Voiceless bilabial affricate
|Voiceless bilabial affricate|
A voiceless bilabial affricate ([p͡ɸ] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [p] and released as a voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.
Features of the voiceless bilabial affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Dutch||Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect||up||[ʊp͡ɸ]||'up, onto'||Optional pre-pausal allophone of /p/. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology|
|English||Broad Cockney||up||[ˈɐʔp͡ɸ]||'up'||Allophone of /p/, occurs mainly word-finally. See English phonology|
|Received Pronunciation||Rare allophone of /p/. See English phonology|
|North Wales||[ˈəp͡ɸ]||Word-initial and word-final allophone of /p/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [pʰ]. See English phonology|
|Scouse||[ˈʊp͡ɸ]||Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /p/. See English phonology|
|German||Some speakers||tropfen||[ˈtʁ̥ɔp͡ɸn̩]||'to drop'||Word-internal and word-final allophone of /p͡f/. See German phonology|
|Kaingang||[ˈp͡ɸɤ]||'seed'||Possible word-initial allophone of /ɸ/.|
|Northern Tiwa||Taos dialect||[ˌp͡ɸìˑˈwɛ̈̄ːnǣ]||'daughter'||Allophone of /pʰ/, in free variation with [ph] and [ɸ]. See Taos phonology|
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