Svoboda (political party)

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All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda"
Всеукраїнське об’єднання «Свобода»
Leader Oleh Tyahnybok
Slogan "20 Years of Fight"
Founded October 13, 1991
Registered as political party on October 16, 1995.[1]
Preceded by Social-National Party of Ukraine
Headquarters Kiev
Membership  (2010) 15,000[2]
Ideology Ukrainian nationalism[3]
Right-wing populism[4][5]

Ethnic nationalism
Political position Far-right
International affiliation None
Colors           Blue, Yellow
Verkhovna Rada
7 / 450
Regions (2015)[7]
1,731 / 158,399
Politics of Ukraine
Political parties

The All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda" (Ukrainian: Всеукраїнське об’єднання «Свобода», Vseukrayinske obyednannia "Svoboda"), translated as Freedom, is a Ukrainian nationalist political party.[2] The party won 6 seats in the late October 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election ; losing 30 seats of the 37 seats (its first seats in the Ukrainian Parliament[9]) it had won in the 2012 parliamentary election.[nb 1][12][13] From 27 February 2014 till 12 November 2014 three members of the party held positions in Ukraine's government.[14]

The party was founded in 1991 as the Social-National Party of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Соціал-національна партія України) and acts as a populist proponent of nationalism and anti-communism. It is positioned on the right of the Ukrainian political spectrum,[2][15][16][17] particularly in the far right.[4][18][19][20] It is widely considered a fascist and/or anti-semitic party,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27] while others have disputed the neo-fascist label, and simply considers it a radical nationalist party.[28][29]

The current party leader (elected every two years[30]) is Oleh Tyahnybok, who has held the role since February 2004.[2]

During the 2009 and 2010 local elections in western Ukraine, the party made significant gains and became a major force in local government.[31][32]


Social-National Party of Ukraine

The neo-Nazi Wolfsangel symbol, used by SNPU as the "Idea of the Nation" (I+N).
Party's logo

The Social-National Party of Ukraine (SNPU) was registered as a party on October 16, 1995;[1][33] the constituent congress of the party took place on October 13, 1991, in Lviv. The party was established by the Soviet Afghan War veterans organization, the youth organization "Spadshchyna" (Heritage, headed by Andriy Parubiy), the Lviv Student Fraternity (headed by Oleh Tyahnybok), the Rukh Guard (headed by Yaroslav Andrushkiv and Yuriy Kryvoruchko).[34] The leader of the party was elected doctor Yaroslav Andrushkiv. The party adopted a party emblem that could be associated with fascist formation and in Europe is used by Neo-Nazi organizations.[34]

Due to a corporate raid threat on temples of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kiev Patriarchate), there were created SNPU formations for their protection, particularly the Holy-Dormition Church of Volodymyr-Volynsky and the Saint Trinity Church in Lutsk.[35] Due to the 1993 Massandra Accords, SNPU formed the Extraordinary Committee in Rescue of Nation and State which in the fall of 1993 picketed the Ukrainian parliament in regards to eliminate the threat of loss by Ukraine the Crimea and Black Sea Fleet.[35]

The SNPU's official program defined itself as an "irreconcilable enemy of Communist ideology" and all other parties to be either collaborators and enemies of the Ukrainian revolution, or romanticists. According to Svoboda's website, during the 1994 Ukrainian parliamentary elections the party presented its platform as distinct from those of the communists and social democrats.[36]

In the 1998 parliamentary elections the party joined a bloc of parties (together with the All-Ukrainian Political Movement "State Independence of Ukraine")[37] called "Less Words" (Ukrainian: Менше слів), which collected 0.16% of the national vote.[33][38][39] Party member Oleh Tyahnybok[40] was voted into the Ukrainian Parliament in this election.[40] He became a member of the People's Movement of Ukraine faction.[40]

The SNPU established the paramilitary organization Patriot of Ukraine in 1999 as an "Association of Support" for the Military of Ukraine and registered with the Ministry of Justice. The paramilitary organization, which continues to use the Wolfsangel symbol, was disbanded in 2004 during the SNPU's reformation and reformed as an independent organization in 2005.[2] Svoboda officially ended association with the group in 2007,[41] but they remain informally linked,[42][43][44] with representatives of Svoboda attending social campaigns such as protests against price increases and leafleting against drugs and alcohol.[45] In 2014, Svoboda was noted for clashing with the far-right group Right Sector, a coalition which includes Patriot of Ukraine.[46]

In 2001, the party joined some actions of the "Ukraine without Kuchma" protest campaign and was active in forming the association of Ukraine's rightist parties and in supporting Viktor Yushchenko's candidacy for prime minister, although it did not participate in the 2002 parliamentary elections.[33] However, as a member of Victor Yushchenko’s Our Ukraine bloc, Tyahnybok was reelected to the Ukrainian parliament.[40] The SNPU won two seats in the Lviv oblast council of deputies and representation in the city and district councils in the Lviv and Volyn oblasts.[36][third-party source needed]

In 2004 the party had less than 1,000 members.[18]

All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda"

A massive pro-EU rally in Kiev on 24th of November when people marching towards the rally on European square (2013)

In February 2004, the arrival of Oleh Tyahnybok as party leader led a significant change in moderating the Social-National Party's image.[2][47] Then still the Social-National Party of Ukraine, it changed its name to the All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda",[2] and abandoned the "I + N" (Ukrainian «Ідея Нації» "Idea Natsii" = "idea of a nation") Wolfsangel logo (a symbol popular among neo-Nazi groups)[2][48] with a three-fingered hand reminiscent of the 'Tryzub' pro-independence gesture of the late 1980s.[48] Svoboda also pushed neo-Nazi and other radical groups out the party,[49] distancing itself from its neofascist past while retaining the support of extreme nationalists.[47] Andrushkiv, former head of the party, rejected Tyahnybok's claim that Svoboda was successor party to the SNPU and called Svoboda 'a different political phenomenon.' Both he and Andriy Parubiy would leave the 'new' party following its transformation.[50]

However, according to Polish lawyer and political scientist Tadeusz A. Olszański, party leader Tyahnybok never concealed that these changes were made primarily for image purposes.[51] The party remained associated with the ‘wide social nationalist movement’ (consisting of numerous organisations and websites) and gathered around the Social-Nationalist Assembly which was set up in 2008. Yuri Mykhailyshyn, Tyahnybok’s adviser who topped the list of Svoboda's Lviv branch in the 2010 municipal council elections, founded the Internet Joseph Goebbels Political Research Centre’ (the centre later changed Goebbels for Ernst Jünger) in 2005. Ukraine’s Patriot, a paramilitary organisation dissolved in 2004 and re-established in 2005 in a different legal form continued to maintain ties with Svoboda. It was not not until 2007 that this paramilitary organisation announced the break-up of all relationships with "Svoboda".[52] Even then, some prominent Svoboda's members, such as Andriy Illienko from Svoboda's Kiev branch, continued to identify themselves with the ideas of "Patriot of Ukraine". This neo-Nazi organisation still uses the ‘Wolfsangel’ symbol.[51]

In 2004, Tyahnybok was expelled from the Our Ukraine parliamentary faction for a speech calling for Ukrainians to fight against a "Muscovite-Jewish mafia,"[53] and celebrated the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists for having fought "Moscovites, Germans, Jews and other scum who wanted to take away our Ukrainian state."[48] The speech was delivered at the grave-site of a commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army where Tyahnybok praised its struggle against "Moskaly", a derogatory term for either Russians[54] or pan-Russian nationalists;[55][56] Germans; and "Zhydy", an archaic but controversial term for Jews in Ukraine due to it being a slur when used in the Russian language.[57][58] Tyahnybok's 2004 comments were widely circulated on the three TV channels controlled by the head of the Presidential Administration, Viktor Medvedchuk: State Channel 1, 1+1 and Inter.[53][55]

In the 2006 local elections the party had obtained 4.2% of the votes and 4 seats in the Ternopil Oblast Council, 5.62% of the votes and 10 seats in the Lviv Oblast Council and 6.69% of the votes and 9 seats in the Lviv city council.[18]

In the 2007 parliamentary elections, the party received 0.76% of the votes cast,[33] more than double their share during the 2006 parliamentary elections, when they received 0.36%.[33] It was ranked eighth out of 20 parties (in the 2007 elections) and the non-participation of the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists made the party the only far-right party to participate in the 2007 parliamentary elections.[18]

In the autumn of 2009, Svoboda joined the Alliance of European National Movements as the only organisation from outside the European Union.[2] That year the party claimed to have 15,000 members.[18]

A Svoboda meeting in Kiev in 2009.

2009 Electoral breakthrough

The party's electoral breakthrough was the 2009 Ternopil Oblast local election when they obtained 34.69% of the votes and 50 seats out of 120 in the Ternopil Oblast Council.[18] This was the best result for a far-right party in Ukraine’s history.[18]

Tyahnybok's candidacy in the 2010 presidential election did not build on the 2009 Ternopil success.[18] Tyahnybok received 1.43% of the vote.[59] Most of his votes he gained in Lviv oblast, Ternopil oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk oblast accounted to 5% of the vote.[60] In the second round, Tyahnybok did not endorse a candidate. He did present a list of some 20 demands for second round candidate Yulia Tymoshenko had to fulfil first before gaining his endorsement—which included publicizing alleged secret deals Tymoshenko had with Vladimir Putin and ridding herself of what he called Ukraine-haters in her close circles.[61]

During the 2010 Ukrainian local elections the party won between 20-30% of the votes in Eastern Galicia, where it became one of the main forces in local government.[31] The 2009 provincial elections in Ternopil had previously been the greatest success of the Svoboda party, when it won 34.4 per cent of votes cast.[32] During the 2010 Ukrainian local elections, Svoboda surpassed this figure, accounting for 5.2% of the vote nationwide.[62] Analysts explained Svoboda’s victory in Galicia during the 2010 elections as a result of the policies of the Azarov Government, who were seen as too pro-Russian by the electorate.[62][63][64] According to Andreas Umland, Senior Lecturer in Political Science at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,[65] Svoboda's increasing exposure in the Ukrainian media has contributed to its recent successes.[64]

Between 2004 and 2010 party membership increased threefold to 15,000 members[2] (traditionally party membership is low in Ukraine[66][67][68]).

As of 2011 Svoboda had factions in eight of Ukraine's 25 regional councils, and in three of those Svoboda is the biggest faction.[69] Reportedly, the members and supporters of Svoboda are predominantly young people.[2]

Several clergymen of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church are Svoboda members and have stood for election as Svoboda candidates.[70] According to the party, they were chosen on election lists "to counterbalance opponents who include “Moscow priests” in their election lists and have aspirations to build the “Russian World” in Ukraine".[70] Per the party's desire to separate the clergy from politics, all churchmen will be recalled if a draft Constitution of Ukraine proposed by the party is approved.[70]

In early 2012 Svoboda was criticized in domestic and international media after party member Yuri Sirotyuk said that Ukrainian pop star Gaitana, who is of African descent, was a poor choice to represent Ukraine at the Eurovision Song Contest 2012 because she was "not an organic representative of the Ukrainian culture"[71][72] Sirotyuk stated that "It looks like we don't want to show our face, and Ukraine will be associated with a different continent, somewhere in Africa."[71][73]

2012 elections: Growing support

Svoboda's results in the 2012 elections.

In the run-up to the 2012 election, some Ukrainian media commentators and political analysts expected Svoboda's rising support would come at the expense of more mainstream elements of the opposition and to the benefit of the ruling Party of Regions.[2][64][74][75] In July 2012 the party agreed with Batkivshchyna on the distribution of the candidates in single-seat constituencies (its share was 35 constituencies)[76] in the October 2012 parliamentary elections.[77] In the run up to these elections various opinion polls predicted the national vote (in a parliamentary election) of the party to sixfolded or sevenfolded which would make it possible that the party would pass the 5% election threshold.[78][79] But the party's results in the elections were much better than that with 10.44 percent [nb 2] (almost a fourteenfold of its votes compared with the 2007 parliamentary elections[33][53]) of the national votes and 38 out of 450 seats in the Ukrainian Parliament.[80][81] The lion's share of these votes were won in Western Ukraine (30-40% in three Oblasts), while in Eastern Ukraine it won 1% of the votes.[53] At the at 116 foreign polling stations Svoboda won most votes of all parties with 23,63% of all votes.[82] In Lviv the party reportedly won over 50% of the votes.[83] In Kiev it became the second most popular party, after Fatherland.[84] Voting analysis showed it was the party most popular among voters with a higher education (about 48% of its voters had a higher education).[84] Oleh Tyahnybok was elected leader of the party's parliamentary faction (also) on 12 December 2012.[85] On 19 October 2012 the party and Batkivshchyna signed an agreement "on the creation of a coalition of democratic forces in the new parliament".[86] The party is also coordinating its parliamentary activities with Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform (UDAR).[87]

In recent years, the BBC writes that "Svoboda" has "tapped a vast reservoir of protest votes" because of its anti-corruption stance and because it has softened its own image.[53][84] According to Sociological group "RATING" the percentage of the party's electorate who only use the Ukrainian language decreased from 75% to 68% between September 2012 and March 2013.[88]

2012 election aftermath and Euromaidan campaign

During the first two sessions of the newly elected parliament, Svoboda deputies and other opposition politicians physically clashed with MPs during the election of a prime minister and speaker amid allegations of continued voting for absent colleagues by government deputies.[89][90][91] Clashes again erupted in March 2013 between Svoboda and Party of Regions MPs, when ruling Party of Regions MP Oleksandr Yefremov delivered a speech in Russian; the speech was drowned out by Svoboda MPs, shouting "Speak Ukrainian!" A later speech by Tyahnybok provoked chants of "Fascist" and a large, brief fist-fight between the two parties.[92][93][94]

Svoboda MP and deputy leader Ihor Miroshnychenko attracted international criticism in December 2012 for writing on his Facebook wall that American actress Mila Kunis, who was born in the Ukrainian SSR of Jewish descent, is "not Ukrainian but a zhydivka" (a pejorative term for a Jew).[53][57] According to Svoboda, the word does not have the antisemitic connotation in Ukrainian that it does in Russian.[57] Citing a Ukrainian academic dictionary, the Ministry of Justice considered the word archaic but not necessarily a slur.[57][95] Svoboda has repeatedly said that it would not stop using words it considers legitimate Ukrainian parlance.[57] Attempts to use antisemitism as a propaganda weapon against the Euromaidan movement were noted, and reports of widespread antisemitism were disputed by analysts, historians and human-rights activists.[96][97] In May 2013, Svoboda, Fatherland and UDAR announced that they would coordinate during the 2015 Ukrainian presidential election.[98]

Large demonstration, with Svoboda and other party flags
Anti-government protests in Kiev during Euromaidan, December 29, 2013

A December 7–17, 2013 opinion poll indicated that in a presidential election between Viktor Yanukovych and Svoboda leader Tyahnybok Tyahnybok would win 28.8 percent of the popular vote to Yanukovych's 27.1 percent.[99] Svoboda participates in the ongoing pro-European Union protest campaign to influence regime change and integration with the EU. When the Vladimir Lenin monument in Kiev was toppled during Euromaidan, MP Ihor Myroshnichenko accepted responsibility for the act on behalf of Svoboda.[100]

Eighteen Svoboda members were killed in the Euromaidan protests and the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.[101] On 27 February 2014 the Yatsenyuk government was formed, including three Svoboda ministers: Deputy Prime Minister Oleksandr Sych, Agrarian Policy and Food Minister Ihor Shvaika and Environment and Natural Resources Minister Andriy Mokhnyk.[14][102] Party members were appointed governors of Poltava (Viktor Buhaychuk on 2 March 2014), Ternopil (Oleh Syrotyuk on 2 March) and Rivne Oblasts (Sergey Rybachka on 3 March 2014).[103][104][105]

On 18 March 2014, Svoboda members posted an online video of party MPs beating acting National Television Company of Ukraine president Oleksandr Panteleymonov and trying to force him to sign a letter of resignation because he broadcast the Crimea ascension to the Russian Federation ceremony in the Kremlin. In the video Panteleymonov's broadcast was called "state treason" by Svoboda MP Miroshnychenko, deputy head of the Parliamentary Committee on Freedom of Speech and Information.[106][107][108][109] Tyahnybok condemned the attack ("Such actions were fine yesterday (during the protests), but now they are inappropriate"),[110] which was also condemned by Amnesty International and acting prime minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk.[111] On 20 March 2014 Svoboda withdrew as observers from the Alliance of European National Movements (AENM) over sympathy by several alliance members for the Russian military intervention,[8] and in June the party formed the Sich Battalion to fight the war in Donbass.[112]

2014 elections: Losing support

Party support (% of the votes cast) in different regions of Ukraine (in the 2014 election).

In the October 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election the party won constituency 6 seats; the party came 0,29% short to overcome the 5% threshold to win seats on the nationwide list.[12] The parties election results thus halved compared with the 2012 election because of negative assessments of the activities of the local governments that included Svoboda members.[113] In its former stronghold Lviv Oblast Svoboda won no constituencies.[113] Also the fact that in this election the party was not the only one using radically patriotic, anti-communist and anti-Russian slogans undermined its election outcome.[113]

On 12 November 2014 the party's ministers in the Yatsenyuk Government resigned (they became acting ministers till a new Government was formed).[14] The parties governors of Poltava Oblast, Ternopil Oblast and Rivne Oblast also resigned and were formally dismissed by President Petro Poroshenko on 18 November 2014.[114]

In West Ukraine Svoboda improved its electoral performance in the October 2015 Ukrainian local elections.[115] In the elections its candidate Ruslan Martsinkiv was elected Mayor of Ivano-Frankivsk.[116]

Political image

Olexiy Haran, a political science professor at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, says “There is a lot of misunderstanding surrounding Svoboda" and that the party is not fascist, but radical.[117] Ihor Kolomoyskyi, president of the United Jewish Community of Ukraine, stated in 2010 that the party has clearly shifted from the far-right to the center.[118]

Political scientist Andreas Umland predicted the party would continue to become more moderate over time, and that "there's a belief that Svoboda will change, once in the Verkhovna Rada, and that they may become proper national democrats."[53] Since then, the party has gained seats in parliament and has net over 10% of the national vote in the 2012 parliamentary elections. The US ambassador in Kiev, Geoffrey Pyatt, said in 2014 that he had been "positively impressed" by Svoboda's evolution in opposition and by its behavior in parliament. "They have demonstrated their democratic bona fides," the ambassador asserted.[101] Alexander J. Motyl argues that Svoboda's brand of nationalism "has significantly diminished during, and possibly as a result of, the Euro Revolution."[119]

Membership was restricted[citation needed] to ethnic Ukrainians,[citation needed] and for a period the party did not accept atheists or former members of the Communist Party. The party has been accused of recruiting skinheads and football hooligans.[48][clarification needed]

In government

Former government officials

  • Ihor Tenyukh - acting Minister of Defense, resigned on own initiative, resignation accepted by parliament after repeated voting
  • Oleh Makhnitsky - acting General Prosecutor (not part of the Cabinet of Ukraine, officially unaffiliated)

On 12 November 2014 the party's ministers in the Yatsenyuk Government resigned (they became acting ministers till a new Government was formed), they were:[14][120]


Svoboda's ideological base emanates from Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists leader Yaroslav Stetsko's "Two Revolutions" doctrine (written in 1951).[121] The essence of this doctrine states: "the revolution will not end with the establishment of the Ukrainian state, but will go on to establish equal opportunities for all people to create and share material and spiritual values and in this respect the national revolution is also a social one".[121] A crucial condition for joining Svoboda is that its members must belong to the Ukrainian nation.[36]

In the War in Donbass the party favors resolving the conflict through use of force.[122][clarification needed]


Svoboda is a party of Ukrainian nationalism and in 2011 was noted for favoring a solely presidential regime.[64] In 2013, however, the party pushed for constitutional reform which would limit the president's powers and return power to parliament.[123][124]

The party describes its own agenda in an article entitled "Nationalism and pseudonationalism" published on its official website. Svoboda member Andriy Illienko calls for a "social and national revolution in Ukraine," a "major shift in [the] political, economic, [and] ethical system", and the "dismantling [of] the liberal regime of antinational occupation". Illienko explains that "only the revolution can now prevent Ukraine from the brink, and make it the first modern nationalist state that will ensure continuous development of the Ukrainian nation, and show other nations the path to genuine sovereignty and prosperity."[125][third-party source needed]. Illienko continues that cultural details are not important for a nationalist who "must wake up with the idea that he is a metal political soldier of Nation." ("Націоналіст... забов'язаний просинатися з думкою, що він – залізний політичний солдат Нації..."). This document sets up the enemy of Svoboda, a pseudonationalist, a person who wants "all-ukrainian values" ("українськість","щоб все було українське") and adheres to "conventional liberalism [of] 'civilized' Western democracy and capitalism". Another attribute of a pseudonationalist is the belief in "Free market", "democracy", "fighting authoritarianism" [the quotes are from the original document].

Party leader Tyahnybok has argued that "depicting nationalism as extremism is a cliché rooted in Soviet and modern globalist propaganda" and that "countries like modern Japan and Israel are fully nationalistic states, but nobody accuses the Japanese of being extremists."[69] Tyahnybok defined nationalism as love of one's homeland and drew a distinction from chauvinism and fascism which he defined as the superiority of one nation over another.[126]

Ukrainian volunteer battalion fighting pro-Russian separatists, 30 September 2014

The party has often staged commemorations honouring Ukrainian nationalist leader Stepan Bandera and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).[72][127][128] Bandera lead the UPA in its struggle against the Soviets and later the Germans during World War II to establish an independent Ukrainian state but also engaged in acts of ethnic cleansing including the massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia.[129][130][131][132][133] In a 2011 march organized by Svoboda to celebrate the WW2-era Waffen-SS Galicia Division, participants shouted “one race, one nation, one Fatherland."[134][135]

The party views the dominating role of Ukraine's oligarchy as "devastating".[136][third-party source needed] While oligarchs have typically played a major role in the funding of other Ukrainian parties,[137][138] Svoboda claims to receive no financial support from oligarchs, but rather from Ukraine's small and medium-sized businesses.[139][third-party source needed]

The party seeks to put a stop to immigration into Ukraine, and to make sure that only ethnic Ukrainians can be employed as civil servants.[140]


Svoboda is known for its anti-communist stance, and several party activists over the years have been accused of trying to destroy Communist-era statues.[141][142][143][144][145]

On February 16, 2013, police in Ukraine opened a criminal case on charges of hooliganism against nationalist activists led by Svoboda Supreme Rada deputy Ihor Miroshnychenko for the dismantling of a statue of Vladimir Lenin in Okhtyrka, Sumy Oblast. "There is no place for Communist symbols and ideology in European Ukraine and if the authorities cannot get rid of them, we will do it ourselves", said Miroshnychenko. According to police, Miroshnychenko climbed the statue and put a rope around Lenin’s figure, which was then pulled down by a truck.[146]

Social conservatism

Svoboda supports conservative values, and opposes abortion and gay rights.[147][148] In 2012, Human Rights Watch condemned Svoboda for disrupting a gay rights rally, called "a Sabbath of 50 perverts" in an official statement by Svoboda.[149]

Svoboda opposed legislation in 2013 that would have barred employers from discriminating against workers on the basis of their sexual orientation.[150] Journalist David Stern describes the party as a "driving force" behind anti-gay politics in Ukraine, but states that many of its members may not share all its controversial positions.[151]

In April 2013, three Svoboda MPs sponsored a bill banning abortions except in cases involving severe pathology, a medical risk to a woman's life, and rape when proven in court.[152][153] Future Vice Prime Minister Oleksandr Sych, who has long opposed abortion, was one of the authors of the bill and responded to a question about what a pregnant woman should do if she failed to prove the rape in court by encouraging women to "lead the kind of lifestyle to avoid the risk of rape, including refraining from drinking alcohol and being in controversial company."[152][153][154][155]

Allegations of neo-nazism and political extremism

Svoboda has been described as an anti-Semitic and sometimes a Neo-Nazi party by some journalists,[134][140][156] organizations that monitor hate speech,[157] Jewish organizations,[158][159] and political opponents.[55]

Svoboda advisor Yuriy Mykhalchyshyn started a blog called "‘Joseph Goebbels Political Research Centre" in 2005, later changing "Joseph Goebbels" to "Ernst Jünger."[2] Mykhalchyshyn wrote a book in 2010 citing works by Nazi theorists Ernst Röhm, Gregor Strasser and Goebbels.[53][140][160] Elsewhere Mykhalchyshyn referred to the Holocaust as a "period of Light in history".[161]

In December 2012, the European Parliament expressed concern regarding Svoboda's growing support, recalling "that racist, anti-Semitic and xenophobic views go against the EU's fundamental values and principles," and appealed "to pro-democratic parties in the Verkhovna Rada not to associate with, endorse or form coalitions with" Svoboda.[162] Party leader Oleh Tyahnybok stated in March 2013 that the EU warning against Svoboda's influence was the result of "Moscow agents working through a Bulgarian socialist MP".[163] Referencing a similar resolution made by the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, Tyahnybok claimed it to be a result of a mud-slinging campaign by political opponents, stating: "When we did not have a parliamentary faction or normal channels for contacting influential groups in the European Union, a very negative image of Svoboda was created and in an extremely crude fashion." However, after speaking to European MP's he stated they "admitted that they had received completely different information about us."[163] Tyahnybok furthermore stated that "spin doctors who are working against Svoboda" cover up the non-controversial points in the party's election programme "by promoting some clearly secondary issues through mass media outlets controlled by pro-government forces".[163]

During a Party of Regions rally in Kiev to counter the ongoing Euromaidan protests, MP Olena Bondarenko called Tyahnybok a "traitor" and one "who helps the Kremlin and Moscow." Her words were altered to read on her party's website that he was instead a "Nazi" and that "Nazis are not just disrespected, they are outlawed in Europe and throughout the civilized world".[164]

Svoboda members have denied the party is anti-Semitic.[165][166][167] Party leader Tyahnybok stated in November 2012 “Svoboda is not an anti-Semitic party, Svoboda is not a xenophobic party. Svoboda is not an anti-Russian party. Svoboda is not an anti-European party. Svoboda is simply and only a pro-Ukrainian party”.[80] In defense of these accusations, Tyahnybok has stated "I have repeatedly said that Svoboda is not an anti-Semitic organization. If you have any comments on our views, go to court. But nobody will, because everyone understands that even biased Ukrainian courts cannot pass any sentence against Svoboda because we do not violate Ukrainian laws."[80][168] Tyahnybok says a criminal case was opened against him for promoting racial rights, but he managed to win all the court cases and protect his name.[126]

Certain political experts write that the name of the party was an intentional reference to the Nazi Party in Germany, and that "Social National" is a reference to "National Socialism", the ideology claimed by the Nazi Party.[156][169]

In media

Graffiti-caricature in Lviv. The inscription means "Three percent".

According to Der Spiegel, "anti-Semitism is part of the extremist party's platform," which rejects certain minority and human rights.[156] The paper writes that Svoboda's earlier "Social-National Party" title was an "intentional reference to Adolf Hitler's National Socialist party," and that in 2013 a Svoboda youth leader distributed Nazi propaganda written by Joseph Goebbels.[156] According to Algemeiner Journal, "Svoboda supporters include among their heroes leaders of pro-Nazi World War II organizations known for their atrocities against Jews and Poles, such as the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and the 14th Waffen-SS Galicia Division."[170]

Prominent Ukrainian journalist and president of TVi Channel Vitaly Portnikov defended Svoboda against criticism, as he noted he is often questioned for supporting party leader Oleh Tyahnybok despite himself being Jewish. Portnikov said, "I [stand with them] with great pleasure, because Oleh wants Ukraine to be part of the European Union" and that "presently Svoboda is acting in a very decent way, and I see no problem there. Right-wing parties function in every European country."[17]

Ukrainian media associated with the Party of Regions, the Communist Party of Ukraine, and Russophile groups contributed to a trend of characterizing Svoboda as a "Nazi menace."[2] Political analyst Olszański argued that voters from southern or eastern Ukraine, especially those who are poor, less educated, or attached to a "Soviet historical narrative," are hostile to nationalism, easily convinced that Svoboda is the modern analog of the Nazi invaders, and further that the Party of Regions is the only force capable of stopping a ‘brown revenge’.[2] According to political scientist Taras Kuzio, the label "nationalist" is "disastrous" in Russian-speaking regions of Ukraine and used as an epithet by political opponents.[55]

Statements by political scientists

Political scientist Tadeusz A. Olszański writes that the social-nationalist ideology which Svoboda formerly adhered to has included "openly racist rhetoric" concerning 'white supremacy' since its establishment, and that comparisons with National Socialism are legitimized by its history; however, Svoboda’s policy documents contain no racist elements.[2]

Andreas Umland, a political scientist at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,[65] has asserted in 2010 that "Svoboda was a racist party promoting explicitly ethnocentric and anti-Semitic ideas".[171] He also believes that internally, Svoboda "is much more radical and xenophobic than what we see”.[80] However, Umland has also stated that he believes the party will continue to become more moderate over time, stating that "there's a belief that Svoboda will change, once in the Verkhovna Rada, and that they may become proper national democrats".[53]

Olexiy Haran, also a political science professor at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, says “There is a lot of misunderstanding surrounding Svoboda" and that the party is not fascist, but radical.[117]

Alexander J. Motyl contends that Svoboda is not fascist, neither in behaviour or in ideology, and that "they are far more like the Tea Party or right-wing Republicans than like fascists or neo-Nazis."[119][172]

According to Anton Shekhovtsov, expert on radical parties in Europe, "The main peculiarity of the Ukrainian far right is that its main enemy is not immigrants or national minorities, as often happens with the EU-based far right, but the Kremlin".[173]

Statements by Jewish organizations

Thirty members of the Israeli Knesset condemned the party in a signed letter addressed to the President of the European Parliament. In the letter the Israeli politicians accused Svoboda of "openly glorifying Nazi murder" and "Nazi war criminals".[174] In May 2013 the World Jewish Congress labelled the party as "neo-Nazi" and called for European governments to ban them.[175]

Ukraine’s chief rabbi Yaakov Bleich said “Svoboda is an enigma in many ways,” calling it “a right-wing, nationalist party with anti-Semitic elements in it.”[176] Vyacheslav A. Likhachev of the Eurasian Jewish Congress, said that the “party has a very anti-Semitic core in its ideology,” and that it leads to “symbolic legitimization of neo-Nazis and anti-Semitic ideology in the eyes of society.”[83]

Member of parliament with the pro-presidential Party of Regions,[176] and president of the Jewish Committee of Ukraine Oleksandr Feldman criticized Svoboda as a "party which is notorious for regularly injecting anti-Semitism into their speeches and public pronouncements" and accused the party of "rallying behind this recognition and exploited mistrust of Jews to gain popularity among some in the lower class who painfully welcomed the chance to be a part of campaigns of hate".[177][178] Feldman also writes that Svoboda has helped erode the shame associated with open expressions of anti-Semitism and other ethnic hatreds.[179] Feldman has been an advocate for the Party of Regions and president Viktor Yanukovych, reportedly also funding the latter's public relations firm.[178] During the Euromaidan protests, Feldman said the protests had degenerated into “ultra-nationalism and anti-Semitism,” and called for opposition leaders Arseniy Yatseniuk and Vitali Klitschko to distance themselves from Svoboda. Four groups, including the Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union, said they have seen no upsurge in anti-Semitic attacks. “We call on Ukrainian citizens and foreign observers to remain calm and critically assess the panic-mongering statements in the media regarding anti-Semitism in the country,” the groups said in a statement on the website of the Euro-Asian Jewish Congress.[176]

In 2012 international human rights organization The Simon Wiesenthal Center placed Svoboda party leader Oleg Tyahnybok fifth in its list of the top 10 anti-Semites and haters of Israel, based on his previous comments regarding Jews in Ukraine.[180]


Party leader Oleh Tyahnybok (in January 2011) has described the Azarov Government and the presidency of Viktor Yanukovych "a Kremlin colonial administration",[69] referencing Svoboda's opposition to perceived Russian influences in Ukrainian politics.

Before the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election most of the radical points which were present on the Svoboda’s original party platform vanished from the official election program that Svoboda filed with the Central Election Commission of Ukraine. In its place, a tamer, populist program focused on the impeachment of President Viktor Yanukovych and the renunciation of the 2010 Kharkiv agreements that let Russia’s Black Sea Fleet stay in Crimea through 2042 was used.[84] In its campaign for the 2008 Kiev local elections the party also used less ethnic nationalist terms and it relied more on a strong anti-establishment, populist and anti-corruption rhetoric.[18]

Anti-government demonstrations in Kiev, December 2013

Svoboda’s platform is called “Our Own Authorities, Our Own Property, Our Own Dignity, on Our Own God-Given Land.”[126] and includes the following points:

Svoboda also states in its programme that it is both possible and necessary to make Ukraine the “geopolitical centre of Europe”.[64] The European Union is not mentioned in the programme.[2] According to Party leader Oleh Tyahnybok the programme is a worldview based on Christian values and the "rejection of various deviations".[163]

Member of parliament Ihor Miroshnychenko asked the head of the Kiev City State Administration Oleksandr Popov on 7 March 2013 to ban a march that was held the next day because he believed it would "contribute to promoting sexual orientation" and he further stated in his request "homosexuality provokes sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS".[185] The 8 March rally was in fact not an LGBT march but organized by feminist organizations.[186]


In late January 2013 Svoboda urged Ukrainians to boycott revised Ukrainian history textbooks and to give up the teaching of the Russian language in school, calling Ukrainians "to categorically refuse to study in school the language of the occupier – Russian, as a further reliable means of the assimilation of Ukrainians".[187] On February 13, 2014 following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, Svoboda supported legislation abolishing the law on regional languages making Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels.[188] This proposal was vetoed by acting President Oleksandr Turchynov.[189][190]

Party Leaders

Date Party leader Remarks
1995–2004 Yaroslav Andrushkiv
2004-present Oleh Tyahnybok

Election Results

Verkhovna Rada

Year Popular vote  % of popular vote Overall seats won Seat change Government
1994 49,483 0.20
0 / 450
1998 45,155 0.20
1 / 450
Increase 1 Opposition
2002 did not participate
0 / 450
Decrease 1
2006 91,321 0.36
0 / 450
2007 178,660 0.76
0 / 450
2012 2,129,246 10.45
37 / 450
Increase 37 Opposition
2014 741,517 4.71
6 / 450
Decrease 31 Opposition

Presidential elections

President of Ukraine
Election year Candidate # of 1st round votes  % of 1st round vote # of 2nd round votes  % of 2nd round vote
2010 Oleh Tyahnybok 352,282 1.43
2014 Oleh Tyahnybok 210,476 1.16

Representation in regional councils

Flag Total council
Svoboda % Svoboda individual seats won Svoboda total seats won
Ternopil oblast council Flag of Ternopil Oblast.svg
Lviv oblast council Flag of Lviv Oblast.png
Ivano-Frankivsk oblast council Flag of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast.png
Volyn oblast council Volyn flag.svg
Rivne oblast council Flag of Rivne Oblast.svg
Chernivtsi oblast council Flag of Chernivtsi Oblast.svg
Kyiv oblast council 50px
Khmelnytskyi Oblast council Flag of Khmelnytskyi Oblast.svg

Change in party voting

See also



  1. In the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, Svoboda won its first seats in the Ukrainian Parliament,[9] garnering 10.44% of the popular vote and the 4th most seats among national political parties;[10] this transposed into 37 parliamentary seats.[11]
  2. An electoral result similar to results of far-right parties in countries neighboring Ukraine in previously held elections since 1990.[18]
  3. In June 2013 Ukraine’s First Deputy Foreign Minister Ruslan Demchenko stated an unilateral denunciation of the 2010 Ukrainian–Russian Naval Base for Natural Gas treaty was not possible from a legal point of view.[181]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Oblast Council demands Svoboda Party be banned in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (May 12, 2011)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 Olszański, Tadeusz A. (4 July 2011). "Svoboda Party – The New Phenomenon on the Ukrainian Right-Wing Scene". Centre for Eastern Studies. OSW Commentary (56): 6. Retrieved 27 September 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Nordsieck, Wolfram, "Ukraine", Parties and Elections in Europe, retrieved 5 November 2012<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 Kuzio, Taras (November–December 2010), "Populism in Ukraine in a Comparative European Context" (PDF), Problems of Post-Communism, M.E. Sharpe, 57 (6): 6, 15, doi:10.2753/ppc1075-8216570601, retrieved 16 October 2012, Anti-Semitism only permeates Ukraine’s far-right parties, such as Svoboda… Ukraine’s economic nationalists are to be found in the extreme right (Svoboda) and centrist parties that propagate economic nationalism and economic protectionism.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Ivaldi, Gilles (2011), < "The Populist Radical Right in European Elections 1979-2009", The Extreme Right in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, p. 20<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists". BBC. 25 December 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Кандидати, яких обрано депутатами рад. (in українська). 15 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 (Ukrainian) "Свобода" і європейські націоналісти: конфлікти є, війни нема "Svoboda" and European nationalists: conflicts are not the war, BBC Ukrainian (24 January 2013)
    Europe's Far Right Is Embracing Putin, Business Insider (10 April 2014)
    Oleh Tiahnybok withdraws Svoboda's membership within the Alliance of European National Movements
  9. 9.0 9.1 Ukraine election:President Yanukovych party claims win, BBC News (29 October 2012).
  10. "Results of the vote count". Kyiv Post. Nov 9, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
  12. 12.0 12.1 Poroshenko Bloc to have greatest number of seats in parliament, Ukrainian Television and Radio (8 November 2014)
    People's Front 0.33% ahead of Poroshenko Bloc with all ballots counted in Ukraine elections - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
    Poroshenko Bloc to get 132 seats in parliament - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
  13. After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Svoboda party members in Ukrainian government resign – Deputy Premier Sych, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2014)
  15. Encyclopaedia Britannica (2010). Britannica Book of the Year 2010. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. p. 478.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Ukraine publishes final polls results". The Voice of Russia. 13 November 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1 Radzina, Natallia (7 February 2014). "Vitaliy Portnikov: First Belarus, then Russia will follow after Ukraine". Charter '97.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 Shekhovtsov, Anton (2011)."The Creeping Resurgence of the Ukrainian Radical Right? The Case of the Freedom Party". Europe-Asia Studies Volume 63, Issue 2. pp. 203-228. doi:10.1080/09668136.2011.547696 (source also available here)
  19. Rudling, Per Anders (2012), "Anti-Semitism and the Extreme Right in Contemporary Ukraine", Mapping the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe: From Local to Transnational, Routledge, p. 200, Like those of many other far-right movements, Svoboda’s official policy documents are relatively cautious and differ from its daily activities and internal jargon, which are much more radical and racist. Svoboda subscribes to the OUN tradition of national segregation and demands the re-introduction of the Soviet 'nationality' category into Ukrainian passports. 'We are not America, a mishmash of all sorts of people,' the Svoboda website states. 'The Ukrainian needs to stay Ukrainian, the Pole—Polish, the Gagauz—Gagauz, the Uzbek—Uzbek.' Svoboda’s ultra-nationalism is supplemented with more traditional 'white racism. Conspiracy theory is integral to Svoboda Weltanschauung, particularly conspiracies with anti-Semitic undertones.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Bojcun, Marko (2012), "The Socioeconomic and Political Outcomes of Global Financial Crisis in Ukraine", Socioeconomic Outcomes of the Global Financial Crisis: Theoretical Discussion and Empirical Case Studies, Routledge, p. 151<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Likhachev, Viacheslav (September–October 2013). "Right-Wing Extremism on the Rise in Ukraine". Russian Politics and Law. 51 (5). In their propaganda, SNPU ideologues were more open, describing the confrontation with “Muscovite influence” as racial. SNPU publications proudly called the Ukrainian nation the “root of the white race.” Ukraine was viewed as an “outpost of European civilization” and Russia as an “Asiatic horde.” Ukraine—according to Andrii Parubii, one of the SNPU leaders (who later joined Our Ukraine)—must “confront the aggressiveness of the pernicious ideas of the Asiatic world, today embodied in Russia.” Alongside Russophobia, SNPU ideologues preached (and still preach) anti-Westernism: from their point of view, “internationalist Marxism and cosmopolitan liberalism are in fact two sides of the same coin.” I would add that all the ideological constructs formulated in SNPU publications in the 1990s still characterize Svoboda’s current ideology. Although the party toned down its official rhetoric in the 2000s, it takes pride in the continuity of its history and the unchanging nature of its ideology.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Shekhovtsov, Anton (2013). "17: From Para-Militarism to Radical Right-Wing Populism: The Rise of the Ukrainian Far-Right Party Svoboda.". Right Wing Populism in Europe. Routledge. pp. 251–2. The Ukrainian National Assembly (UNA), KUN and Svoboda are also Russophobic and anti-semitic. Moreover, 'white racism’ is overtly or covertly inherent in the doctrines of the UNA, Svoboda and All-Ukrainian Party'New Force' (Nova Syla), and most evidently manifests itself through the parties’ anti-immigrant positions. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Syal, Rajeev (1 June 2012). "Guardian Weekly: Shadow of racism over Euro 2012 finals: Black football fans face uncertain welcome in Ukrainian host city". The Guardian Weekly. Retrieved 28 February 2014. Lviv's ruling party, Svoboda, whose slogan is "one race, one nation, one fatherland", has been variously described as fascist, neo-Nazi and extreme. Members prefer to say they are nationalists and friends of Marine Le Pen's Front National.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "Head of Israel-Ukraine association surprised at agreement signed by Ukrainian opposition and Svoboda". Ukraine General Newswire-Interfax News Agency. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2014. The head of the Israel-Ukraine inter-parliamentary association, Israel is Our Home Party MP Alex Miller, has said he does not understand why the Ukrainian opposition signed a coalition agreement with an "anti-Semitic" party - the Svo-boda All-Ukrainian Union… According to the Ukrainian Jewish Committee, Svoboda is a fascist party, and its full name - the Social-National Party of Ukraine - was chosen in association with the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Weinthal, Benjamin (28 December 2012). "Wiesenthal ranks top 10 anti-Semites, Israel-bashers. Muslim Brotherhood's rise in Egypt catapults two religious figures into No. 1 spot". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 28 February 2014. The Wiesenthal Center also cited Oleg Tyagnibok (No. 5) from the fascist Ukrainian Svoboda party. He urged purges of the approximately 400,000 Jews and other minorities living in the Ukraine and has demanded that the country be liber-ated from the "Muscovite Jewish Mafia." Ukrainian MP Igor Miroshnichenko was cited for anti-Jewish remarks as well: He called Ukrainian-born American ac-tress Mila Kunis a "zhydovka" (dirty Jewess).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Spyer, Jonathon (9 January 2014). "Kiev Showdown". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 28 February 2014. The far-right, anti-Semitic Svoboda party of Oleh Tyahnybok is also in evidence in the square. The third organized element is the Batkivschnya (Fatherland) party, which is close to Timoshenko.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Stern, David (13 December 2013). "What Europe Means to Ukraine's Protesters". The Atlantic. Retrieved 27 March 2014. But Svoboda’s positions are somewhat at odds with the EU’s ideals of tolerance and multiculturalism, to put it mildly: It is a driving force behind Ukraine’s anti-gay rights movement; the party’s platform supports distributing government positions to various ethnicities according to their percentage makeup of the population; and, despite recent claims to the contrary, it remains, at least among its leadership, a deeply anti-Semitic organization (one deputy in parliament has described the Holocaust as a “bright period” for Europe.)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Grey, Stephen (18 March 2014). "In Ukraine, nationalists gain influence - and scrutiny". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 27 March 2014. Expert opinions on Svoboda in particular are divided. Per Anders Rudling, an associate professor at Lund University in Sweden and researcher on Ukrainian extremists, has described Svoboda as "neo-fascist"… But Ivan Katchanovski, a political scientist at the University of Ottawa who has studied the far-right in Ukraine, disagreed that Svoboda was so extreme. "Svoboda is currently best described as a radical nationalist party, and not as fascist or neo-Nazi," he said. "It is now not overtly anti-Semitic." Andrew Srulevitch, director of European Affairs for the Anti-Defamation League, an international group based in the U.S. that monitors anti-Semites and other political extremists, said: "Svoboda has been disciplined in its messaging regarding Jews since the Maidan demonstrations started in November, but they have a history of anti-Semitic statements to overcome, and a clear political program of ethnic nationalism that makes Jews nervous." Oleh Tyahnybok, leader of Svoboda, described the row over his party as an "information war". He told Reuters: "Unfortunately, the information concerning Svoboda's radicalism is not true. It comes from European and Russian mass-media. They just wanted to create an image of horror, of extremists, anti-Semites and xenophobes, and started to write about our party some stupid things."<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Shekhovtsov, Anton (5 March 2014). "From electoral success to revolutionary failure: The Ukrainian Svoboda party". Eurozine. Retrieved 27 March 2014. ...not only did Svoboda cooperate with several European radical rightwing parties (and, as noted above, it cooperated with the Front national even during the SNPU days), but also could not be considered a neo-Nazi party… The party, and especially its paramilitary wing called C14 under the leadership of the notorious neo-Nazi Yevhen Karas, became involved in a number of divisive activities. Displaying racist banners in the occupied Kyiv City State Administration, attacking journalists, volunteer medical workers and other Euromaidan activists, demolishing the Lenin monument, staging a torch-lit march commemorating controversial Ukrainian ultranationalist Stepan Bandera – all these activities damaged the unity, as well as the image, of Euromaidan.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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