Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

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Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика
Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси
State emblem
State emblem
Butun dunyo proletarlari, birlashingiz!
Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз!
"Workers of the world, unite!"
Anthem of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Location of the Uzbek SSR within the Soviet Union.
Capital Samarkand
Languages Uzbek, Russian
Government Soviet Socialist Republic
First Secretary
 •  1925–1927 (first) Vladimir Ivanovich Ivanov
 •  1989–1991 (last) Islam Karimov
Head of government
 •  1924–1937 (first) Fayzulla Khodzhayev
 •  1990–1990 (last) Shukrullo Mirsaidov
Legislature Supreme Soviet
 •  Established 27 October 1924
 •  Renamed Republic of Uzbekistan 1 September 1991
 •  Independence 25 December 1991
 •  1989 447,400 km2 (172,700 sq mi)
 •  1989 est. 19,906,000 
     Density 44/km2 (115/sq mi)
Calling code +7 36/37/436
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
Khorezm SSR
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Today part of  Uzbekistan

The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR; Uzbek: Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси, Oʻzbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi'; Russian: Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Uzbekskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also referred to as Soviet Uzbekistan or Uzbekistan, was one of the republics of the Soviet Union. It was created in 1924. It was governed by the Uzbek branch of the Soviet Communist Party, the only legal political party, from 1925 until 1990. In December 1991, it became independent as the Republic of Uzbekistan.


In 1925, the borders of political units in Central Asia were changed along ethnic lines determined by Vladimir Lenin’s Commissar for Nationalities, Joseph Stalin. The Turkestan ASSR, the Bukharan People's Republic, and the Khorezm People's Republic were abolished and their territories were divided into eventually five separate Soviet Socialist Republics, one of which was the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR), created on 27 October 1924. The next year the Uzbek SSR became one of the republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union).

The Uzbek SSR included the Tajik ASSR until 1929, when the Tajik ASSR was upgraded to an equal status. In 1930, the Uzbek SSR capital was relocated from Samarkand to Tashkent. In 1936, the Uzbek SSR was enlarged with the addition of the Karakalpak ASSR taken from the Kazakh SSR in the last stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. Further bits and pieces of territory were transferred several times between the Kazakh SSR and the Uzbek SSR after World War II.

In 1928, the collectivization of land into state farms was initiated, which lasted until the late 1930s.

In 1937–38, during the Great Purge, a number of alleged nationalists were executed, including Faizullah Khojaev, the first prime minister.

World War II poster commemorating the 20th anniversary of the Uzbek SSR.

During World War II, many industries were relocated to the Uzbek SSR from vulnerable locations in western regions of the USSR to keep them safe. Large numbers of Russians, Ukrainians and other nationalities accompanied the factories, altering the demographics of the republic. The demographics situation was further aggravated by Stalin’s relocation of some ethnic groups suspected of collaboration with the Axis powers from other parts of the USSR to the Uzbek SSR. This included large numbers of ethnic Koreans, Crimean Tatars, and Chechens.

During the Soviet period, Islam became a focal point for the antireligious drives of Communist authorities. The government closed most mosques, and religious schools became anti-religious museums.[citation needed] On the positive side was the virtual elimination of illiteracy, even in rural areas. Only a small percentage of the population was literate before 1917; this percentage increased to nearly 100 percent under the Soviets.[citation needed]

Another major development, one with future catastrophic impact, was the drive initiated in the early 1960s to substantially increase cotton production in the republic. This drive led to overzealous irrigation withdrawals of irrigation water from the Amu Darya and the subsequent Aral Sea ecological disaster.

The Communist Party was the only legal party in the Uzbek SSR until 1990. The first secretary, or head, of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan was consistently an Uzbek. Long-time leader of the Uzbek SSR was Sharof Rashidov, head of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan from 1959 to 1983. Islam Karimov, leader of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan since 1989 and subsequently head of that party's reincarnation, the People's Democratic Party (PDP), became president of the Uzbek SSR in 1990.

On 1 September 1991, the Uzbek SSR was renamed Republic of Uzbekistan, formally remaining a part of the Soviet Union until 26 December 1991. With the final collapse of the Soviet Union, the Uzbek SSR became the independent nation of Uzbekistan. Karimov has been its President ever since.


List of changes


1927 Uzbek SSR including Tajik ASSR and Khodzhent.
1928 atlas.
  • Khorezm Okrug (cap: Khiva)
  • Kanimekh Raion (cap.: Kanimekh)
  • Bukhara
  • Zeravshan Okrug (cap: Kermine)
  • Kashka-Darin Okrug (cap: Bek-Budi)
  • Samarkand
  • Surkhan-Darshin Okrug (cap: Shirabad)
  • Tashkent
  • Khotshent
  • Fergan Okrug (capital: Kokand)
  • Andizhan
  • Tajik ASSR


Constitution of the USSR:

ARTICLE 26. The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic consists of the Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, Ferghana, and Khorezm Regions, and the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.[5]


Uzbek SSR, 1 December 1938.


Uzbek SSR in the Soviet Union, 1989 (Navoi Oblast not shown).
  • Karakalpak ASSR
  • Khorezm Oblast
  • Bukhara Oblast
  • Samarkand Oblast
  • Kashkadarya Oblast
  • Surkhadarya Oblast
  • Jizzakh Oblast
  • Syrdarya Oblast
  • Tashkent Oblast
  • Andijan Oblast
  • Namangan Oblast
  • Fergana Oblast



External links

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