Voiceless palatal affricate
|Voiceless palatal affricate|
|IPA number||107 (138)|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0063 U+0361 U+00E7|
The voiceless palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨c͡ç⟩. The voiceless palatal affricate occurs in such languages as Hungarian and Skolt Sami, among others. The consonant is quite rare; it is mostly absent from Europe (with the Uralic languages and Albanian being exceptions). It usually occurs with its voiced counterpart, the voiced palatal affricate.
There is also a voiceless post-palatal affricate (also called pre-velar, fronted velar etc.) in some languages.
Features of the voiceless palatal affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. It is not a sibilant.
- Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Dutch||bakje||[ˈbɑc̠͡ç̠ə]||'tray' (dim.)||Post-palatal; phonetic realization of the sequence /kj/. See Dutch phonology|
|Hungarian||tyúk||[c͡çuːk]||'hen'||See Hungarian phonology|
|Kaingang||[c͡çɔi̯ɟ]||'cranefly'||Possible word-initial realization of /ç/.|
|Norwegian||Central dialects||ikkje||[ic͡çə]||'not'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Skolt Sami||sääˊmǩiõll||[sʲaamc͡çiɘl]||'Skolt Sami'|
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian), Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>