Vasily Margelov

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Vasily Filippovich Margelov
File:Vasily Margelov.jpg
Native name Василий Филиппович Маргелов
Born 27 December (O.S. 14 December) 1908
Ekaterinoslav, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Russian Empire
Died 4 March 1990
Moscow, RSFSR, Soviet Union
Buried at Novodevichy Cemetery
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch Soviet airborne
Years of service 1928–1990
Rank General of the Army
Commands held 49th Guards Rifle Division

76th Guards Air Assault Division
37th Guards Airborne Corps

Soviet airborne
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Hero of the Soviet Union Order of LeninOrder of LeninOrder of LeninOrder of Lenin

Order of the October Revolution
Order of the Red Banner (2)
Order of Suvorov 2nd class
Order of the Patriotic War 1st class (2)
Order of the Red Star
Legion of Merit

Bronze Star
Spouse(s) Marya (divorced)

Theodosia Selitskaya (divorced)

Anna Kurakina
Signature 100px

Vasily Filippovich Margelov (Russian: Василий Филиппович Маргелов; 27 December [O.S. 14 December] 1908 – 4 March 1990) was a Red Army General who led the Soviet Airborne Troops (VDV) from 1954 to 1959 and from 1961–1979.[1] Margelov modernized the VDV and was a Hero of the Soviet Union.[2][3]

Author Carey Schofield wrote that Margelov "...is considered to be the real father of the VDV...[leading]...them through their most vital period of development."[4]

Early life

Vasily Markelov (later Margelov) was born on 27 December 1908 in the city of Ekaterinoslav, the son of Belarusian immigrants.[5] His father, Filipp Markelov, was a metallurgist. In 1913, the Markelov family returned to Belarus and settled in the town of Kastsyukovichy. His mother, Agata Stepanovna, came from the neighboring Bobruisk district. According to some, Margelov graduated from the parish school in 1921.[6] As a teenager, he worked as a loader and a carpenter. In the same year, he became an apprentice in a tanning shop and soon became an assistant master. In 1923, Margelov became a laborer in a local bakery. There is some evidence that Margelov graduated from the School of Rural Youth[7] and worked as a forwarder in local mail delivery.[6]

From 1924, Margelov worked in the Kalinin mine at Ekaterinoslav. In 1925, he returned to Belarus and worked as a forester in the timber industry in Kostiukovichi. In 1927, he became the chairman of the working committee of the timber industry and was elected to the local council.[8]

Interwar military service

In 1928, Margelov was drafted into the Red Army. He studied at the United Belarusian Military School from 1928 to 1931. He was appointed the commander of a machine gun platoon in the 99th Rifle Regiment of the 33rd Rifle Division in Mogilev. In December 1932, he became a cadet in the 3rd Orenberg Pilot and observer school, but was expelled in January 1933 for making "politically ignorant statements".[8] Margelov became the commander of a machine gun platoon in the United Belarusian Military School. In February 1934, he became the deputy commander of the company and its commander in May 1936.[8]

From 25 October 1938, Margelov commanded the 2nd Battalion of the 23rd Rifle Regiment of the 8th Rifle Division. As part of the divisional staff, he participated in the Soviet invasion of Poland.[8]

World War II

During the Winter War, Margelov commanded a separate ski reconnaissance battalion in the 596th Rifle Regiment of the 122nd Rifle Division. During one raid on the Finnish rear area, he reportedly captured a group of Swedish volunteers. During the war, Margelov was wounded.[8] After the end of the Winter War, Margelov was appointed assistant commander of the 596th Rifle Regiment. In October 1940, he became the commander of the 15th Separate Disciplinary Battalion of the Leningrad Military District.[8]

After Operation Barbarossa, Margelov became the commander of the 3rd Guards Rifle Regiment of the 1st Guards Division of Leningrad Front militia in July 1941. In November, he was appointed commander of the 1st Special Ski Regiment, composed of Baltic Fleet sailors. On 21 November, Margelov was wounded in a raid behind enemy lines on Lake Ladoga. After the end of his convalescence, he became the commander of the 218th Rifle Regiment of the 80th Rifle Division during the Siege of Leningrad.[8] From 15 July 1942, Margelov was the commander of the newly reformed 13th Guards Rifle Regiment of the 3rd Guards Rifle Division. In October 1942, the division was sent to the Southern Front. In December, the regiment repulsed German attempts at relieving the encircled 6th Army during the Battle of Stalingrad.[8]

In January 1943, Margelov became the 3rd Guards Rifle Division's deputy commander. He participated in the Salak-Rostov Offensive during the same month. Margelov also fought in the Donbass Strategic Offensive and in the Melitopol Offensive from August to November 1943.[8]

In 1944, Margelov became the commander of the 49th Guards Rifle Division. During the Bereznegovatoye–Snigirevka Offensive, the division crossed the Dnieper on the night of 12 March. On the next night, the rapidly advancing division crossed the Inhulets River and captured Kherson within a few hours. The division was awarded the title "Kherson" and Margelov became a Hero of the Soviet Union on 19 March.[8] Margelov led the division through the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, Belgrade Offensive, Budapest Offensive,[9] Vienna Offensive and the Prague Offensive. During fighting outside Budapest, the division repulsed German counterattacks on the night of 13–14 February 1945.[10] For its actions the division was awarded the Order of Suvorov 2nd class. In the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945, he commanded a battalion on the regiment representing the 2nd Ukrainian Front.[8]

Postwar

An Il-76 transport loading paratroops in 1984

In 1948, Margelov graduated from the Voroshilov Military Academy of the USSR Army General Staff and became the commander of the 76th Guards Airborne Division in April in Pskov. Between 1950 and 1954, he was the commander of the 37th Guards Airborne Corps. In May 1954, he became commander of the Soviet airborne. After an incident in the airborne forces, which Schofield describes as encouraging a sergeant to wrestle a bear during a birthday party,[11] Margelov was demoted to deputy commander in 1959.[8] In July 1961, he became the airborne forces commander again. He initiated the mass production of parachute systems and helped to introduce the An-22 and Il-76 into service.[6] During his tenure in command of the VDV, the PP-127 parachute was developed, which allowed BMD-1 infantry fighting vehicles to be airdropped. On 28 October 1967, Margelov was promoted to general of the army. He organized the Soviet airborne operations during the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. From January 1979, he was in the group of inspectors of the Ministry of Defence. Margelov was the chairman of the State Examination Commission of the Ryazan Airborne School. Margelov lived in Moscow and died on 4 March 1990 at the age of 82.[12] He is buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery.

Legacy

Memorials

There are memorials to Margelov in Dnipropetrovsk, Kryvyi Rih, Omsk, Tula, Tyumen, St. Petersburg, Ulyanovsk and Ivanovo.[3]

On 21 February 2010, a bust of Margelov was installed near the Palace of Youth in Kherson.[13] A monument to Margelov was erected on 5 June 2010 in Chișinău.[14] On 4 November 2013, a memorial to Margelov opened in Nizhny Novgorod's Victory Park.[15] There is a monument to Margelov at the headquarters of the 95th Airmobile Brigade in Zhytomyr. On 7 May 2014, a monument to Margelov was opened in Nazran's local memorial complex.[16] On 8 June, a bust of Margelov was included in Simferopol's new Walk of Fame.[17] On 8 October, a memorial compex was dedicated to Margelov in Bender, near the City House of Culture.[18] On 27 December, a memorial bust of Margelov was installed in Saratov's Walk of Fame at School No. 43.[19]

A bust of Margelov was erected on 23 April 2015 in Slavyansk-na-Kubani.[20] On 25 April, a bust of Margelov was placed in Taganrog's city center.[21] On 12 June, a monument to Margelov was installed in Yaroslavl at the headquarters of the regional military-patriotic organization. On 18 July, a bust of Margelov was erected in Donetsk. On 1 August, another monument to Margelov was erected in Yaroslavl. On 12 September, a monument was installed in Krasnoperekopsk.[22]

The Ryazan Higher Airborne Command School is named after Margelov. There is also a street in Moscow named for him.[23]

On 6 May 2005, the Russian Federation Ministry of Defence established the departmental Medal "Army General Margelov", awarded to soldiers of the VDV.[24]

Honours and awards

Margelov received the following honours and awards:[8]

Soviet orders and medals

Hero of the Soviet Union medal.png Hero of the Soviet Union (19 March 1944)
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order of Lenin, four times (21 March 1944, 3 November 1953, 26 December 1968, 26 December 1978)
Order october revolution rib.png Order of the October Revolution (5 April 1972)
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of the Red Banner, twice (2 March 1943, 20 June 1949)
Order suvorov2 rib.png Order of Suvorov, 2nd class (28 April 1944)
Order gpw1 rib.png Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class, twice (25 January 1943, 20 June 1949)
Order redstar rib.png Order of the Red Star (11 March 1944)
Order service to the homeland2 rib.png Order for Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, 2nd class (14 December 1988)
Order service to the homeland3 rib.png Order for Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR, 3rd class (30 April 1975)
100 lenin rib.png Jubilee Medal "In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin"
Defleningrad.png Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad"
Defodessa.png Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"
Defstalingrad.png Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"
OrderStGeorge4cl rib.png Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
20 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
30 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
40 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
Capturebudapest rib.png Medal "For the Capture of Budapest"
CaptureOfViennaRibbon.png Medal "For the Capture of Vienna"
MilitaryVeteranRibbon.png Medal "Veteran of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
CombatCooperationRibbon.jpg Medal "For Strengthening of Brotherhood in Arms"
30 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
40 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
50 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
60 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "60 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
70 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "70 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Soviet 250th Anniversary Of Leningrad Ribbon.jpg Medal "In Commemoration of the 250th Anniversary of Leningrad"

Foreign awards

File:OrderOfThePeople'sRepublicOfBulgariaRibbon.jpg Order of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, 2nd class (20 September 1969)
File:OrderOfBraveryRibbon.jpg Medal "90th Anniversary of the birth of Georgy Dimitrov" (22 February 1974)
File:100thAnniversaryOfLiberationRibbon.jpg Medal "100th Anniversary of liberation from Ottoman rule"
File:100th anniversary of the birth of Georgi Dimitrov medal ribbon.jpg Medal "100th Anniversary of the birth of Georgy Dimitrov"
File:40thAnniversayOfVictoryOverFascismRibbon.jpg Medal "40th Anniversary of victory over Hitler's Fascism" (Bulgaria, 1985)
86x86px Order of Merit of the Hungarian People's Republic, 3rd class (4 April 1950)
Medal "Brotherhood in Arms" in Gold (Hungarian People's Republic, 29 September 1985)
GDR Star of Friendship of Nations - Silver BAR.png Star of People's Friendship, 3rd class (GDR, 23 February 1978)
82x82px Medal "Artur Becker", 1st class (FDJ, 23 May 1980)
Sino Soviet Friendship Rib.png Medal "Sino-Soviet Friendship" (PRC, 23 February 1955)
Medal "20 Years of the Revolutionary Military Council of Cuba" (22 February 1978)
Medal "30 Years of the Revolutionary Military Council of Cuba" (1986)
OrdenZnam.png Order of the Red Banner (Mongolian People's Republic, 7 June 1971)
Medal "30 Years of the victory at Khalkin Gol"
Medal "40 Years of the victory at Khalkin Gol"
Medal "50 Years of the Mongolian People's Republic"
Medal "60 Years of the Mongolian People's Republic"
Medal "50 Years of the UAHB"
Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of Mongolia"
Medal "30 Years of Victory over Japan"
Us legion of merit officer rib.png Officer of the Legion of Merit (10 May 1945)
Bronze Star ribbon.svg Bronze Star Medal (10 May 1945)
POL Medal za Odrę Nysę i Bałtyk BAR.svg Medal "For the Oder, Neisse and the Baltic Sea" (7 May 1985)
POL Odznaka Braterstwa Broni BAR.png Medal "Brotherhood in Arms"
Polonia Restituta Oficerski.jpg Order of Polonia Restituta, Officer's Cross (11 June 1973)
Order of Tudor Vladimirescu, 2nd class (10 January 1974)
Order of Tudor Vladimirescu, 3rd class (24 October 1979)
Medal "25 Years of the liberation of Romania"
Medal "30 Years of the liberation of Romania"
File:Cs2okg.png Order of Klement Gottwald (1969)
Medal for Strngthening Brotherhood in Arms 1 kl.png Medal "For Strengthening of Friendship in Arms", 1st class (1970)
Medal "50 Years of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia"
Medal "30 Years of the liberation of Czechoslovakia by the Red Army"

References

  1. Kruglov, V.A. "МАРГЕЛОВ Василий Филиппович — Десантура.ру – о десанте без границ". desantura.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2015-10-08.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Lebed, Aleksandr (1997-09-01). General Alexander Lebed: My Life and My Country. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 9780895264220.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 Десантник но. 1 Генерал армии Маргелов [Paratrooper No. 1 Army General Margelov] (in русский). ОLMA Media Group. 2003-01-01. ISBN 9785948490878.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Schofield, Carey (1993). The Russian Elite: Inside Spetsnaz and the Airborne Forces. Greenhill Books. p. 33.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "В Костюковичах установят памятник Василию Маргелову". Российская газета. Retrieved 2015-10-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "биография". www.margelov.com. Retrieved 2015-10-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "RANS".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 "Маргелов Василий Филиппович". www.warheroes.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Nevenkin, Kamen (2012-07-01). Take Budapest: The Struggle for Hungary, Autumn 1944. The History Press. ISBN 9780752477039.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Ungvary, Krisztian; Lukacs, John; Lob, Ladislaus (2006-09-01). The Siege of Budapest: One Hundred Days in World War II. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300119852.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Schofield, The Russian Elite, 1993
  12. The Current Digest of the Soviet Press. Current Digest of the Soviet Press. 1990-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Бюст создателю ВДВ СССР установлен в Херсоне". sd.net.ua. Retrieved 2015-10-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "В Кишиневе открыли памятник основателю Воздушно-десантных войск". ЗАО ИД «Комсомольская правда». Retrieved 2015-10-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Памятный монумент Маргелову открыли в Нижнем Новгороде — Время Н: Новости Нижнего Новгорода и Нижегородской области". www.vremyan.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "В Назрани установили памятник Герою Советского Союза Василию Маргелову". ingushetia.rusplt.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Margelov Bust in Walk of Glory". Gazeta Crimea. 9 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Татьяна Туранская приняла участие в церемонии открытия памятника Василию Маргелову". gov-pmr.org. Retrieved 2015-10-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "В Саратове состоится Всероссийская патриотическая акция «Вахта Героев Отечества». Новости. Официальный сайт администрации муниципального образования "Город Саратов"". www.saratovmer.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Monument V.F. Margelov". Zaryakubani. 23 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Десантник номер один / Богудония.ру". bogudonia.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Архивы Маргелов бюст Красноперекопск » Народное Ополчение Республика Крым". Народное Ополчение Республика Крым (in русский). Retrieved 2015-10-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "В Москве торжественно открыли мемориальную доску на улице Маргелова : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации". function.mil.ru. Retrieved 2015-10-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "Новодевичье кладбище .. Василий Филиппович Маргелов. Генерал". novodevichye.com. Retrieved 2015-10-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>