivided into sumons (rural settlements), towns under district jurisdiction (urban settlements), and urban-type settlements.


Population: 307,930 (2010 Census);[7] 305,510 (2002 Census);[21] 309,129 (1989 Census).[22]

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service[23]
Years Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 233 6,559 1,938 4,621 28.2 8.3 19.8
1975 253 6,950 2,306 4,644 27.5 9.1 18.4
1980 272 7,133 2,748 4,385 26.2 10.1 16.1
1985 287 8,110 2,624 5,486 28.3 9.1 19.1
1990 309 8,116 2,664 5,452 26.3 8.6 17.7 3.22
1991 304 7,271 2,873 4,398 23.9 9.5 14.5 2.97
1992 303 6,545 3,006 3,539 21.6 9.9 11.7 2.68
1993 302 6,130 3,480 2,650 20.3 11.5 8.8 2.50
1994 303 6,076 4,086 1,990 20.1 13.5 6.6 2.46
1995 304 6,172 4,010 2,162 20.3 13.2 7.1 2.47
1996 305 5,705 4,110 1,595 18.7 13.5 5.2 2.25
1997 305 4,908 3,954 954 16.1 12.9 3.1 1.91
1998 306 5,267 3,631 1,636 17.2 11.9 5.4 2.02
1999 306 4,894 4,142 752 16.0 13.5 2.5 1.86
2000 306 4,871 4,170 701 15.9 13.6 2.3 1.83
2001 305 4,992 4,165 827 16.3 13.6 2.7 1.85
2002 305 5,727 4,576 1,151 18.8 15.0 3.8 2.10
2003 305 6,276 4,633 1,643 20.6 15.2 5.4 2.28
2004 304 6,127 4,090 2,037 20.2 13.5 6.7 2.19
2005 303 5,979 4,326 1,653 19.8 14.3 5.5 2.11
2006 302 5,950 3,802 2,148 19.7 12.6 7.1 2.06
2007 302 7,568 3,687 3,881 25.1 12.2 12.9 2.60
2008 303 7,874 3,526 4,348 26.0 11.6 14.3 2.68
2009 305 8,242 3,666 4,576 27.0 12.0 15.0 2.97
2010 307 8,262 3,566 4,696 26.9 11.6 15.3 3.03
2011 308 8,478 3,403 5,075 27.5 11.0 16.5 3.25
2012 310 8,266 3,471 4,795 26.7 11.2 15.5 3.35
2013 311 8,111 3,399 4,728 26.1 10.9 15.2 3.42
2014 313 7,954 3,427 4,527 25.3 10.9 14.4 3.43(e)
  • Average life expectancy: Tuva: 56.5 (average male and female, UNDP data); Russia: (UN data) Male 59 (world rank 166); Female 73 (127)

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census,[7] Tyvans make up 82.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (16.3%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census 2010 census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Tyvans 97,996 57.0% 135,306 58.6% 161,888 60.5% 198,448 64.3% 235,313 77.0% 249,299 82.0%
Russians 68,924 40.1% 88,385 38.3% 96,793 36.2% 98,831 32.0% 61,442 20.1% 49,434 16.3%
Khakas 1,726 1.0% 2,120 0.9% 2,193 0.8% 2,258 0.7% 1,219 0.4% 877 0.3%
Others 3,282 1.9% 5,053 2.2% 6,725 2.5% 9,020 2.9% 7,526 2.5% 4,427 1.4%
1 8,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[24]

As can be seen above, during the period 1959–2010 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tyvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and decreased by 50% since 1989.

Official languages are Tyvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic). Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and in general Tyvans use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old believers in the republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before the Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian old believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper into the Taiga in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.[25]

Ethnic Russians make up 38.68% of the population (as of 2002 Census) in Kaa-Khemsky District, one of the most remote regions in Tyva. The population is mostly Old believers.[26] Russians account for 34.12% of the population in Piy-Khemsky and 19.80% in Todzhinsky. In Kyzyl, they account for 37.02%.

Tyvans are closely related ethnically and linguistically to the Khakas to their north and the Altai to their west, but closer culturally to the Mongolians to their south and the related Buryats to their east, with whom they share their Tibetan Buddhism.


Buddist temple of Kyzyl (Цеченлиң).

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Tyva (2012)[27][28]

  Buddhism (61.8%)
  Tengrism and unorganised shamanism (8%)
  Atheist and non-religious (12%)
  Spiritual but not religious (8%)
  Other and undeclared (7.7%)

Two religions are widespread among the people of Tyva: Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, the fourteenth Dalai Lama visited Tyva for three days.[29][30] On September 20, he blessed and consecrated the new yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had just been officially adopted three days previously.[31]

The Tyvan people—along with the Yellow Uyghurs in China—are one of the only two Turkic groups who are mainly adherents to Tibetan Buddhism, combined with native shamanism.[32]

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism gained popularity in Tyva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, as well as novices being trained as monks and lamas. Religious practice declined under the restrictive policies of the Soviet period but is now flourishing.[33][34] Shamanism is being revived as well, also in organized Tengrian forms.

As of a 2012 official survey[27] 61.8% of the population of Tyva adheres to Buddhism, 8% to Tengrism or Tyvan shamanism, 1.5% to the Russian Orthodox Church, the Old Believers or other forms of Christianity, 1% to Protestantism. In addition, 7.7% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey, 8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist.[27]


Building of the Government of Tyva

The head of the government in Tyva is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tyva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term.

The present flag of Tyva — yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity — was adopted on September 17, 1992. See above under Religion.

The republic's Constitution was adopted on October 23, 1993.

On April 3, 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva.[35] Sholban's candidacy was approved by the Khural on April 9, 2007.[36]


A coal mine in Tyva

Tyva has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metal working industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the republic of Tyva is the least developed region in Russia.


Tyva is a region with a unique history, culture and nature. All native zones of the Earth except savanna (even rain forest, see Southern Siberian rainforest) are featured in Tyva. Tyva is well known for its spa-tourism. There are more than 100 mineral springs in Tyva. The biggest of them are the warm mineral springs Ush-Beldir and Tarys, the temperature of the water is 52-85 °C. Cold mineral springs and salty lakes are popular among tourists and the general population for their medicinal qualities. The geographical location of Tyva between the east-Siberian taiga and central-Asian landscape engenders a wealth of flora and fauna. More than 90% of the territory is chase. Rare animals such as sable, lynx, wolverine, weasel, maral, Siberian ibex, and musk deer are only the part of Tyvan fauna.

Historical objects and ethnic culture are of interest: traditional habitat – yurts, national cuisine and handicraft, tuvan throat singing khomeii, national sports – wrestling competition Khuresh and horse riding. Annual festival "Ustuu-Khuree" and Naadym are of interest to tourists.


Tyva has as yet no railway — although famous postage stamps in the 1930s, designed in Moscow during the time of Tyvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there. There is however a plan for construction of a railway line from the capital Kyzyl to Kuragino in Krasnoyarsk Krai. The railway will run for 410 kilometers (250 mi). The main purpose for building the railway is to transport coal from coal mines in Kyzyl.[37]

There are three roads leading to Tyva,a paved highway over the passes between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl and a dirt track over the mountains from Khakassia to Ak Dovurak,: both of these can be cut off by snowfall and avalanches from time to time in winter. The third road goes south, turning into a track before entering Mongolia. The only external bus and taxi services are between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl.

Kyzyl has both large public buses and private minibus services.Both buses and taxis also connect Kyzyl with the larger settlements.

Passenger ferries ply the Greater Yenisei (Bii-Khem) between Kyzyl and Toora-Khem in Todzha (Upper Tyva) when there is neither too little nor too much water over the rapids.

There is a small airfield in Kyzyl with intermittent flights.


Wrestling competition in stadium "Хүреш" (from tyvan spells "Khuresh")

The Tuvan people are famous for Tuvan throat singing.

Khuresh, the Tyvan form of wrestling, is a very popular sport. Competitions are held at the annual Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak.

Sainkho Namtchylak is one of the few singers from Tyva to have an international following. She is also very involved with Tyvan culture. Every year she invites Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about the country, its culture and its music. In recent years Kongar-ool Ondar has become well known in the West as well, in large part because of the film Genghis Blues featuring Ondar and American blues singer Paul Pena. Huun-Huur-Tu has been one of the most well known Tyvan music ensembles since the late 1990s, while the Alash ensemble came to prominence in the early 2000s.

The Tyvan language is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. Then, Tyva was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tyva seeking full independence from Mongolia following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty.

Oral traditions

The Tuvan people have a rich tradition of orally transmitted folklore, including many genres, ranging from very brief riddles and aphorisms, to tongue twisters, magical tales, hero tales, scary stories, and epics that would take many hours to recite. A few examples and excerpts of the epic genres, such as Boktu-Kirish, Bora-Sheelei have been published. This art form is now endangered as the traditional tale-tellers grow old and are not replaced by younger practitioners.


Bandy is played in Tuva.[38]


The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tyvan Institute of Humanities, both located in the capital Kyzyl.


Tyva Stamp from 1927
  • In the 1920s and 1930s, postage stamps from Tuva were issued. Many philatelists, including the physicist Richard Feynman, have been fascinated with Tuva because of these stamps. The stamps were issued mainly during the brief period of Tuvan independence, and were not accepted by serious collectors until recently as they were thought to be produced in Moscow and not to represent a genuine postal service.[39] Feynman's efforts to reach Tuva are chronicled in the book Tuva or Bust! and the video The Quest For Tannu Tuva: Richard Feynman – The Last Journey of a Genius (1988) which can be viewed online on YouTube. Project Tuva was named in honor of his efforts.
  • Tuva was featured prominently in the award-winning documentary Genghis Blues.
  • United Nations Human Development Index: Russian Federation – Republic of Tyva, rank: 79/79 (the lowest).
  • Tuvan stamps are mentioned in a line of Gregory Corso's poem Marriage.
  • Tuvan Sergey Shoygu, Russia's Minister for Emergency Situations since 1994, is Russia's longest-serving minister, and a leader of Russia's governing party 'Unity'.
  • Tuvans make wishes each morning, sprinkling milk on the ground, to the north, south, east and west, with a special wooden spoon with nine small hollows for the various milk products made.[citation needed]
  • According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America.[40]
    Russia's Defense Minister Sergey Shoygu
  • Some Tuvans, even near Kyzyl, still live in traditional yurts, round, demountable and portable dwellings with sectional lath trellis walls, decorated pole roofs and covered with white felt and canvas, with colourful cloth lining. There is a central smoke-hole above the hearth or stove. It is used to tell the time as the sunlight moves around inside the yurt. The interior is arranged with the man's side to the left, the woman's to the right of the door facing East, with the altar cupboard facing that.
  • Tuvans, as traditional nomads, knew no fixed national borders, which has led to small numbers being in areas outside the present Republic's boundaries, including as follows.
    • China – Xinjiang: 'Tuwa' by Lake Kanas, Altay Prefecture.
    • Russia – Irkutsk Oblast: 'Tofa' adjacent to north-east Tyva; Buryatia: 'Soyot' of the Upper Oka river.
    • Mongolia – northern: 'Tsaatan'; north-western: 'Dukha/Duva'; western: 'Tsengel'.
  • Sayan Mountains in Tuva was featured in Bear Grylls' Man vs Wild popular adventure TV show.[41]

See also


  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. Official website of the Government of the Tyva Republic. Sholban Valeryevich Kara-ool (Russian)
  4. Constitution, Article 10.3
  5. Constitution, Article 10.2
  6. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1". Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  9. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. Constitution, Article 5.1
  12. "Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System | The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Constitution.ru.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/152275?sid=21105809346003&uid=4&uid=2
  14. Rashid-al-Din Hamadani. Jami al-Tawarikh
  15. 15.0 15.1 History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003
  16. Tuva: Russia's Tibet or the Next Lithuania?
  17. Mark R. Beissinger, Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p.230
  18. "Tyva and Sayan Mountains". Geographic Bureau — Siberia and Pacific. Retrieved 2006-10-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Reuters News, 16 Dec, 1993 ”Tyva republic approves own constitution” or BBC Monitoring Service, 15 Dec, 1993 “Figures from Ingushetia, Tyva, Yaroslavl and parts of Urals and Siberia”
  20. "Top Attractions of Russia". Retrieved 2008-02-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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