Willard Boyle

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Willard S. Boyle
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-23.jpg
Born (1924-08-19)August 19, 1924
Amherst, Nova Scotia
Died May 7, 2011(2011-05-07) (aged 86)
Wallace, Nova Scotia [1]
Residence Canada
Citizenship Canada and United States[2]
Fields Applied physics
Institutions Bell Labs
Alma mater McGill University
Lower Canada College
Known for Charge-coupled device[3]
Notable awards Stuart Ballantine Medal (1973)
IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award (1974)
Draper Prize (2006)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2009)

Willard Sterling Boyle, CC (August 19, 1924 – May 7, 2011) was a Canadian-American physicist,[4] pioneer in the field of laser technology and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device.[5] On October 6, 2009, it was announced that he would share the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit—the CCD sensor, which has become an electronic eye in almost all areas of photography".[2]


Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia, on August 19, 1924, Boyle was the son of a medical doctor and moved to Quebec with his father and mother Beatrice when he was three.[6] He was home schooled by his mother until age fourteen, when he attended Montreal's Lower Canada College to complete his secondary education.[6] Boyle attended McGill University, but his education was interrupted in 1943, when he joined the Royal Canadian Navy during World War II.[6] He was loaned to the Britain's Royal Navy, where he was learning how to land Spitfires on aircraft carriers as the war ended.[6] He gained a BSc (1947), MSc (1948) and PhD (1950) from McGill University.[7]


After receiving his doctorate, Boyle spent one year at Canada's Radiation Lab and two years teaching physics at the Royal Military College of Canada.[6] In 1953 Boyle joined Bell Labs where he invented the first continuously operating ruby laser with Don Nelson in 1962,[8] and was named on the first patent for a semiconductor injection laser.[8] He was made director of Space Science and Exploratory Studies at the Bell Labs subsidiary Bellcomm in 1962, providing support for the Apollo space program and helping to select lunar landing sites.[8] He returned to Bell Labs in 1964, working on the development of integrated circuits.[8]

In 1969, Boyle and George E. Smith invented the charge-coupled device (CCD), for which they have jointly received the Franklin Institute's Stuart Ballantine Medal in 1973, the 1974 IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award, the 2006 Charles Stark Draper Prize, and the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics.[7][8] However, Eugene Gordon and Mike Tompsett, two now-retired colleagues from Bell labs, claim that its application to photography was not invented by Boyle.[9] The CCD allowed NASA to send clear pictures to Earth back from space.[10] It is also the technology that powers many digital cameras today. Smith said of their invention: "After making the first couple of imaging devices, we knew for certain that chemistry photography was dead." [11]

Boyle was Executive Director of Research for Bell Labs from 1975 until his retirement in 1979.[10] In retirement, he split his time between Halifax and Wallace, Nova Scotia.[12] In Wallace, he helped launch an art gallery with his wife Betty, a landscape artist.[6] He was married to Betty since 1947, and had four children, 10 grandchildren and one great-grandchild.[5] He was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada — the award's highest level — on June 30, 2010.[13] In his later years, Boyle suffered from kidney disease, and due to complications from this disease, died in a hospital in Wallace on May 7, 2011.[10]


  1. "Willard Boyle". The Telegraph. London. 2011-05-16. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-07-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Willard S. Boyle - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Stockholm: Noble Foundation. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-07-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Smith, George (2011). "Willard Boyle (1924–2011) Physicist who helped invent the 'eye of the digital camera'". Nature. 474 (7349): 37. doi:10.1038/474037a. PMID 21637246.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Chang, Kenneth (2009-10-07). "Nobel Awarded for Harnessing Light". The New York Times. New York. p. A20. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2009-10-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Canadian scientist shares Nobel physics prize". CBC News. Toronto. 2009-10-06. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2015-09-22. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Baxter, Joan (2006-02-16). "A modest man's big idea Digital chip changed the world". The Toronto Star: A3. Retrieved 2009-10-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 "McGill congratulates its second Nobel-winning alumnus of 2009". Alumni News. McGill University. 2009-10-06. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2009-10-15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Mahoney, Jill; Elizabeth Church (2009-10-07). "The Nobel Physics Prize: A Canadian who took big risks takes home the big prize". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. pp. A1–A2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Nobel Controversy: Former Bell Labs Employee Says He Invented the CCD Imager IEEE
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Maugh II, Thomas H. (2011-05-19). "Nobelist was a father of the digital camera". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2012-07-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Cassingham, Randy (2011-05-15). "Willard Boyle". This is True. Ridgway, Colorado. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-07-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Nobel laureate dies Saturday". Amherst Daily News. Amherst, N.S. 2011-05-08. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2015-09-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Governor General of Canada (2010-06-30). "Governor General announces 74 new appointments to the Order of Canada". It's an Honour. Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2012-07-12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>