Voiced dental and alveolar stops

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Voiced dental and alveolar stops#Alveolar
d
IPA number 104
Encoding
Entity (decimal) d
Unicode (hex) U+0064
X-SAMPA d
Kirshenbaum d
Braille ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
Sound

The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental stop, and ⟨⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • There are four specific variants of [d]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Voiced dental stop
Sound

Dental or denti-alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[1] դեմք / demk’ About this sound [d̪ɛmkʰ]  'face' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Western տալ / tal [d̪ɑl] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Basque diru [d̪iɾu] 'money' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Belarusian[2] падарожжа [päd̪äˈroʐʐä] 'travel' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Bengali দাম [d̪am] 'price' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3] dit [ˈd̪it̪] 'finger' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Wu [d̪ɑ̃] 'the Tang Dynasty'
Dinka[4] dhek [d̪ek] 'distinct' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with alveolar /d/.
Dutch Belgian ding [d̪ɪŋ] 'thing' Laminal denti-alveolar.
English Dublin[5] then [d̪ɛn] 'then' Laminal denti-alveolar. Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [d͡ð] instead.[5] See English phonology
Southern Irish[6]
Geordie[7] Word-initial allophone of /ð/; may be realized as [ð] instead.[7]
Ulster[8] dream [d̪ɹim] 'dream' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /d/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
French[9] dais [d̪ɛ] 'canopy' Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Georgian[10] კუ [ˈkʼud̪i] 'tail' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Hindi[11] दाल [d̪ɑːl] 'lentils' Laminal denti-alveolar. Hindi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Irish dorcha [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə] 'dark' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Irish phonology
Italian[12] dare [ˈd̪äːre] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Kashubian[13] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[14] дос [d̪os̪] 'friend' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[15] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̪͡z̪is̪] 'fever' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Marathi गड [d̪əɡəɖ] 'stone' Laminal denti-alveolar. Marathi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Pashto ﺪﻮﻩ [ˈd̪wɑ] 'two' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Polish[16] dom About this sound [d̪ɔm]  'home' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[17] Many dialects dar [ˈd̪aɾ] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. May palatalize or lenite in certain environments, depending on dialect. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਦਾਲ [d̪ɑːl] 'lentils' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Russian[18] дышать [d̪ɨ̞ˈʂätʲ] 'to breathe' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with a palatalized alveolar variant. See Russian phonology
Slovene[19] danes [ˈd̪àːnəs̪] 'today' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Spanish[20] hundido [ũn̪ˈd̪ið̞o̞] 'sunken' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Turkish dal [d̪äɫ] 'twig' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[21] дерево [ˈd̪ɛrɛvɔ] 'tree' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu[11] دودھ [d̪uːd̪ʰ] 'milk' Laminal denti-alveolar. Urdu contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uzbek[22] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Zapotec Tilquiapan[23] 'dan' [d̪aŋ] 'countryside' Laminal denti-alveolar.

Alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe дахэ [daːxa] 'pretty'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic wada [waːda] 'to do' Predominant in the Urmia, Jilu, Baz, Gawar and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [ð̞] in other varieties.
Czech do [do] 'into' See Czech phonology
Dutch[24] dak [dɑk] 'roof' See Dutch phonology
English Most speakers dash [ˈdæʃ] 'dash' See English phonology
Finnish sidos [ˈsido̞s] 'bond' See Finnish phonology
Greek ντροπή/dropí [dro̞ˈpi] 'shame' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew דואר [ˈdoʔaʁ] 'mail' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian adó [ˈɒdoː] 'tax' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[25] dacing [ˈdätʃɪŋ] 'balance scale'
Japanese[26] 男性的/danseiteki [dãnse̞ːte̞ki] 'masculine' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian дахэ [daːxa] 'pretty'
Korean 아들/adeul [adɯl] 'son' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[27] brudder [ˈbʀudɐ] 'brother' More often voiceless [t].[27] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay dahan [dähän] 'branch'
Maltese dehen [den] 'wit'
Thai ดาว [daːw] 'star'
West Frisian doarp [ˈdwɑrp] 'village'
Yi /dda [da˧] 'competent'

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic دين [diːn] 'Religion' Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the dialect. See Arabic phonology.
English Broad South African[28] dawn [doːn] 'dawn' Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[28][29][30]
Scottish[29] [dɔn]
Welsh[30] [dɒːn]
German Standard[31] Dach [dax] 'roof' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[31] See Standard German phonology
Norwegian Standard Eastern[32] dans [d̻ɑns] 'dance' Partially voiced or fully voiceless [t]. Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[32] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[33] اداره [edaːre] 'office' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[33] See Persian phonology
Slovak[34][35] do About this sound [d̻o̞]  'into' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[34][35] See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[36] dag [dɑːɡ] 'day' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[36] May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology

See also

References

  1. Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  2. Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  3. Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  4. Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 115, 121.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  6. Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 24.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Watt & Allen (2003), p. 270.
  8. "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Ladefoged (2005), p. 141.
  12. Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  13. Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Kara (2003), p. 11.
  15. Nau (1998), p. 6.
  16. Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  17. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  18. Jones & Ward (1969), p. 99.
  19. Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  20. Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  21. S. Buk, J. Mačutek, A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Sjoberg (1963), p. 10.
  23. Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  24. Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  25. Soderberg & Olson (2008), p. 210.
  26. Okada (1991), p. 94.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Lass (2002), p. 120.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Wells (1982), p. 388.
  31. 31.0 31.1 Mangold (2005), p. 47.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Kristoffersen (2000:22)
  33. 33.0 33.1 Mahootian (2002:287–289)
  34. 34.0 34.1 Kráľ (1988), p. 72.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Pavlík (2004), pp. 98–99.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Riad (2014:46)

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