Arutani–Sape languages

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Brazil–Venezuela border
Linguistic classification: Proposed language family
Glottolog: None
Documented location of Arutani–Sapé languages, the two most southern spots are Arutani villages, the northern one is Sapé location.

The Arutani–Sape, AKA Awake–Kaliana or Kalianan, are a proposed language family[1] that includes two of the most poorly documented languages in South America, both of which are nearly extinct. They are at best only distantly related, but Kaufman (1990) finds the connection convincing. However, Migliazza & Campbell (1988) maintain that there is no evidence for linking them.[2] The two languages are,

  • Arutani[3] (also known as Aoaqui, Auake, Auaque, Awake, Oewaku, Orotani, Uruak, Urutani)
  • Sape[4] (also known as Caliana, Chirichano, Kaliana, Kariana)

Kaufman (1990) states that a further connection with Maku of Roraima is "promising".


  1. Weinstein, Jay A. (2005-02-28). Social and Cultural Change: Social Science for a Dynamic World. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 94. ISBN 0-7425-2573-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Ernest Migliazza & Lyle Campbell, 1988. Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América
  3. Moseley, Christopher (2007-04-23). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Routledge. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Moseley, Christopher (2007-04-23). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. Routledge. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

See also


  • Harald Hammarström, 2010, 'The status of the least documented language families in the world'. In Language Documentation & Conservation, v 4, p 183 [1]