Near-open central vowel

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Near-open central unrounded vowel
IPA number 324
Entity (decimal) ɐ
Unicode (hex) U+0250
Kirshenbaum &"
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)

The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɐ⟩, a rotated lowercase letter a.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".


IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[1][2] dak [dɐk] 'roof' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic[3] قطة [qɐtˤ.tˤɐ] 'cat' Allophone of long and short /a/ for Persian Gulf speakers. See Arabic phonology
Bulgarian ъгъл [ˈɤ̞ɡɐɫ] 'angle'
Catalan Barcelona
metropolitan area
emmagatzemar [ɐm(ː)ɐɰɐd͡z̺ɐˈmä] 'to store' Corresponds to [ə] in other dialects. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese / sam1 [sɐm˥] 'heart' See Cantonese phonology
Czech Bohemian[6] prach [prɐx] 'dust' Possible realization of /a/.[6] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[7][8][9][10] ånd [ɐ̠nˀ] 'spirit' Somewhat retracted and somewhat rounded. Most often transcribed in IPA as ⟨ʌ⟩. See Danish phonology
Dawsahak [nɐ] 'to give'
Dutch Limburg letter [ˈlɛtɐ] 'letter' Corresponds to /ər/ in standard Dutch.
Flemish Brabant
The Hague
English California[11] nut [nɐt] 'nut' ʌ⟩ may be used to transcribe this vowel. For most Australians it is fully open [ä], the same is true for some South Africans. In New Zealand it may be fronted [ɐ̟] or somewhat lower [ä].[12] See English phonology
Cultivated Australian
New Zealand[12][13]
Received Pronunciation[14]
South African
Scottish[15] stack [stɐ̟k] 'stack' Fronted; corresponds to [æ] in other dialects, and also [ɑː] in some other dialects.
Cockney[16][17] stuck 'stuck' Fronted; may be [a] instead.
Inland Northern American[18] bet [bɐt] 'bet' Variation of /ɛ/ used in some places whose accents have undergone the Northern cities vowel shift.
German Standard[19] oder About this sound [ˈʔoːdɐ]  'or' Allophone of /ər/ used in many dialects. See German phonology
Greek[20] ακακία/akaa [ɐkɐˈci.ɐ] 'acacia' Most often transcribed in IPA as ⟨a⟩. See Modern Greek phonology
Hindustani[21] दस/دَس [ˈd̪ɐs] 'ten' Common realization of /ə/.[21] See Hindustani phonology
Ibibio[22] [dɐ́] 'stand' Typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨a⟩.[22]
Kaingang[23] [ˈᵑɡɐ] 'terra' Varies between central [ɐ] and back [ɑ].[24]
Korean[25] /bal [pɐl] 'foot' Somewhat lowered. Typically transcribed as /a/. See Korean phonology
Lombard Sant [ˈsɐnt] 'saint'
Luxembourgish[26][27] Mauer [ˈmɑ̝ʊ̯ɐ] 'wall' Allophone of unstressed word-final /eʀ/ and non-prevocalic coda /ʀ/. In the latter case, it may be realized as mid [ə] instead.[27] See Luxembourgish phonology
Mapudungun[28] ka [ˈkɐ̝ʐɘ̝] 'green' Somewhat raised.[28]
Norwegian Bergensk kor [kʰɔɐ̯] 'where' Stigmatized realization of coda /r/. See Norwegian phonology
Sandnes-mål[29] baden [ˈbɐːdən] 'child'
Portuguese Fluminense açúcar [ɐˈsukɐχ] 'sugar' In complementary distribution with [a].[30] Raised to [ɜ ~ ɜ̝] in other variants, and in many contexts (particularly if nasalized). See Portuguese phonology
General Brazilian[30] aranha-marrom [ɐˈɾɜ̃j̃ə mɐˈχõ̞ː] 'recluse spider'
European[31] pão [pɐ̃w̃] 'bread' Stressed vowel, mostly as a phonemic nasal vowel (when not followed by a nasal stop). Raised otherwise.
Romanian Moldavian dialects[32] bărbat [bɐrbat][stress?] 'man' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[33] голова About this sound [ɡəɫ̪ɐˈva]  'head' Occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Sema[34] ala [ɐ̀lɐ̀] 'path' Also described as open [ä].[35]
Slovak[36] a [ɐ] 'and' Possible realization of /a/; most commonly realized as open [ä] instead.[37] See Slovak phonology
Slovene Standard[38][39] brat [bɾɐ́t̪] 'brother' Corresponds to short /a/ in traditional pronunciation.[39] See Slovene phonology
Ukrainian дитина [dɪ'tɪnɐ] 'child' Unstressed allophone of /ɑ/. See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[40] pja [ˈpʲɐst͡ʃ] 'fist' Allophone of /a/ after soft consonants.[40] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Vietnamese[41] chếch [cɐ̆jk̚] 'askance' Typically transcribed in IPA as ⟨ə̆⟩. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Lower[42] [Htsʰɐ] 'salt'
Upper[43] [Htsɐ] 'sinew'

See also


  1. Lass (1984), pp. 76, 93–94 and 105.
  2. Donaldson (1993), p. 18.
  3. Thelwall (1990), p. 39.
  4. Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  5. Harrison (1997), pp. 2.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  7. Grønnum (1998), pp. 100.
  8. Grønnum (2005), pp. 268.
  9. Grønnum (2003).
  10. Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  11. Ladefoged (1999), p. ?.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  13. Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  14. Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 186.
  15. Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  16. Wells (1982), p. 305.
  17. Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  18. Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (1997), A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved March 15, 2013<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  20. Arvaniti (2007), p. 25.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Ohala (1999), p. 102.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Urua (2004), p. 106.
  23. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677 and 682.
  24. Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676 and 682.
  25. Lee (1999), p. 121.
  26. Trouvain & Gilles (2009), p. 75.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 68, 70.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Sadowsky et al. (2013:92)
  29. Ims (2010), p. 14.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  31. Cruz-Ferreira (1995), pp. 91–92.
  32. Pop (1938), p. 29.
  33. Padgett & Tabain (2005), p. 16.
  34. Teo (2012:368)
  35. Teo (2014:28)
  36. Pavlík (2004:95)
  37. Pavlík (2004:94–95)
  38. Jurgec (2007), p. 2.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Jurgec (2005), pp. 9 and 12.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 31.
  41. Hoang (1965:24)
  42. Chirkova & Chen (2013:369–370)
  43. Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:388)