Yuchi language

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Native to United States
Region East central Oklahoma
Ethnicity Yuchi people
Native speakers
5 (2012)[1]
Nearly extinct;[2] revitalization project
Language codes
ISO 639-3 yuc
Glottolog yuch1247[3]
Yuchi lang.png
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Yuchi (Euchee) is the language of the Yuchi people living in the southeastern United States, including eastern Tennessee, western Carolinas, northern Georgia and Alabama, in the period of early European colonization. However, speakers of the Yuchi language were forcibly relocated to Oklahoma in the early 19th century.


Yuchi is classified as a language isolate because it is not known to be related to any other language. Various linguists have made claims, however, that the language has a distant relationship with the Siouan family: Sapir in 1921 and 1929, Haas in 1951, and 1964, Elmendorf in 1964, Rudus in 1974, and Crawford in 1979.[4]

In 1997, the Euchees United Cultural Historical Educational Efforts (EUCHEE) claimed that there were currently two spoken dialects: the Duck Creek/Polecat and the Bigpond variations.[5]

Geographic distribution

Yuchi is primarily spoken in the northeastern Oklahoma region. In 1997 there were 12-19 elderly speakers out of an estimated population of 1500. In 2009 there remained only 5 fluent speakers whose first language was not English.


Yuchi people were originally native to Tennessee and later Georgia in the southeastern United States. However, speakers of the Yuchi language were forcibly relocated with the Muscogee people to Indian Territory prior to the Trail of Tears.

Contradiction in linguistic study and linguistic history

Because of the language's past of removal and state of being forbidden, there have been several changes which have changed the way the language is spoken. In 1885, Swiss linguist Albert S. Gatschet wrote an article in the publication Science, which indicated various linguistic idiosyncrasies. He claimed that adjectives are not expressed with number, but nouns are with the addition of the particle ha (coming from the original term wahále, meaning many) which made the word essentially plural. He also claimed that the language was no longer in an archaic state due to the lack of a "dual," and that the language had temporal and personal inflection.[6] Gatschet also did lots of field study and documentation regarding the language, many of his original vocabulary lists can be found at the National Anthropological Archives or on their website.

Later on, Frank G. Speck published Ethnology of Yuchi Indians in 1907. This publication provided slightly different information. It claimed that there was only one dialect, that inflection was not a characteristic, and that there was no true plural. This information contradicts the study made by Albert S. Gatschet in the century beforehand. Speck also claimed that there was only one dialect of the language. There was, however, one linguistic idiosyncrasy upon which they agreed, which was the case of the third person.[7]

In 1997, the Euchees United Cultural Historical Educational Efforts (E.U.C.H.E.E.) published a work entitled Euchees: Past and Present, which provided more modern information regarding the language. The organization claims that today there are two dialects, differentiating between the Duckcreek/Polecat and Bigpond areas. This contradicts the study done by Speck, in which he claimed there was only one dialect.[5]

Current status

Sisters Maxine Wildcat Barnett (left) and Josephine Wildcat Bigler; two of the final surviving elderly speakers of Yuchi, visiting their grandmother’s grave in a cemetery behind Pickett Chapel in Sapulpa, Oklahoma. According to the sisters, their grandmother had insisted that Yuchi be their native language.

Due to assimilation into Muscogee and English-speaking culture, only a few elderly speakers of the Yuchi language remain. In 2000 the estimated number of fluent Yuchi speakers was 15, but this number dwindled to 7 by 2006[8] 5 by 2010,[9] and 4 by 2013.[10] The Euchee Language Project teaches Yuchi classes in Sapulpa, Oklahoma, free of charge.[11]

Presence in popular literature

The Yuchi people and language are the subject of a chapter in Spoken Here: Travels Among Threatened Languages, a book on endangered languages by Mark Abley.[12]


The language originally had no alphabet until the 1970s, when James Crawford and Addie George created a phonetic transliteration which is now used by the Yuchi people to write the language. It is considered a "morpheme agglomerative," in which words are pieced together out of pre-existing morphemes to make new words entirely. The word order of the language is subject–object–verb.[13]

The language uses clitics and particles to express a variety of things, including possessives, cases, affixes, ideas, locatives, instrumentals, simulatives, ablatives, and demonstratives.[This needs to be seriously expanded upon. Does anyone have more information?][14]


The language has 49 sounds, 38 of which are consonants, and the remaining 11 are vowels. This number is more than twice the number of most Southeastern Native American Languages.[15]


Yuchi has Oral and Nasal vowels. Oral vowels are defined as being created by the raising of the soft palate to the nasopharyngeal wall, creating a velopharyngeal space within the oral cavity; nasal vowels, on the other hand, are typically defined as being created by the lowering of the soft palate, allowing air to escape through the nasal cavity.[16]

Two vowel charts appears below.[17] Note that the vowels below represent the phonetic inventory, meaning the set of all (or most) sounds in the language; the phonemic inventory, those sounds which contrastively mark differences in meaning, are highlighted in the list below the vowel charts. (Please note that the Nasal Vowel chart is incomplete.)

Front Central Back Round
High i u, ʊ
Mid e, ɛ ə, ʌ o, ɔ
Low æ a
Front Central Back Round
High ĩ, ɪ̃
Mid , ɛ̃ ə̃ õ, ɔ̃
Low æ̃ ã

The phonemic vowels of Yuchi are /i, u, e, o, æ, a, ĩ, ẽ, õ, æ̃, ã/; some levels of phonological or morphological variation must therefore be occurring in order for all of the sounds above to be possible.

Phonological variation

Phonological variation often occurs in different kinds of morphological environments. For example, the phoneme /ʊ/[but we just said this is not a phoneme] is often pronounced in 1st-person singular and impersonal 3rd-person pronouns in the place of /o/ by Big Pond speakers. Also, the phonemes /a/ and /o/ can become [ə] in unstressed environments.[18]


Vowel length indicates grammatical function, such as superlative or comparative adjective forms or emphasis. It may also indicate contracted morphemes, and thus is not a phonological process but rather a morphological one.[19]


Yuchi has been analyzed as having from 19 to 40 consonants, chiefly depending on whether the glottalized and labialized consonants are counted, or considered to be sequences with /ʔ/ and /w/, respectively. Some of the latter are included in the table in parentheses:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain sibilant
Stop tenuis p [p] t [t] ts [ts] ch [tʃ] k [k] ' [ʔ]
aspirated [pʰ] [tʰ] tsʰ [tsʰ] chʰ [tʃʰ] [kʰ]
voiced b [b] d [d] dz [dz] j [dʒ] g [ɡ]
ejective (p' [pʼ]) (t' [tʼ]) (ts' [tsʼ]) (ch' [tʃʼ]) (k' [kʼ])
Fricative f [f] ł [ɬ] s [s] sh [ʃ] h [h]
Approximant w [w] l [l] y [j]
Nasal m [m] n [n]

Stress and intonation


Stress in Yuchi is fairly regular. All major parts of speech have syllable-final stress, and syllable-initial secondary stress[does this mean word-final stress, and word-initial secondary stress?]; also, particles (one-syllable words) are stressed. There are some minimal pairs to be found due to stress; some representative samples include:

[ˈɡopʼa] – “Creek person, tribe” [20] [ɡoˈpʼa] – “go see someone” [20] [ˈsɛt ˀne] – he sees [21] [sɛt ˈˀne] – she sees [22] [ʃaˈja] – “weeds” [20] [ˈʃaja] – “squirrel” [20]

As mentioned above, most nouns have syllable-final primary stress[again, by syllable does this mean word or morphological unit?]; there are, however, some regularized exceptions to this rule, the most common of which are nouns with lexicalized suffixes in the stem, which have stress on the penultimate syllable. Also, contractions within compounded nouns have primary stress on the contraction. There are various other exceptions, but the two mentioned above are the most frequent and the most important in helping us to understand why Yuchi nouns often appear to have irregular stress patterns.[23]

Both regular and non-regular stress patterns are exemplified below, all glossed. All data come from Wagner, 1974, unless otherwise noted.

[ɡojalinɛʔ] – young man [jacɛsiʔ][clarification needed][what is "c"?] – sparks of fire [tsɛʔ] – water [saʔ] – earth [tsoonɔʔ] – the sun [ʔaˈɡale] ~ [aɡæle] – today, morning[24] [tsɛˈkʰale] – misty rain[24] [kʼɔndi] – meat

Verb stems typically have primary stress on the ultimate syllable, as well. The two major exceptions are reduplicated verbs, which have equal stress on both the last and reduplicated syllables of the stem, and verb compounds with the head root /ju/, in which primary stress is syllable-initial. Some examples include:

[ɡetaʔ] – to hold it up[25] [taʔtaʔ] – light [22]


Intonation varies depending upon the kinds of sentences being uttered. Declarative, negative, and command speech acts have falling intonation, while information questions and yes/no questions have rising pitch.[26] Morphologically, intonation can also change the reception of a word and its intended meaning, as we see in the following example of three different intonation patterns for the word “What”:[27]

[wikæ] – “What?” (requesting information) [wíkæ ↘] – “What?” (didn't hear) [wikæ ↘] – “What?” (frightened/surprised)


One of the most significant aspects of Yuchi morphophonology is the prevalence of contractions. Contraction should not here be taken to mean only a shortening of words; rather, it is more useful to think of contraction as a deletion of sounds that in turn affects surrounding vowels.[28]

What can be contracted is dependent upon two major factors, the sound which begins the contracted syllable, and the stress of the syllable. In order for a syllable to be contracted, it must begin with a [+sonorant] consonant, that is, a voiced sound with a relatively free passage of air. In Yuchi, this includes sounds such as /n/, /ˀn/, /w/, /ˀw/, /j/, /ˀj/ (where /ˀ/ indicates a glottallized sound),[why are these not listed among the consonants?] the fricative /ˀh/,[clarification needed] and /Ɂ/. A syllable must also be unstressed in order to contract.[29]

Contraction causes phonetic changes in the vowels directly preceding the deleted syllable. In order for Yuchi speakers to understand the grammatical features of the words being used in contracted forms, vowel features alternate to match the deleted sounds.[29] So, for example, if the morpheme /ne/ was contracted, the vowel preceding it would become nasalized to indicate that a nasal sound has been lost.

Contraction must necessarily come before the phonetic change in vowels. For example, consider the following word:[30]

[di ˀlɛ nɛp ʔá jɛ] – 'Did you look in the box?'

/nɛ/ can contract here because it is an unstressed syllable beginning with a sonorant: [di ˀlɛ mp ʔá jɛ]. CCC clusters are relatively rare, occurring in only six variations as noted by Wolff,[31] four of them beginning with fricatives; such a construction as above would therefore likely be odd to speakers of Yuchi.

Contractions take on several forms and occur in many other environments. Those seeking additional information about the many kinds of contraction in Yuchi are advised to seek out Dr. Mary Linn's “A Grammar of Euchee.”

A list of the most commonly contracted morphemes is below, along with their grammatical function.[32]

ne- : 2nd-person singular actor

we-: 3rd-person non-Yuchi actor or patient, singular or plural

'o-: 3rd-person plural Yuchi actor or patient (women's speech)

hi-: 3rd-person inanimate patient, singular or plural

ho-: 3rd-person inanimate patient and participant, singular or plural

'yu-: verb root

-ne-: habitual aspect

-e: active verbalizer


Like many American languages, Yuchi grammar is agglutinative.[33] Words are formed by the addition of various prefixes and suffixes to a mono- or polysyllabic stem. Yuchi features separate male and female registers[34] and an idiosyncratic noun classification system wherein nominal distinction is made regarding animacy, Yuchi ethnicity, kinship and, for inanimate nouns, shape or spatial position.[35]

Much of the information in this section is drawn from Wagner (1938); some of Wagner’s conclusions, particularly regarding his interpretation of Yuchi kinship terminology[36] and certain aspects of his description of Yuchi pronouns,[37] have been disputed.


The Yuchi verb consists of a mono- or polysyllabic stem modified almost exclusively by suffixing.[38] Yuchi features attributive verbs, which is to say that the language makes very little distinction between verbs and adjectives as parts of speech. For this reason, Yuchi verbs and adjectives are virtually identical.[39]


The concept of temporal verb inflection is only weakly realized in Yuchi[40] and corresponds more closely in some cases to aspect rather than tense. The past tense is generally expressed via suffixing of the verb stem.[41]

  • -djin                   incomplete past (“ate”)
  • -dji’nfwa             complete past (“had eaten”)
  • -djinfa’               habitual past (“used to eat”)
  • -djinfwadji’n       emphatic past (“happened to eat”)
  • -djigo’                uncertain past (“perhaps ate”)

There are also two ways of expressing future tense. The first, which usually denotes intentions or events of the immediate future, is expressed by lengthening, stressing and nasalizing the final syllable of the verb stem. The second, pertaining to the distant future, is expressed by the suffix -e’le.[42]


Modality of the verb is also expressed through suffixing.[43]

  • -no     imperative (“go!”)
  • -wo     exhortative (“should go”)
  • -go     potential (“might go”)
  • -ho     emphatic (“did go”)
  • -te     ability (“can go”)


Nouns are classified according to a broad animate versus inanimate paradigm[44] which is expressed using a variety of article suffixes. Within the animate class, nouns are further subdivided into two sub-classes. The first of these includes all humans belonging to the Yuchi tribe, and is itself further divided according to a very complex system of kinship relations and gendered speech registers.[34] The second sub-class of animate nouns encompasses all human beings outside of the Yuchi tribe, as well as animals, and the sun and moon.[45] The animate (Yuchi) suffixes express a very complex system of kinship and gendered speech[46] in much the same way as do third person pronouns.

  • -no           any male or female Yuchi (used by men and women)
  • -sen’o      any younger (for men, related) female (used by men and women)
  • -s’en’o     younger male relative (used by women only)
  • -eno        older female relative (used by men and women)
  • -ono        younger unrelated male or any other unrelated person (used by women only)
  • -ino         older male relative (used by women only)
  • -weno’     all other animate beings

Inanimate nouns are divided into three groups: objects that are vertical, objects that are horizontal and objects that are round or otherwise do not conform to either of the other two groups.[45] Each of these groups is represented by a suffix.

  • -fa     vertical
  • -’e     horizontal
  • -dji     round


The concept of plurality in Yuchi is not as strongly developed as in English,[47] leading one early descriptivist to claim that Yuchi has “no true plural.”[48] Animate nouns can, however, be pluralized by the addition of suffixes that correspond closely to their singular counterparts. Although tribal affiliation and gender distinctions carry over into the plural, kinship does not.[49]

  • -he’no      Yuchi tribe members (male speech)
  • -o’no        Yuchi tribe members (female speech)
  • -we’no     all other animate beings

Inanimate nouns can be made plural by the suffix -ha, which replaces the singular inanimate suffixes listed above.[50]

In addition to suffixing, several words related to kinship are pluralized via reduplication of the stem.[50]


The Yuchi pronoun is extremely complex.[51] Except in a few emphatic forms,[52] the pronoun is always suffixed to a verb or noun stem, and appears in eight distinct sets.[53]

The first pronoun set, termed the Subjective Series,[54] denotes the subject relationship of the pronoun to the verb.[55] Series 1 and 2 are close variations that respectively represent a general and specific object, whereas the “independent series” represents freestanding pronouns.[54]

Subject Series 1 Subject Series 2 Independent
1st Person Sing. di- do- di
2nd Person Sing. ne- yo- tse

Third person pronouns follow a complex pattern of kinship and gendered speech that corresponds very closely to the animate noun suffixes.

  • ho- / ho- / hodi        any male or female Yuchi (used by men and women)
  • se- / sio- / sedi        any younger (for men, related) female (used by men and women)
  • s’e- / s’io- / s’edi     younger male relative (used by women only)
  • e- / eyo- / edi          older female relative (used by men and women)
  • o- / o- / odi              younger unrelated male or any other unrelated person (used by women only)
  • i-                             any older male relative (used by women only)
  • we- / yo- / wedi’      all animate, non-Yuchi beings

First person pronouns in the plural are inclusive and exclusive, and there are several kinship-specific third person forms.

Subject Series 1 Subject Series 2 Independent
1st Person Pl. o- / no- o- / no- odi’ / nodi’
2nd Person Pl. a- a’yo- a’dze

A few of the third person singular pronouns double as plural pronouns as well.

  • ho- / ho- / hodi        any male or female Yuchi (used by men and women)
  • o- / o- / odi              in the plural, refers to any younger Yuchi regardless of kinship or gender (used by women only)
  • i-                             in the plural, refers to any older Yuchi regardless of kinship or gender (used by women only)
  • we- / yo- / wedi’      all animate, non-Yuchi beings

The next set, termed the Objective Series,[56] denotes the direct or indirect object relationship of the pronoun to the verb.[57] It otherwise functions identically to the Subjective Series; the two pronoun sets are distinguished by their relative positions within the verb complex.[56]

Direct Series 1 Direct Series 2 Indirect
1st Person Sing. di- do- di
2nd Person Sing.' ne- yo- tse

The third person singular pronouns are identical to those of the Subjective Series.

  • ho- / ho- / hodi        any male or female Yuchi (used by men and women)
  • se- / sio- / sedi        any younger (for men, related) female (used by men and women)
  • s’e- / s’io- / s’edi     younger male relative (used by women only)
  • e- / eyo- / edi          older female relative (used by men and women)
  • o- / o- / odi              younger unrelated male or any other unrelated person (used by women only)
  • i-                             any older male relative (used by women only)
  • we- / yo- / wedi’      all animate, non-Yuchi beings
Direct Series 1 Direct Series 2 Indirect
1st Person Pl. ondze- / ondzio- ondzio- / nondzio- ontso / nonsto
2nd Person Pl. andze- andzio- aso

As above, the third person plural pronouns are identical to those of the Subjective Series.

  • ho- / ho- / hodi        any male or female Yuchi (used by men and women)
  • o- / o- / odi              in the plural, refers to any younger Yuchi regardless of kinship or gender (used by women only)
  • i-                             in the plural, refers to any older Yuchi regardless of kinship or gender (used by women only)
  • we- / yo- / wedi’      all animate, non-Yuchi beings

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are amalgamations of the Objective Series 1 and Subjective Series 1 (“Reflexive Series 1”) or Subjective Series 2 (“Reflexive Series 2”) pronouns.[58]

Reflexive Series 1 Reflexive Series 2
1st Person Sing. tse di- do’-
2nd Person Sing. nendze ne’- yo’-

Reflexive third person pronouns function the same, in terms of kinship and gendered speech, as their non-reflexive counterparts.

  • hode’- / hondio’-        any male or female Yuchi (used by men and women)
  • siode’- / siodio’-         any younger (for men, related) female (used by men and women)
  • s’iode’- / s’iodio’-        younger male relative (used by women only)
  • e’yode- / eyondio’-     older female relative (used by men and women)
  • ode’- / odio’-               younger unrelated male or any other unrelated person (used by women only)
  • yode’- / yondio’-          any older male relative (used by women only)

Plural reflexive pronouns demonstrate clusivity in the first person, and are identical to non-reflexives in terms of kinship and gendered speech.

Reflexive Series 1 Reflexive Series 2
1st Person Pl. ondzeo’- / nondzeno’- ondzeo’- / nondzeno’-
2nd Person Pl. andzea’- andzea’yo-

Plural reflexive pronouns function identically to their non-reflexive counterparts in the third person.

  • hode’- / hondio’-        any male or female Yuchi (used by men and women)
  • ode’- / odio’-              in the plural, refers to any younger Yuchi regardless of kinship or gender (used by women only)
  • yode’- / yondio’-        in the plural, refers to any older Yuchi regardless of kinship or gender (used by women only)

Other Affixes

Instrumental Prefixes

The relationship between an action and the instrument by which it is carried out is expressed via the prefix hi-. This prefix has become fused in some cases with certain verb stems, forming a sort of instrumental verbal compound of idiomatic meaning.[59]

Locative Affixes

The concept of location is important to the Yuchi verb complex. Similar in some ways to the English preposition, these prefixes denote the location or direction of the verb’s action.[59]

  • a-          static location
  • ti-          inside of an object
  • f’o-        inside the earth or under water
  • toya-     into water
  • ta-         on top of
  • po-        under
  • kya-      through
  • la-         out of
  • pe-        above or over
  • yu-        up in the air
  • ya-        across

Additionally, there are four very general locative suffixes that can be used in place of the prefixes listed above.[53]

  • -he    on / at / away from
  • -le     along / back to
  • -ke    over there
  • -fa     to / towards


An entire verbal complex can be negated using one of two prefixes, na- or ha-, both of which are identical in meaning[60]


In direct speech wherein the sentence does not begin with an interrogative pronoun, interrogatives are formed with the suffix -le. If the question implies some action in the future, the suffix -yi is used instead.[61]


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  15. Hackett (Woktela), David. "The Yuchi Language Primer; a Brief, Introductory Grammar." www.yuchi.org. Woktela. Web. 12 Sept. 2009
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  18. Linn, 2001, p. 43
  19. Linn, 2001, 52
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Linn, 2001, p. 85
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  24. 24.0 24.1 Linn, 2001, p. 87
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  27. Linn, 2001, p.103
  28. Linn, 2001, p. 58
  29. 29.0 29.1 Linn, 2001, p. 60
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  39. Wagner 1938, p. 343.
  40. Speck 1909, p. 15
  41. Wagner 1938, p. 351-2.
  42. Wagner 1938, p. 352.
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  60. Wagner 1938, p. 361.
  61. Wagner 1938, p. 357.

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