Vyshny Volochyok

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Vyshny Volochyok (English)
Вышний Волочёк (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Town of oblast significance[1]
250px
The town as seen from the Vyshny Volochyok Reservoir
Map of Russia - Tver Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tver Oblast in Russia
Vyshny Volochyok is located in Tver Oblast
Vyshny Volochyok
Vyshny Volochyok
Location of Vyshny Volochyok in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Coat of Arms of Vyshny Volochek (Tver oblast).png
Flag of Vyshny Volochyok (Tver oblast).png
Coat of Arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of December 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Vyshny Volochyok Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Vyshnevolotsky District,[2] Vyshny Volochyok Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of September 2006)
Urban okrug Vyshny Volochyok Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Vyshny Volochyok Urban Okrug,[3] Vyshnevolotsky Municipal District[3]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 52,370 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 311th
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[5]
First mention 1471[6]
Town status since 1770[6]
Postal code(s)[7] 171151 - 171168
Dialing code(s) +7 48233[citation needed]
Official website
[[:commons:Category:{{#property:Commons category}}|Vyshny Volochyok]] on Wikimedia Commons

Vyshny Volochyok or Vyshny Volochok (Russian: Вы́шний Волочёк or Вы́шний Волочо́к) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 52,370 (2010 Census);[4] 56,405 (2002 Census);[8] 64,789 (1989 Census).[9]

Geography and etymology

The town is located 119 kilometers (74 mi) northwest of Tver, in the Valdai Hills, between the Tvertsa and Tsna Rivers, on the watershed between the basins of the Volga and the Baltic Sea. Hence the town's name is translated from Russian as "Upper Portage".

History

The portage between the Tsna and the Tvertsa existed from the medieval times as confirmed by archaeological atrifacts found in the area. Vyshny Volochyok as a settlement was mentioned in chronicles in 1471.[6] In 1703-1722, Peter the Great had a canal constructed to link the two rivers (Vyshny Volochyok Waterway). In the 1740, the road connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg was built. These two events gave a start to the fast economic development of Vyshny Volochyok, which later also became a major center of textile manufacture and glass production. In 1772, the first fair was held, and in the first half of the 19th century the road was rebuilt in stone. In 1851, the railroad construction followed.[6]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Vyshny Volochyok was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg Governorate), and in 1727 Novgorod Governorate split off. On May 28, 1770 Vyshny Volochyok was granted town rights, and on April 2, 1772 Vyshnevolotsky Uyezd of Novgorod Governorate was established, with the seat in Vyshny Volochyok. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and Vyshny Volochyok was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed into Tver Governorate.[10]

On July 12, 1929 the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Vyshnevolotsky District, with the administrative center in Vyshny Volochyok, was established within Tver Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Vyshny Volochyok was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[11] In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Vyshny Volochyok serves as the administrative center of Vyshnevolotsky District,[2] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Vyshny Volochyok Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Vyshny Volochyok Okrug is incorporated as Vyshny Volochyok Urban Okrug.[3]

Economy

Industry

The economy of Vyshny Volochyok is based on timber, glassmaking, and textile industries.[6]

Transportation

The railroad connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg passes through Vyshny Volochyok.

The M10 highway, which connects Moscow and St. Petersburg, passes theough the city as well. A road connecting to Maksatikha, Bezhetsk, and Rybinsk branches out east. There are local roads as well, with the bus traffic originating from Vyshny Volochyok.

The Tvertsa and the Msta are connected by the Vyshny Volochyok Waterway, constructed in the 18th century to provide for a waterway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg, in particular, the Neva and the Volga. Currently, there is no passenger navigation.

Culture and recreation

Vyshny Volochyok contains twenty-four cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally forty-four objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments are the canals, dams, and embankments of the Vyshny Volochyok Waterway, the former Serdykov Estate related to the visits of Peter the Great to Vyshny Volochyok, as well as a number of buildings in the city center, including the trading arcades.[12]

Vyshny Volochyok hosts a local museum which was open in 1932 (formally, it is a division of the Tver State United Museum). There is also a theater.[6]

In Popular Culture

In the episode Limerick of Cabin Pressure, Vyshny Volochyok is mentioned at the start and has a limerick devoted to it near the end.

References

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Law #34-ZO
  2. 2.0 2.1 Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 212», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 212, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Law #4-ZO
  4. 4.0 4.1 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1". Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Медведев, Сергей Васильевич (2012). Визитная карточка Вышнего Волочка (in Russian). Ирида-Прос. Retrieved January 16, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. История Вышневолоцкого района (in Russian). Administration of Vyshnevolotsky District. Retrieved January 13, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved October 30, 2013.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved January 16, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Sources

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №66-ЗО от 1 октября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 18 Закона Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #66-ZO of October 1, 2014 On Amending Article 18 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Template:RussiaAdmMunRef/tve/munlist0